Skip to main content

Full text of "The National geographic magazine"

See other formats







Smithsonian Institution 
Libraries 




Given in memory of 

Elisha Hanson 

by 

Letitia Armistead Hanson 



(L/ff 

THE 

NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC 



MAGAZINE 



AN ILLUSTRATED MONTHLY 



EDITOR: JOHN HYDE 

ASSOCIATE EDITORS 

A. W. GREELY MARCUS BAKER 

VV J MCGEE WILLIS L. MOORE 

HENRY GANNETT H. S. PRITCHETT 

C. HART MERR1AM O. P. AUSTIN l 

DAVID J. HILL CHARLES H. ALLEN 

ELIZA RUHAMAH SCIDMORE CARL LOUISE GARRISON 

ASSISTANT EDITOR: GILBERT H. GROSVENOR 



VOL. XI- YEAR 1900 

-gBTHSOA/Z^ 

NOV 5 1981 

WASHINGTON ^-^ 

THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 
tgoo 



WASHINGTON, D. C. 

JUDD & DETWEILER PRINTERS 

1901 



CONTENTS 

Page 

The Philippine Islands and their Environment ; by John Barrett 1 

The Cape Nome Gold District; by F. C. Schrader 15 

The Idaho and Montana Boundary Line ; by Richard U. Gooue 23 

The Copper River Delta ; by E. D. Preston 29 

Our New Possessions and the Interest they are Exciting; by 0. P. Austin. 32 

The Total Eclipse of the Sun, May 28, 1900 ; by F. H. Bigklow 33 

The Census of 1900 ; by F. H. Wines 34 

Geographic Nomenclature ; by E. W. Hilgard 36 

Puerto Rico, not Porto Rico ; [John Hyde] 37 

Geographic Literature (Hawaiian America, Casper Whitney; The New- 
born Cuba, Franklin Mathews ; Practical Exercises in Elementary 

Meteorology, R. DeC. Ward) 38 

Correspondence 40 

Some Geographic Features of Southern Patagonia, with a Discussion of 

their Origin ; by J. 15. Hatchek. 41 

Kite Work of the AVeather Bureau ; by H. C. Frankenfield 55 

Practical Exercises in Geography ; by W. M. Davis 02 

Professor Henry Allen Hazen 78 

Geographic Miscellanea 79 

British South Africa and the Transvaal ; by F. F. Hilder 81 

The History and Geographic Distribution of Bubonic Plague; by George 

M. Sternberg ^»7 

Ice Cliffs on White River, Yukon Territory ; by Martin W. Gorman 113 

A Hunting Trip to Northern Greenland ; by Fullerton Merkill 118 

A Canal from the Atlantic to the Mediterranean 122 

Diseases of the Philippines 123 

Geographic Miscellanea 124 

The Anglo- Venezuelan Boundary Dispute; by Marcus Baker 129 

Korea, the Hermit Nation ; by Harrik Webster 14") 

An Assumed Inconstancy in the Level of Lake Nicaragua; by C. Willabd 

Hayks 15(1 

The Isthmian Canal Commission 161 

Helping Navigation 162 

International Arbitration and its Possibilities 102 

Railway Construction and Improvements 163 

Where Exploration is Needed 163 

Work in the Arctic and Antarctic I*>1 

Geographic Literature (Contemporary History of the World, E. A. Gros- 

vbnor) 165 

! raphic M iscellanea 167 

Tli.' < u'mw tii of Russia : by Edwin A. < }ros\ enor 169 



iv CONTENTS 

[nfluence of Geographical Conditions on Military Operations in South 

Africa : by W. A. Simfson 186 

Apperception in < reography ; by M. E. Kklton 192 

[ce Cliffs "ii White River, Yukon Territory; by C. W. Hayes and A. H. 

Brooks 199 

A German Route to India ; by Gilbert H. Grosvenor 203 

The Cuban Census 205 

Geographic Literature (International Geography, H. R. Mill: North 
American Forests an. 1 Forestry, Ernest Hruncken ; Tarr and McMurry's 

Geographies) 206 

graphic Miscellanea 208 

The Road to Bolivia; by W. K. Curtis 209 

The Colonial Expansion of France; by Jean C. Bbacq 225 

The Prevention of Hailstorms by the Use of Cannon 239 

The U. s. Signal Corps in Porto Rico 243 

Russian Railways 243 

The Revolt of the Ashantis 244 

graphic Miscellanea .... L'45 

The Expansion of England : by Edwin D. Mead 249 

The Road to Bolivia ; by W. E. Curtis 264 

The Chinese " Boxers : " by L. J. Da vies 281 

National Geographic Society 289 

< in ive Karl Gilbert 2S9 

The Tsung-li-Yamen 29J 

Geographic Notes L".t."> 

Problems in China ; by James M. Hubbard 297 

China and Her People ; by Harris Webster 309 

Tne National Geographic Society's Eclipse Expedition to Norfolk, Va. : by 

Marccs Baker 320 

The Scientific Work of the National Geographic Society's Eclipse Expedi- 
tion to Norfolk, Va. ; by Simon Newcohb .'Il'l 

Hydrographic Work of the U. S. < }& logical Survey 324 

Railways, Rivers, and Strategic Towns in Manchuria; [Gilbert H. 

Grosvenor] 128 

The First American Census of Porto Rico 328 

U. S. Board on Geographic Names . 329 

Foreigners and Foreign Firms in China 330 

Three Books on China (China: The Long-lived Empire, Eliza R. Scidmore; 

China in Transformation ; Overland to China, A. R. Colquhoun) 333 

The Colorado Desert ; by David P. Barrows 337 

The Chinese Paradox ; by H. M. Watts 352 

Colonial Government in Borneo; by James M. Hubbard 359 

The Water Supply for the Nicaragua Canal ; by Arthur P. Davis 363 

Mrs Bishop's "TheYangtze Valley and Beyond:" by Ei.iz \ R. Scidmore. 366 

Forest Reserves of the United States 369 

The Great Wall of China 372 



CONTENTS v 

Page 

Geographic Notes . 374 

Lessons of Galveston ; by W J McGee 377 

The West Indian Hurricane of September 1-12, 1900; by E. B. Garrjott.. 3S4 

Excavations at Nippur 392 

Hunan, the Closed Province of China ; by W. B. Parsons 303 

The National Geographic Society: Address of the President to the Board 

of Managers 40 1 

Through the Heart of Africa 408 

Nansen's " Farthest North " Eclipsed 411 

Geographic Notes 413 

Proceedings of the National Geographic Society 415 

The Samoan Islands ; by Edwin V. Morgan 417 

The Manila Observatory ; by Jose Axgue 427 

The Limited Water Supply of the Arid Region ; by F. H. Newell 438 

Hurricanes on the Coast of Texas ; hy A. W. Greelv 442 

Africa the Largest Game Preserve in the World ; by John 1 B. Torbert. . . . 445 

The Wyoming Fossil Fields Expedition of July, 1899; by W. C. Knight.. 449 

Gold in the Philippines ; by F.- F. Hilder 4<i5 

The Teaching of Physical Geography in Elementary Schools; by R. E. 

Dodge 470 

Geography at the British Association for the Advancement of Science; 

[Jonx Hyde] 47."> 

Decisions of the U. S. Board on Geographic Names 478 

Significant Facts Concerning the Foreign Trade of Great Britain 480 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

p ige 

The Philippine Islands as the geographical center of the Far Bast (pi. 1)... 1 

Section map of Golofnin Bay and Cape Nome gold fields 16 

Par! of Nome from the beach, looking northwest. . . 17 

Beach, tundra, and hills, looking northwest from Nome 19 

Snake River and Nome, from tundra, about one mile west of Nome 20 

Diagram of triangulation for the control of the Idaho-Montana boundary. 24 

Summit of Bitter Root Range, looking north from Ward Peak L''i 

Basalt Canon, plains of Patagonia, showing remnant of a comparatively 

recent lava Mow (pi. 2> 41 

Basaltic wall in canon of a tributary of Arroyo Gio, showing face deeply 

dissected by narrow, perpendicular chasms 45 

Basaltic pinnacles, plains of Patagonia i'i 

(anon of Rio Tarde, foothills of Andes 51 

In the Drakenburg Range (pi. 3) 81 

Kimherly . 85 

Bloemfontein 86 

Pretoria — the club B9 

Crossing the Umbel Ofli River, Swaziland !»0 

Typical Boer house and tent -wagon '■»■'! 

Kafir matrons H4 

Map showing boundaries as claimed by Great Britain and Venezuela and 

as awarded by the Paris Tribunal (pi. 4) 129 

The United 8tates Venezuelan Boundary Commission, 1896-1897 139 

The Paris Tribunal, 1899 ." 141 

A village in Korea, the I Ian River in the distance 1-4*1 

Two Korean travelers 147 

A house in Korea 14!» 

A group of Koreans 150 

Guardian of the Temple of the God of War 153 

An example of Korean art \~>\ 

The great South Gate of Seoul 155 

Street scene in Johannesburg (pi. 5) 169 

Ethnographic Russia in 1900 17l' 

Chart showing growth of Russia in Europe from 1303 to 1645 175 

Chart showiug growth of Russia in Europe from 1645 to 1900 178 

Diagram showing successive advances of Russia toward India l s -'> 

The Russian Empire in its geographical relation to Europe and Asia. . . i>> 

Railways in South Africa .... 188 

Map showing railways constructed ami proposed in Asia Minor and Persia. 202 

Diagram showing population of Cuba by color 205 

Diagram showing proportion of those under ten years of age attending 

school in Cuba 205 



ILLUSTRATIONS vii 

Page 

Diagram showing conjugal condition in Cuba 205 

The harbor of Mollendo, Peru (pi. 6) 209 

Opening pearl oysters, Panama 21 1 

A Caballitos 213 

A Panama laundry 214 

A Central American family, Nicaragua 218 

The most influential citizen of Areqnipa 221 

Transportation facilities of interior Peru 223 

The geographic relation of France and her African colonies. . . 223 

Map showing military telegraph lines, military posts, ports of entry, and 

area of Porto Rico as compared with Connecticut 242 

Geographical extent of the bubonic plague 24S 

Grove Karl Gilbert (pi. 7) 249 

Descendants of the Incas 265 

An Inca cemetery 267 

Balsas on Lake Titicaca 270 

Inca burial tower near Lake Titicaca 273 

Bolivian soldiers 277 

Bolivian miners 278 

Membership of the National Geographic Society 288 

Outline map of the Far East. 290 

Outline sketch of the city of Pekin 291 

Map showing the country from Ta-ku to Pekin 292 

The world's production of coal 294 

Farthest north 21)6 

Map of the Chinese Empire and Japan (pi. 8) ... 297 

Buddhist priests — Amoy 301 

Police court — Shanghai 302 

Sampling tea — Shanghai 306 

A typical Chinese village and canal 311 

A cemetery at Chinkiang . . 317 

A characteristic Chinese bridge 318 

F. H. Newell 325 

A group of Chinese farmers 331 

Minister Conger 332 

Map of northwestern China (pi. 9) - 337 

Map showing the Colorado Desert region 339 

Land recently inundated along banks of Hardy River, the Cocopah Moun- 
tains in background .... 343 

The crater of the Sierra Prieta :u:> 

Mud volcanoes of the Hardy River, Colorado Desert :'>4(i 

Oocopab winter house and basket granaries 350 

In the gorges of the Yangtze 357 

One of the main avenues of Shanghai 358 

Forest reserves of the United States 370 

The Great Wall of China 373 



viii ILLUSTRATIONS 

Pag* 

Prince Lnigi Amadeo of Savoy — Aosta, Duke of Abruzzi (pi. 10) 377 

Chart No. I, showing track of West Indian hurricane, L900 385 

Gliart No. -, showing track of West Indian hurricane, 1900 386 

Chart No. 3, showing track of West [ndian hurricane, 1900 389 

Chart No. 4, showing track of West Indian hurricane, 1900 390 

Map of eastern part of Hunan as delineated by Win. B. Parsons 394 

The Leiho :;i»7 

Chart showing membership > «f tli» j National Geographic Society for each 

\ ear since its organization 405 

Captain Uniberto Cagni 412 

Astronomical observatory, Manila, P. I 133 

Father Algue* in his library 4:;*> 

Map of Africa, showing territory within which the convention of May 19, 

l: tin i. places restrictions on tin- killing of wild animals 447 

On the march at Cooper Creek crossing 451 

Digging fossils, Dutton < !reek 452 

Fulls in the < irand Canon of the Platte 155 

Bui t ( 'anon on the < rrand ( !anon of the Platte 456 

West side of Bates Hole 459 

Darlow Gate, east wall of Bates Hole 4i;i> 

Tertiary erosion near Bear Canon 163 

Castle Lomax 4<>4 



Vol. XI JANUARY, 1900 No. 1 



THE 

NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC 



MAGAZINE 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 
THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS AND THEIR ENVIRONMENT 

With map HON JOHN BARRETT 1 

THE CAPE NOME GOLD DISTRICT 

With map and illustrations F. C. SCHR ADER 15 

THE IDAHO AND MONTANA BOUNDARY LINE 

With diagram and illustration RICHARD TJ. GOODE 23 

THE COPPER RIVER DELTA E. D. PRESTON 29 

OUR NEW POSSESSIONS AND THE INTEREST 

THEY ARE EXCITING O. P. AUSTIN 32 

THE TOTAL ECLIPSE OF THE SUN, MAY 28. 1900. ... F. H. BIGELOW 33 

THE CENSUS OF 1900 F. H. WINES 34 

Geographic Nomenclatuie, p. 36 ; Puerto Rico, not Porto Rico, p 37 ; Geographic 
Literature, p. 38; Correspondence, p. 40 



WASHI 
PUBLISHED BY THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC S0CI1 

:il i k; 1015 I 

W ABASH 

Price 25 Cents $2.50 a Year 



THE 



IRational geographic /Ifoagasine 

AN ILLUSTRATED MONTHLY 



Editor: JOHN HYDE, 
Statistician of the U. S. Department of Agriculture 

Associate Editors 

General A. W. Greelv, Marcvs Baker, 

Chief Signal Officer, U. S. Army U. S. Geological Survey 

\V J McGee, Wilms L. Moore, 

Ethnologist in Charge, Bureau of Chief of the Weather Bureau, !'. S. 

American Ethnology Department of Agricullui-e 

Henry Gannett, H. S. Pritchett, 

Chief Geographer, U. S. Geological Superintendent of the U. S. Coast 

Survey and Geodetic Survey 

C. Hart Merriam, O. P. Austin, 

Chief of the Biological Survey, l\ S. Chief of the Bureau of Statistics, 

Department of Agriculture U. S. Treasury Department 

David J. Hill, Charles H. Allen, 

Assistant Secretary of State Assistant Secretary of the Naiy 

Eliza Ruhamah Scidmore, Carl Louise Garrison, 

Author of "fava, the Garden of Principal of Phelps School, Wash- 

the East,'' 1 etc. inglon, D. C. 



Assistant Editor: GILBERT H. GROSVENOR, 'Washington, D. C. 



The list of contributors to the National Geographic Magazine 
includes nearly even- United States citizen whose name has become iden- 
tified with Arctic exploration, the Bering Sea controversy, the Alaska and 
Venezuela boundary disputes, or the new commercial and political questions 
arising from the acquisition of the Philippines. 

The following articles will appear in the Magazine within the next few 
months : 

" Russia,'' by Professor Edwin A. Grosvenor of Amherst College, Massachusetts. 

" The Venezuelan Boundary," by Mr Marcus Baker of the Venezuelan Commission. 

" The Sainoan Islands," by Mr Edwin Morgan, Secretary of the Samoan Commission. 

"British South Africa and the Transvaal,'" by Col. F. P. Hilder, Bureau of American 
Ethnology. 

"The Characteristics of the Filipinos," by Hon. Dean C. Worcester of the Philippine 
Commission. 

" Explorations on the Vangtse-Kiaug, China," by Mr Win. Barclay Parsons, C. E., 
surveyor of the railway route through the Vangtse-Kiaug Valley. 

" Patagonia," by Mr J. B. Hatcher of Princeton University, who has passed the prin- 
cipal part of the last four years in the exploration of this little-known region. 

The index for volume X, 1S99, will accompany the February number. 



9 



en 



aT U 






/ 



J 



ft 



(TT> 







NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 

Vol. XI JANUARY, 1900 No. 1 

THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS AND THEIR ENVIRONMENT* 
By Hon. John Barrett, 

Lali T'nilcif Stairs Minis/, r to Siam 

Iii accepting the invitation of the National Geographic Society, I 
am not unmindful of the honor conferred or of the responsibility rest- 
ing upon me to tell the truth about a portion of the world which has 
such an important bearing now upon our national welfare. It will 
be my simple purpose to consider within the limits of time at our 
disposal the Philippine Islands as seen and known by me in times 
both of peace and war, including such description of their environ- 
ment or of neighboring countries as will best indicate the commercial 
and strategic value of their location. This discussion will be no effort 
at oratory or rhetoric, but an honest endeavor to tell you what I learned 
with unprejudiced eye-. 

The invitation to speak under the distinguished auspices of the 
National Geographic Society suggested that the treatment ofthesub- 
ject should particularly include the material and geographical features 
of the Philippines and their environment. It won hi not be wise, there- 
fore, to enter upon any extended argument of the moral problems in- 
volved in our occupation of the islands, although they are important, 
except insomuch as they are interwoven with our political status in 
the Pacific, which in turn i- closely associated with commercial and 
2 raphical considerat ions. 

During five years 1 residence in the far East, four of which it was 
my honor to be the United States minister to Siam, it was also my 
privilege to travel not only well over Siam, which today is making 
more progress than any otler Asiatic land except Japan, but also, in 



2 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS AND THEIR ENVIRONMENT 

greater or less degree, through China. Korea, Siberia, and Japan on 
the north and Burma, the Malay Peninsula, Cambodia, Java, Borneo, 

and the Philippines on the south, going first to the latter without any 
thought of their ever coming under the American flag. 

An extended trip through the Philippines some years ago, in times 
of peace, and a protracted stay again later, in times of war and insur- 
rection, from May, 1898, to April, 1X9'), will, 1 trust, enable me to bring 
forward a few facts that will he of interest. 

IMPORTANCE OF LOCATION 

First let US consider the location of the Philippines and of" Manila. 
The great importance of this point is too often overlooked in the dis- 
cussion of the islands, though nothing can have a more direct hearing 
on their practical value to the United States. We have often thought 
of the Philippines in a general way with reference to the far Bast, 
and we perhaps have read extensively ahout their resources, physical 
characteristics, and people, but we have not given sufficient attention 
to the remarkable position which they occupy in relation toother land-. 

The map of trans-Pacific countries is a most fascinating study. 
What it reveals is a series of impressive facts. From Melbourne, in 
Australia, on the south, to Vladivostok, on the north, is a magnificent 
coast line which reaches away for eight or nine thousand miles, and 
upon which debouch over five hundred millions of people. Without 
consulting the map. we do not always remember how closely con- 
nected Australia is with the continent of Asia. This coast line, of 
which the Philippines are one of the chief outposts, is only broken 
here and there by very narrow straits, while every where it is indented 
with harbors and hays, upon which, especially in Asia, there are 
Located great cities or commercial entrepots. As we travel up and 
down from Australia to Japan we find that the Philippines are the 
very ideal center of all these lands that face the Pacific. The more 
one studies the far East the more is he impressed with the importance 
of this location with reference particularly to control of the commerce 
and politics of the future. A heady the foreign trade of Asia, the 
East Indies, and Australasia amounts to the grand total of two billion 
dollars, of which the United States at the present time has a small 
proportion. That trade, although large in itself, is small in view of 
the total population of that part of the world, and is yet in the in- 
fancy of its development and possibilities. If it is two billion dollars 
now, it will surely go on within the near future to three or four hil- 



nil-: vim. iv vi si: islands and their environment 3 

lion dollars, of which America should eventually have the controlling 
share if she will hold the great advantage which she now possesses 
by the occupation of the Philippines, where she can have a distribut- 
ing and receiving point to come in close contact with these millions 
of people and of commerce. 

1 contend that Manila occupies a position of immeasurable oppor- 
tunity in comparison with the other great ports or cities of the Asian 
and Australian coast line. That you may obtain a concrete idea of 
what I mean, let me picture how Manila stands with reference to 
neighboring points. Let us draw a circle on a radius of two thousand 
miles, with Manila as the center. As we swing it around we find 
that this charmed circle takes in such distantly separated points as 
Yokohama, Vladivostok, and Tientsin on the north and Port Dar- 
win, in Australia, and Batavia. in Java, on the south. It reaches 
east to include Guam and the Carolines and west to include Bangkok, 
in Siam, and Rangoon, in Burma. A similar circle drawn around 
any other port does not include so many important points. I would 
not imply that Manila will ever take the place of Hongkong, Shanghai, 
or Singapore, or even equal them in the race for commercial and 
political supremacy, because they already have a wonderful start ; 
hut there is abundant reason why Manila should become a great 
trade center to divide their business, and at least he the chief point 
through which America shall carry on her growing transactions with 
Asia's millions. It must he remembered that we have only recently 
entered this vast arena with any prospects of being the chief factor 
in trade. When we fully realize and improve our opportunities, then 
we Bhould build up a great American city at Manila as the English 
have prosperous porte at Hongkong and Singapore, the hutch at 

Batavia, and the French at Saigon. 

Manila Bay open- on the South China Sea. which is teeming with 

the commerce of the Orient as the Great Bakes of America are busy 

with the trade of our interior. But more than that . there pass up and 

down through this sea,within hail as it were of Manila, the mighty fleet 

Bail craft that crowd through the Sue/ l anal and pass Singapore 

to and from Europe and the far East. Formerly these vessels never 
thoughl of stopping at Manila or having regular connections. It wae 
always Spain'- policy to keep the Philippines iii the background. 
They were enshrouded in mystery; and even at Hongkong, only 
630 miles away, with her great trade of |250,< 100,000 per annum, there 
was no just appreciation of the opportunities in the Philippim 9. 



4 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS AND THE IK ENVIRONMENT 

The growing fleet of merchant vessels that ply between China and 
Australia are finding that Manila is on their direct route and are 
already stopping, both coming and going. The time must soon come 
when the majority of the steamers that cross the Pacific from our own 
shores will make Manila their terminal point instead of Hongkong, 
or provide themselves with the best of connections. Then there arc un- 
limited possibilities for the development of coasting trade, with Manila 
as the base and Yokohama, Kobe, Port Arthur, Chifu, Shanghai, 
Amoy, Hongkong, Saigon, Bangkok, Singapore, Batavia, Port Darwin, 
and Sydney as objective points. 

VAST NEIGHBORING OPPORTUNITIES 

Moreover, in all the attention that we have been giving in recent 
years to Japan and China, we have overlooked the mighty opportu- 
nities of southern Asia and of the rich East Indian Archipelago, which 
in turn rests, as it were, upon growing Australia. Every one knows 
what a great future awaits the latter country. Just north of it, and 
near neighbors to the Philippines, are such countries, undeveloped, 
but possessing splendid resources, as Papua or New Guinea, Borneo, 
and Sumatra, any one of which is larger than Texas and California 
combined, and yet containing a very small population. They may 
be intended by a wise Providence for the overflow that must come 
some day from the continent of Asia. Only fifteen hundred miles to 
the southwest of Manila, and just below Borneo, is Java, commonly 
called the Garden of the East, where the Dutch have worked wonders. 
A more peaceful and prosperous land, taken as a whole, cannot be 
found in the wide world. This island, of the same area as Luzon, and 
yet not so resourceful, supports a population of over twenty millions 
and has a foreign trade that amounts to 6200,00(1, 000 per annum. 
How few people in America realize that Java is covered with a net- 
work of railways and has large, prosperous cities, whose harbors are 
frequented by the merchant vessels of all lands. Here we have :i 1' 
as to the possibilities before us in the Philippines. 

The occasional insurrections that occur in certain parts of Java and 
Sumatra are tolerated or allowed by the Dutch largely for the purpose 
of having a reason for maintaining an army and navy. It is a well- 
known fact in the Orient that Holland could end all possibilities of 
local wars there if the officers of her army and navy were so inclined. 

Only 1,300 miles southwest from Manila is Singapore, Britain's 
proud gateway to the Orient, which has an annual commerce of 



THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS AND THEIR ENVIRONMENT 5 

S1m>. 000,000. .hist north of Singapore are the protected Malay states, 
which again prove to us what we can do in the Philippines with the 
natives when we once establish peace, order, and good government. 
The Filipinos are a branch of the Malay race and closely akin to the 
people living in the Malay Peninsula, as well as to those in Java. 

A little farther to the north, at the head of the Gulf of Siam, is 
Bangkok, the prosperous capital of the progressive kingdom of Siam. 
This is one of the unknown lands of the world, but yet one of the 
most interesting and resourceful. With a population of eight mil- 
lion-, it already has a foreign trade of ^"25,000,000, which will soon 
grow to five times that amount. With a king who now ranks as one 
of the ahlest statesmen of all Asia, and with material improvements 
and political reforms heing made throughout his entire domain, Siam 
lias a brilliant future before her. 

Just across the South China Sea and cast of Siam are the French 
— ions of Cambodia, Annam, and Tonkin, where even the 
French, who are not generally regarded as successful colonists, have 
established peace and prosperity among twenty millions of people 
and developed a foreign trade, despite their " closed door " methods, 
oi $50,000,000 per annum. Its capital, Saigon, is a beautiful city — 
a little Paris in the Orient. 

china's great FIELD 

Having now noted the importance of the environment of the 
Philippines on the south and west, which means so much for the 
future prosperity of the islands, in the same way that the prosperity 
of any American city or state depends largely on the surrounding 
Btates and cities, their population and resources, let us now look to 
the north. The distance from the Philippine coast to China on the 
northwest is only -i.\ hundred miles. Formosa Is barely more than 
four hundred milee away, and has in itself a great materia] future 
from which Japan hopes to reap a decided benefit. 

Hongkong, which lias always been the chief point of approach to 
tin- Philippines and is only Bis hundred and thirty miles from Manila, 
i- ;i monument to British enterprise. Its annual trade exchang 
now passing the 1250,000,000 mark. The day I left there to return 
to America I counted over 60 merchant vessels loading and unload- 
ing in her harbor. We stand now looking upon the great empire of 
China, which affords America the mosl tempting field of trade ex« 

pan-ion yet undeveloped in the world. Here i- a Vast land of lour 



6 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS AM) THEIR ENVIRONMENT 

million square miles, greater than all the United States, with a popu- 
lation commonly estimated at 350,000,000, or five times that of the 
United States, and which has only 850 miles of railways. This one 
point, to me, is a complete description in itself of her possibilities. 
It is difficult to imagine the extent of the material development that 
must follow the earl} 7 construction of extensive trunk and branch 
lines of railway. There is crying need now for 25,000 miles of rail- 
roads, which means a safe investment, including what goes with such 
construction, of $500,000,000. 

To impress upon you further China's possibilities, let us look at 
what may be the limits of her trade when once she has a good gov- 
ernment established and her interior is opened up. We will obtain 
our conclusions by comparison with Japan. Japan, which under 
ordinary conditions would not have a greater buying and selling 
capacity than China, has built up in twenty years a foreign trade 
from $30,000,000 to $240,000,000. The present population of Japan 
is forty millions, giving a trade of 80 per capita. Now, let us apply 
that rate of $6 to a most conservative estimate of China's population, 
two hundred and fifty million, and we have a possible annual trade 
of $1,500,000,000. If you divide this in half for the imports, you 
have $750,000,000. If you look over the list of Chinese imports, you 
will find that two-thirds of them can be supplied by the United States 
if she will enter into earnest competition with other countries. Al- 
ready we have shown what we can do by developing in northern 
China within a few years an annual trade of 810,000,000 in manu- 
factured cotton goods, and in southern China of 86,000,000 in Hour. 
In both lines our sales were inconsiderable ten years ago. 

W any one says that China has not a great buying and selling 
capacity when she is opened up, he must remember the experience 
of the Yangtze Valley. Some fort) 7 years ago one or two ships and 
s.~)( »< >,000 represented the trade of that might) 7 stream. Today you 
can go up the Yangtze 600 miles, from Shanghai to Hankow, in finer 
steamers than those plying between New York and Albany, and the 
annual trade of the river is estimated at nearly $75,000,000. From 
this you can conceive what must come when the vast interior sec- 
tions of China are covered with railways, and the saint- development 
follows that has characterized the Yangtze River. It is not discour- 
aging that Chinese trade is now only $250,000,000 a year, or 81 per 
head. It rather shows what great opportunities remain yet to be 



THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS AND THEIR ENVIRONMENT 7 

developed by the United States and other lands. That same argu- 
ment might have been advanced against Japan twenty years ago. 

In the limits of time at my disposal I cannot discuss Japan spe- 
cifically beyond saying that there never was a time in the history of 
our relations when we were closer to that country in commerce and 
trade than now. Korea is just opening to us, and is providing fields 
of exploitation which we must not neglect. In Russian territory to 
the north there are also opportunities which we must fully realize in 
considering the value of Oriental trade. Already we are doing much 
there which is encouraging for the future. 

Before closing my references to China I cannot refrain from em- 
phasizing the importance of our government's efforts to maintain the 
"open door" of trade and preserve the integrity of the Chinese Em- 
pire. The " open door " simply means that we shall have the same 
rights <>l commerce throughout all China as are possessed by any 
other country and as guaranteed by the treaties. We have every- 
thing to lose and nothing to gain by the division of the Chinese Em- 
pire. Now, we can look forward to controlling the larger portion of 
her trade in successful competition with other nations; but if China 
is divided or the door is closed, whatever country has the predomi- 
nant influence in a certain portion of China will establish such regu- 
lations, directly or indirectly, as will prevent our exports from com- 
peting successfully with its own. 

MATERIAL VALUE OF PHILIPPINES 

Now, what shall we say of the Philippines themselves in their ma- 
terial aspects? We have already shown their geographical, strate- 
gical, and commercial relations to the rest of the Orient. Under de- 
pressing Spanish influences there was developed in the Philippines 
an annual trade of $33,000,000. Under American control and with 
American enterprise and capital this surely tnusl be enlarged within 

the next ten years to $150,1 ,000. If the British, Dutch, French, 

ami other nationalities have been successful in accomplishing the 
results already shown in dependencies less resourceful than the 
Philippines, it i- a confession of weakness if we cannol outstrip them 
in this work. The Philippines are blessed with an unusual number 
ofgreal staple products, of who ibilities I took careful note as 1 

traveled through tie' islands. Chief among these are hemp, tobacco, 
sugar, copra or the dried meal of the cocoanut, and rice. The raising 
of and the trade in these staples have been developed to their present 



8 THE PHILIPPINE ISLAM'S AND THEIR ENVIRONMENT 

status with practically the same methods and conditions as existed 
many years ago. New methods and additional capital will quadruple 
the output and bring so much more wealth to the country. The 
lesser products of the country include coffee, cocoa, cocoanut, vanilla, 
pepper and other spices, indigo, and a great variety of fruits charac- 
teristic of the tropics. There are sections where Indian corn thrives, 
while strawberries and blackberries have been grown with success in 
the northern plateaux. There are, of course, many other products of 
the soil, but here I am only calling attention to the principal ones 
which attracted my eye in passing. The tobacco is grown in the 
northern section of Luzon, in the valley of the Cagayan River ; rice in 
the provinces between Manila and Dagupan, in the center of Luzon, 
and hemp in the southeastern portion of Luzon. In the Visayan 
Islands, as well as in parts of Mindanao, sugar is the chief product, 
while the pearls that please the vain world come from the Sulu group. 
Thus it will be seen that the products of the islands are well dis- 
tributed throughout their entire extent. 

The wealth in minerals and metals is not fully known yet, but 
there are sufficient indications to enable us to conclude that their re- 
sources in these lines will be worth careful development. There are 
numerous outcroppings of coal and iron ore, with indications of 
copper, lead ore, tin, and platinum ; also there are found sulphur, 
mercury, alabaster, jasper, and marble. The more precious product 
of gold undoubtedly exists in paying quantities, while there are some 
favorable signs of silver. 

On the extensive ranges of mountains in Luzon and in Mindoro 
and Mindanao are to be found forests of most valuable woods. The 
variety is surprising. It includes everything from soft palm and bam- 
boo to ebony and ironwood. There is abundant material on the one 
hand for furniture and cabinets, and on the other for ship-building 
and heavy house construction. 

LAND CONFORMATION AND AREA 

As I traveled from Aparri, on the north end of Luzon, south through 
that island, thence through the Visayan group, then to Zamboanga, 
in Mindanao. I was impressed everywhere by the marvelous inter- 
mingling of well-watered, extensive valleys with broad, fertile plateaux 
and high forested mountains. The conformation of the land impresses 
the traveler as being suited not only for unlimited cultivation, but for 
the support of a great population. The number of rivers and lakes 



THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS AND Til FAR ENVIRONMENT 9 

navigable for small craft during a good part of the year is large. No 
other group of islands in the world possesses SO many harbors and 
bays suited for inter-island traffic. The separation of the group into 
many islands has a most distinct advantage, which we do not fully ap- 
preciate. It provides highways of water, which are always there, and 
permits frequent and easy communication with all important points. 
The Philippines are more valuable to us divided as they are than if 
they were one broad extent like Borneo. This breaking up will also 
be of great assistance in preventing serious insurrections in the future. 

The area of the Philippine Islands, 115,000 square miles, according 
to the best surveys, is more fully appreciated when we say that it is 
approximately equal to the six New England States and New York. 
Luzon would cover the State of New York, while Mindanao would hide 
the State of Maine. The Yisayan Islands, with Palawan. Mindoro, 
and the Sulu group, would equal Vermont, New Hampshire, Rhode 
Island. Massachusetts, and Connecticut. 

As the possibilities o( railway construction showed what may take 
place in China, so likewise do they teach us the extent of the field of 
development in the Philippines. In this area of 115,000 square miles, 
with a population of eight million's, there are only 135 miles of rail- 
way, or between Manila and Dagupan. According to the best Euro- 
pean expect- who have traveled through the islands, there is immediate 
need for the building of from 1,000 to 1,500 miles of railway, a safe 
investment, including accessories, of from $50,000,000 to $75,000,000. 
For instance, the great Cagayan Valley of Luzon should be tapped by 
a line from Manila, while other roads could be built in various direc- 
tions where there are freight and people to carry. Down in Mindanao 
are valleys as large as the St nte of ( lonnecticut which can only lie de- 
veloped properly by the construct] f railways. A. score of similar 

opportunities could he named on a greater or less scale. 

CONDITIONS OF CLIMATE 

As to the climate, it can he said that the dangers of the tropics are 
grossly exaggerated by those unfa miliar with them. A iter a residence 
of five years in the very heart of the tropics, I will say that men can 
well and vigorous there if 1 bey exercise ordinary moderation and 
care and absenl themselves al reasonable periods in northern climes 
tor res! and change, as men do iii our American cities during the heat 
ol summer. The Philippines contain mosl favorable conditions for 
offsetting the disadvantages of mere tropical location. \t various 



10 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS AND THEIR ENVIRONMENT 

points up and down the entire length of the islands are lofty moun- 
tains, on the higher slopes of which one can reach at any time of the 
year an atmosphere that is practically temperate and always most 
refreshing and invigorating. Within near distance of Manila are 
mountains which can he utilized for hotels and barracks, which our 
government officials, officers, and soldiers can seek for change and 
rest during the brief period which is oppressively hot. As soon as 
means of communication are established between Manila and such 
points, it will be surprising to witness the effect upon the foreign 
inhabitants. What an army experiences in the severe tests of war- 
fare in the tropics is not a just measure of the conditions of ordinary 
life. No one, I think, would contend that the Philippines are an 
ideal home for the American laborer, but they afford broad opportu- 
nities for men who occupy managing or directing positions. The 
natives and the Chinese will provide the ordinary day laborer in 
abundance. 

THE PEOPLE OF THE ISLANDS 

Of the people who inhabit the Philippine Islands I can say, after 
extended acquaintance with them, that their good qualities far out- 
weigh their bad qualities. When they are not misled or misguided 
by ambitious leaders in regard to America and the American people, 
they will become peaceful subjects of our government. When once 
order is fully established, there will be little or no spirit of insurrec- 
tion manifesting itself, except where now and then, as in any land, 
some headstrong, unscrupulous leader ma}' endeavor to resist the 
government. The majority of the Filipinos are far above the level 
of savages or barbarians and possess a considerable degree of civil- 
ization. It is the small minority that are wild and untamed in life, 
habits, and system of government. It is my honest opinion that we 
shall be able to develop there a large degree of autonomy in the inte- 
rior provinces and towns, and gradually from year to year make the 
islands approach nearer and nearer to a condition of self-government 
something like that of Canada, or Australia. It may take a consider- 
able period of years, but the people are naturally quick to learn, and 
among them there are undoubtedly many able men to hold the more 
responsible posts. 

Too much credit cannot be given the Philippine Commission ap- 
pointed by President McKinley, consisting of President Schurman, 
Admiral Dewey. General Otis, Colonel Denby, and Dr Worcester, tor 



THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS AND THEIR ENVIRONMENT 11 

their labors and for the wisdom of their report. II" the methods they 
recommend are followed closely, there is little doubt that the ends 
desired will soon be accomplished. 

AGUINALDO AND HIS POWER 

Of Aguinaldo L can say that he is undoubtedly a man of much 
executive capacity. He has also a degree of personal magnetism, 
mingled with sufficient persistency, energy, and shrewdness to he a 
successful leader of his people. He does not, however, impress one 
as possessing stability of character. It is difficult, in conversing with 
him. to catch and hold his eye. His glance could he called shifting. 
He dresses with remarkable taste and neatness, and makes a favor- 
able impression on those who meet him, hut he does not inspire con- 
fidence among foreigners. Were temptations to personal power re- 
moved from him, I helieve that he would he a greater influence for 
good than for wrong, but under ordinary circumstances his personal 
ambition controls his motives and methods. Having known him 
first at Hongkong, before lie returned to the Philippine-, and later 
at Cavite, Bakor, and Malolos,-] speak from extended acquaintance, 
in which I was able to note carefully bis characteristics. Having 
been familiar with what passed between him and Admiral Dewey, 
and having discussed the matter repeatedly with both of them, 1 can 
say. in utmost frankness and honesty, thai Admiral Dewey never, by 
written or spoken word, gave Aguinaldo any assurances whatsoever 
of independence. He simply and only treated him as a friend fight- 
ing a common enemy. Aguinaldo, however, with natural shrewd- 
saw the opportunity to impress upon his people the Fad thai he 
was supported by the American Government, and so told them ; other- 
wise it would have been difficull to secure their general support in 
formings government and in mobilizing an army. This fad was often 

impressed upon me by the Filipino leader- who were not entirely in 

sympathy with Aguinaldo, but understood his methods and plans. 

When men declare thai we are si ting Independence into the 

Filipinos, or are establishing a govern men I without the consenl of 
the governed, they musl bear in mind, first, thai Aguinaldo's govern- 
meiit was established almost entirely by the use or show of force, in 
thai he organized an army al Cavite and then Benl garrisons to all 
important points, from Aparri on the north to Zamboanga on the 
south, everywhere impressing the people, who had no modern arms 
with his strength and compelling t hem to acknowledge his authority ; 



12 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS AND THEIR ENVIRONMENT 

second, that never have one-fourth of the people at Large in the 
islands heen in active sympathy with Aguinaldo, and not that num- 
ber would have supported him had he not exhibited so much armed 
force and allowed them to he misled in regard to the intentions of the 
American Government; third, that if an American army of five thou- 
sand men had heen landed at Cavite at the same time Admiral Dewey 
destroyed the Spanish fleet, it would have been received by the people 
with joyous acclaim, and would have been ahle to go through tin- 
entire length of the islands, heartily welcomed by the people, with no 
thought of resisting us. Several Filipino leaders admitted to me, in 
the presence of some of our army officers, that there would never 
have heen active resistance to the United States Government, and we 
would hardly have heard of Aguinaldo except as a former leader, if 
we had heen in a position to send our garrisons where Aguinaldo sent 
his .it the beginning of our occupation of the Philippines. Our gov- 
ernment, however, cannot he blamed for not doing this, because it 
was a physical impossibility to have landed an army at Cavite when 
Dewey arrived there, and in those days we did not dream that 
Aguinaldo's fighting the Spaniards meant the long warfare with him 
which has since followed. 

FALSE EDUCATION OF THE PEOPLE 

It is well to hear in mind that there has at no time heen any 
serious resistance to us by the people in any part of the islands where 
the Tagaloc garrisons or Tagaloc army had not already heen located 
or had not operated. A most extensive system of false education, 
which is not generally known in America, was also carried on among 
the Filipino masses during the long period between the fall of Manila, 
in August. 1898, and the outbreak on February 4, 1899. By a perni- 
cious system of circulars, letters, and newspapers printed from the 
presses of Manila and Malolos the people were taught to believe most 
misleading reports about the American people and the American 
Government. Men, women, and children were exhorted to distrust 
us, and lies without limit were told of our own government t<> men 
and women to make them fear and hate us. I have in my possession 
many illustrations of this lying literature. Added to this was the 
constanl hope of the Filipinos, inspired by matter that came from 
America, that tin' turn of political conditions here would cause the 
United States to withdraw from the Philippines and establish Agui- 
naldo at the head of an independent government. Their leaders 



THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS AND THEIR ENVIRONMENT 13 

never lost an opportunity to exhort their army and people to the 
belief that the American people would force their President to haul 
down the American flag. This is well known to every man who. like 
myself, came into close association with the Filipino army and people. 

In considering the favorable account that 1 give of our opportuni- 
ties in the Philippines and in surrounding countries. I would ask 
all those who are skeptical about both the present and the future to 
hear in mind that my conclusions are not post-bellum opinions, 
adapted to the minute or to be in line with public sentiment. Before 
1 ever dreamed that the American flag would fly over the Philippines, 
I outlined in official reports, in letters to chambers of commerce, and 
in magazine articles America's great opportunities for the extension 
of her trade and influence in far eastern countries, including the 
Philippines, and hammered away year after year endeavoring to 
arouse greater interest than existed. At that time I went on record 
Lying that after having traveled through all the Asiatic lands. I 
believed that, in proportion to area and population, the Philippine- 
surpassed them all in variety of resources and undeveloped oppor- 
tunities. What I say now is simply in confirmation of former con- 
tention-. 

If yon were to ask me to give some of the necessary immediate in- 
fluences that would assist in making America forever the paramount 
power of the Pacific, I would enumerate: First, permanent sover- 
eignty <»ver the Philippines ; second, construction of the trans-isth- 
mian canal : third, preservation according to the treaties of our trade 
rights throughout all China; fourth, the laying ofa. trans-Pacific cable. 
Further considerations of immediate importance are the early send- 
ing of a commission to fully investigate and report on Asiatic markets, 
as outlined in the forceful message of President McKinley, the up- 
building or reasonable subsidizing of our merchant marine, and — a 
new hut important proposition — the extension of on r parcel posl sys- 
tem of mails to the far East to compete with similar European systems. 

EFFECTS "I DEWE^ - VICTORY 

[n concluding I can give you no better argument in favor of our meet- 
ing our responsibilities bravely and successfully in the Philippines 
than the experience there of the representatives of tin United States 

• mmeni before and after Admiral Dewey -ailed into Manila l'.:i\ 

and destroyed the Spanish fleet. Prior to May l. 1898, there i^ no 
denying that American prestige, influence, ami commerce an 



14 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS AND THEIR ENVIRONMENT 

Asia's 500,000,000 were at a low ebb, despite the best and the faithful 
labors of ministers and consuls. In Japan, in China, in Korea, and 
in Siam the United States was regarded as a second or third-rate power. 
While we ministers were treated with differential and patronizing con- 
sideration, we were not potent factors like our colleagues from Great 
Britain, Russia, German}', and France. In trade, the agents of our 
business houses were endured, but not welcomed by the heads of great 
European and native firms in the far East. With the battle of Manila- 
Bay there came a mighty and a marvelous change, of which I cannot 
speak in too strong terms, and the truth of which will be confirmed 
by every American who was familiar Avith the situation. There seemed 
to sweep up and down this 5,000 miles of coast line, and far into the 
interior, a tidal wave of American prestige, which left its trace and in- 
fluence not only in the capitals of politics and trade but among the 
masses of distant provinces; and all at once ministers and consuls 
found themselves the representatives of a first-class power and stand- 
in- shoulder to shoulder with the representatives of European nations, 
if not even leading them in influence and importance. 

In other words, we became, by the battle of Manila Bay and the 
occupation of the Philippine Islands, the first power of the Pacific, 
for the control of which we seem to be destined by the great influences 
which shape the politics of the world and develop nations for mighty 
responsibilities. If we bravely perform our duty in the Philippines, 
establish peace and order, give the people a large degree of autonomy, 
spread the influence of our free institutions and hold there a position 
of commercial and strategic advantage for the advancement and pro- 
tection of our vast growing interests in the Pacific and far East, we shall 
be forever the first power of the Pacific and of all the world. If we are 
laggards now. we shall be laggards until doomsday. If the war and 
occupation of the islands costs us hundreds of millions of dollars now. 
another war, which would inevitably come in the future if we sin mid 
try to regain the position lost by withdrawing from the islands and 
to lead in the merciless race of nations for material and moral 
supremacy, would cost us ten times as many million dollars. 



The use of the North Sea and Baltic Canal by ocean-going vessels 
is slowly but steadily increasing. The entries during the month of 
October numbered 2,609, with an aggregate tonnage of 385, 1 76, as com- 
pared with 2,436, with a total tonnage of 330,843, in October, 1898. 



THE CAPH NO Mb' GOLD DISTRICT 

By F. C. Schrader, 
United States Geological Survey 

On arriving at St Michael late in September, is 1 .)'.', at the close of 
the field season's work in the Yukon country, we found that ocean 
transportation from St Michael to Seattle could not be obtained before 
about October 10, when the N. A. T. A: T. Company's steamship Roanoke 
would sail. The interim of a couple of weeks' waiting was accordingly 
improved by repairing to Nome for the purpose of collecting Buch 
geologic and topographic data of this new district as time, circum- 
stances, and climate would permit. 

As our boats, tents, and camping outfits had been left in the Yukon 
country, our party was dependent lor such accommodations at Nome 
orfrom the miners on the creeks and in the gulches. The topography 
was in charge of Messrs T. G. Gerdine and D. C. Witherspoon, while 
the neology and topography were clone by Messrs Brooks and Schrader. 
The latter, with knapsacks of sleeping bags and provisions, made a 
Beveral day-' trip into the mountains and gulches to examine the 
formations and gold diggings. On account of the snow, cold weather, 
and freezing up of the creeks, most of the gold claims had been closed 
down early in October and the operators bad departed. Wherever 
the miners were found to be still present, however, their hospitality 
was generously extended, notably by Mr K. I'. King, members of the 
Pioneer Company, and other miners on Anvil ('reek. 

The ( 'ape Nome district IS situated on the northwest coast of Alaska. 

on the northeast arm of Bering Sea, al the entrance of Norton Sound. 
It is the southern promontory of a large peninsula, extending west- 
ward toward Siberia between fCotzebue and Norton Sounds, an. I 
ly separates Bering Sea from the Arctic Ocean. Westward this 
peninsula terminates at the 168th meridian in ('ape Prince of Wales, 
the uio-i westward extension of the American continent, which i- here 
separated from Asia by Bering Strait, aboul 60 miles in width. 

The promontory on which the Nome district occurs has long been 
known on nearly all Alaskan map- by the name of Cape Nome. The 
district Lies aboul LOO miles north wesl of 81 Michael, and just outside 



THE < APE NOME GOLD DISTRICT 



17 



of tlu- Fort St Michael Military Reservation. By ocean steamer route 
it is nearly 2,700 miles northwest of Seattle, and about 750 miles from 
Dutch Harbor. Qnalaska. The ('ape Nome region as known at 
present extends from Cape Nome, the apex of the promontory, some 
30 miles or more northwestward along the coast and about 20 miles 
inland to the north. In the middle of this shore line, at the mouth 
of the Snake River, the thriving city of Nome is situated. 




•\l:i HI \,,\l| IU..M Mil III \ KIN., S.il:lll«l-I 



Prom Cape Nome for 30 or more miles westward to near Synrock 
the shore line is comparatively straight and smooth, but lying hack of 
the Bhore line, between it and the base of the mountains, occur- the 
well -know 1 1 tundra. This consists of a strip of treeless, moss-covered 
marine gravels, forming a coastal shelf, which along the beach is about 
eet above sea-level. From here it slopes gently upward until 

at the base of the mountains, some fouror five miles fr the beach, 

it attain- an elevation of 150 or 200 feet. During the summer it is 
lly wet, soft, and boggy and is dotted here and there by a few 



18 THE CAPE NOME GOLD DISTRICT 

ponds, and is traversed by the Snake, Nome, and Cripple rivers and 
other smaller streams which carry out the drainage from the moun- 
tains. 

Along the north edge of the tundra, at the beginning of the moun- 
tains, the topography is low and rounding, with the floors of the 
main valleys rather flat and from one to three miles in width. Seven 
miles north of Nome, crude gravel terraces, seemingly marine, were 
observed to the height of about 1,500 feet. These seem to mark suc- 
cessive stages of land elevation still going on. 

Further northward, 20 or 30 miles from the beach, the mountains 
becomemore rugged and rise, in some instances, into seemingly perma- 
nent snow-peaks, but probably nowhere exceed 3,000 feet in elevation. 

The nearest harbors for deep-sea or ocean vessels are Port Clarence, 
60 miles northwest of Nome, and Golofnin Bay, the same distance 
northeast. It is not unlikely that one or both of these harbors will 
be connected with the Nome district by rail should the district prove 
as rich as present prospects indicate. Port Safety, a small harbor to 
the east of Cape Nome, will admit vessels not drawing over eight feet 
of water, but is not adequate for the accommodation of deep-sea-going 
vessels. In front of Nome the sea is so shallow that the larger vessels 
cannot approach the shore, but are obliged to discbarge their cargoes 
by means of boats and lighters, a method which is very precarious 
on account of the combers and breakers that usually sweep the roast. 

The mountains thus far examined are composed of mica-schists 
and limestone, alternating in layers and beds with each other. They 
are thin or medium bedded rocks, and strike and trend northeastward 
and southwestward and dip southeastward at an angle of about 15 , 
The limestone is bluish gray and comparatively fine grained and more 
or less well metamorphosed, often becoming a crystalline marble. 
The mica-schist is sometimes slaty, but it also shows considerable 
metamorphic action and is garnetiferous. Locally the rocks aresome- 
times folded and traversed by quartz veins, and veinlets, of both quartz 
and calcite, with also some iron and copper pyrites. Pyrites are also 
disseminated sporadically in the schists. The quartz veins and vein- 
lets traversing the rocks are supposed to be the source of the gold. 
Far back in the mountains granite is said to occur, but may be repre- 
sented merely b}^ granitoid dikes, some pebbles of which occur in the 
beach gravels. 

The tundra is composed of apparently marine gravels, derived 
from the rocks in the mountains, and is almost exclusively mica- 



THE CAPE NOME GOLD DISTRICT 



19 



schist and limestone. Toward the mountains the gravels arc often 
coarse, carrying boulders of considerable size, hut along the beach 
they have been largely reduced to fine gravel and sand by wave 
action. It is in tins reduced material that the beach gold occurs. 

The first discovery of gold in the Nome district was made in Sep- 
tember, 1898, when a party of Swedes found it on the creeks and in (he 
gulches : but not until July, 1899, was the discovery of the beach gold 
made. In the gulches along the edge of the mountains the diggings 




I I \ HI: \. \ M. II I I I 



SlIKTIII \~ I Mi" il 



are coarse gold, the Largest nuggets found being about 8350 each. 
Here the '_ r "M occurs on the "bed rock" under the creek gravels, 
which are -i\ or eighl feel in thick n 
Along the beach the gold is quite fine, having been reduced by wave 
m along with the gravel and aand to the size of bird -shot, or even 
finer. It- occurrence here is for the mosl part under two or three 
feel of gravel and sand, on a bottom layer of clay or argillaceous sand, 
called 41 bed rock" by the miners. Thin layers of ruby Band inter- 
stratified alone with the gravel, near the so called " bed rock, are 



20 



THE CAPE NOME GOLD DISTRICT 



often found to be richly auriferous. Beach diggings have been oper- 
ated during the past summer ami fall for about thirty or more miles, 
from Cape Nome to near Synrock. Coarse gold is being mined in 
Anvil, Glacier, Dexter, and Osborne creeks, and along Penny and 
Cripple rivers. The production of the region for the past season of 
ls'JO. as near as ran be estimated, amounted to $2,000,000, of which 
one-half has been produced by the beach. Discovery claim and one 
below on Anvil Creek produce'! $225,000, while Snow Gulch, a very 




SNAKE BIVEB \M> HOME, FROM HM'ia u: Ni: Mill WK81 ■>> KOMI! 

small tributary of Glacier Creek, is reported to have yielded over 
$200,000. 

In the gulches the work is carried on by stripping, sluicing, and to 
sonic extent by rocking, while on the beach the method of extracting 
the gold has thus far been almost exclusively by rocking. Here the 
water used for rocking is generally that of the ocean. In a few cases, 
however, the sea water has been raised by steam power and sluices 
constructed along the beach. In the rocker the gold is caught on 
blankets and to some extent on copper plate- coated with mercury. 



THE CAPE NOME GOLD DISTRICT 21 

In many instances, where the Bupply of copper plate could not equal 
the demand, the bottom of the rocker was covered by United States 
Bilver coin, principally one-dollar pieces, and these coated with the 
mercury which caught the gold. During the latter part of summer 
and in the fall it i< estimated that an average of 2,000 men were work- 
ing along the beach, and that they took out an average of about $20 
per day per man. In many cases the amount taken out was much 
greater. 'The tundra between the beach and the base of the mountains 
has also been prospected to some extent and has not infrequently 
yielded from 10 cents to .'Jo cents per pan. Capital, however, will 
doubtless he required to handle the tundra with profit: also the henches 
above referred to in the lower region of the mountains have been 
found to In- auriferous and have largely been staked. 

The country about the head of Solomon and Bonanza rivers. [0 
miles northwest of Nome, reports good prospects. In the Golofnin 
Bay country on Fish River and its tributaries coarse gold was taken 
out during the past summer. On Ophir Creek, one of the chief trib- 
utaries, a single claim is said to have yielded $75,000. Prospects 
have also heen reported on the western shore of Norton Bay. hate 
in the fall it was rumored that gold had heen found at Cape York by 
a native employed in herding the Government reindeer. These 
rumors have since heen more than verified by Captain Jarvis, who 
visited this region with the r. S. revenue cutter Bear, and by a recent 
n u in her of The . ilaskan Miner, issued at Juneau, which reports the coun- 
try rich and that more than nine square miles of it were staked late in 
November, and early in December. There seems good reason to infer 
that substantially the entire southern half of this Large peninsula, 
covering more than 8,000 or pi. oi id square miles, is gold-bearing and 
much of it very rich. It lie- in the great Yukon gold belt, extending 
from the Klondike westward, and probably continues across Bering 
Sea into Siberia. 1 1 seems more than probable that the Siberian coast 
will be visited by enterprising American prospectors before another 
season ha- passed. 

There is no timber in the Nome district. The nearest approach to 
it is a scanty growl h of \ ery stunted willow or elm along some of the 
waterways, wholly inadequate for ordinary camping purposes. A 
growth of inn-, which furnishes abundance of food for reindeer, covers 
the surface except in the upper slopes of the mountains. There is, 
however, :i sufficient growth of grass t" sustain horses and cattle dur- 
ing the -hmi summer month-. Mr F. V. Coville attributes the ab- 
sence of timber to the rigors of the Arctic climate. 



22 THE CAPE NOME GOLD DISTRIC2 

Prior to the discovery of gold there were ;i few natives, all Eskimo, 
scattered uhmg the coast from near ( 'ape Nome northward, and a small 
village on Sledge Island during the seal-fishing season. At Port Clar- 
ence, which has been the headquarters of the United States reindeer 
industry in Alaska, is a mission with good schools. 

The great movement of the white population toward Nome began 
early in the summer of 1899 and continued until the middle of October, 
building up a city of over 5,000 people on a previously barren beach. 
Nearly every boat which descended the Yukon from Dawson and 
other points on the river was loaded to its fullest capacity with pas- 
sengers, while many came from the southeastern districts of Alaska 
and the Pacific coast of the United States. The rapidity in growth 
of the city of Nome has probably never been precedented, especially 
in so remote a region. A thousand or more unsuccessful prospectors 
descending from the Koyukuk district and an equal number from the 
Kotzebue Sound and Kowak River district arrived at St Michael in 
a financially stranded condition ; hut hearing of the diggings "I" Nome 
a majority soon found their way thither, and in a few days' work on 
the beach had rocked out sufficient gold to place themselves in mod- 
erately comfortable circumstances and pay their transportation hack 
to the United States. 

The principal trading companies operating at Nome are the N. A. '!'. 
iV- T. Company, the A. C. Company, and the A. E. or Alaska Explora- 
tion Company, all with fairly well-stocked warehouses and plants and 
abundant supplies for next spring. Of newspapers there are at the 
present time the Nome News, The Nome GoldDigger, and The Nome Herald. 
The Nugget, with printing press and equipments from Dawson, went 
down in a gale on Norton Sound in September, while a similar out lit 
hound for Nome from the United States went down on the Laurado 
at St Lawrence Island a few weeks later. A company is now being 
organized with a view to constructing a deep-water pier for a tempo- 
rary harbor, to he extended far out into the ocean, whereby deep-sea 
vessels may be unloaded. Until more definite arrangements can he 
perfected the United States Post-Office is endeavoring to send the 
mails to Nome semi-monthly during the present winter by way ol 
White Pass, Yukon River, and the Unilaklik and St .Michael route. 
On account of ice in Bering Sea, Nome cannot be reached by ocean 
vessels earlier than sometime in June, though the Nome coast i^ free 
from ice later in the fall and earlier in the summer than the coast 
about St Michael. 



THE IDAHO AND MONTANA BOUNDARY LINE 23 

The climate of Cape Nome is mild and for the most part moist or 
rainy during the summer, hut cold and severe in the winter season, 
which extends from late in October to May. The climate, however, 
i- healthful. During the past summer the only difficulty the popu- 
lation of Nome seemed to encounter was typhoid fever, and this it 
aeems likely would not have occurred with a, good drainage system 
and a wholesome water supply, which may he readily obtained 
with a little care and labor. Several hospitals were organized and 
equipped and all did excellent service to their fullest capacity. Other 
patients were shipped down to the United States in nearly every return- 
in-- vessel during the latter part of the season. 

There are probably about 3,000 people wintering at Nome today, 
and judging from the present indications it is not unlikely that next 
summer the population will amount to about 25,000 or 30,000. Liv- 
ing during the past mouths has been very high — board and lodging, 
(6 per day, and with room $10 per day. The price of an ordinary 
meal was from $2 to $3, while wages ranged from $12 to $15 per day. 
Wood gathered from the drift wood along the beach cost $40 to s'i 1 * a 
cord : coal, $125 per ton, and lumber $125 per thousand feet, and other 
necessaries almost in proportion. 

The population, though considerably mixed, is preeminently Amer- 
ican and contains a good business element ami law-abiding people. 
The government is a self-organized municipal government, giving 

g 1 order throughout. A police force is on duty and t here is a ho 

located here a detachment of United States soldiers under Lieuten- 
ant Creigie, who did much in the earlier stages of Nome toward the 
preservation of order and tin; securing of individual rights. 



THL IDAHO AND MONTANA BOUNDARY L1NH 
By Richard I . < Ioodk, 

United Stolen Geological Survey 

The I 'idled state- Geological Survey has completed the survey and 
marking of the portion of the home la ry line between Idaho and Mon- 
tana corresp ling to the 39th meridian west from Washington, or 

L16 03' 02.30" west from Greenwich. The remaining portion of the 

boundary line follows the crest of the Hitter Root and Rocky Moiin- 

:i 1 1 < 1 a- this crest is for the most part -harp and well-defined 



24 THE IDAHO AND MONTANA BOUNDARY LINE 

(see illustration, page 26), it was not considered necessary to place 
monuments along this portion of the line, nor would it have been pos- 
sible to do so under the appropriation, as the available funds were 
exhausted on the part of the line first mentioned. From a geological 
standpoint, but hardly from a practical one., however, there is another 
reason why monuments should nol be placed on the Bummit of tin- 
Bitter Root Range* as marking the boundary line between Idaho ami 
Montana. There is abundant evidence that the summit is what is 
known as a retreating or migrating divide ; in other words, the waters 
tributary to the Bitter Root River in Montana are continually capturing 
by erosion those of the < Jlearwater River in Idaho, so that the divide is 
slowly being shifted to the westward, thus adding to the territory of 
Montana and diminishing that of Idaho. The existing divide is uni- 
formly from six to eight miles from the irregular line representing the 
original divide, if the latter may he accepted as having passed through 
the highest point- of the range, which seems probable. 

Points near the meridian line were located by triangulation from the 
Spokane base of the I'. S. Geological Survey, this base being referred 
for its initial latitude and longitude to two astronomic piers in the 
court-house -rounds at Spokane, the latitude determination having 
been made by the U. S. Geological Survey and the longitude deter- 
mination by the I". S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

After the point on the crest of the Bitter Root Mountains corre- 
sponding to its intersection with the 39th meridian had been located. 
this location having been determined by traverse from the triangula- 
tion station divide ! see diagram of triangulation on page 25 . ;i random 
line was run northward to the international boundary by transit and 
stadia, horizontal and vertical distances being measured. Direction 
was controlled by frequent observations for azimuth. The line was 
further checked in azimuth, as well as in distance, by connection with 
the triangulation at four points. It was not practicable to establish 
a triangulation Btation near the line at its intersection with the inter- 
national boundary, so from the most northerly location by triangu- 

*Ther< has been considerable discussion as to just what constitutes the Bitter Root Range. 
The law defining the boundary line between Idaho and Montana implies thai • 
at leasl from Lake Pend d'< ireille to the Continental Divide, and it seems t" the « riter, i- well 
a- toothers interested, that this designation should stand. There are, however, topographic and 
. c considerations which make it desirable to differentiate somewhat, and it is proposed 
that the Bittei i: signated as follows : The Coeur d'Alene Mountains, extend- 

ing from tin- vicinity <>t Lake Pend d'Oreille to 31 Regis Pass; the St Regis Mountains, ex- 
ending from St Regis Pass to LoloPass; the Lolo Mountains, extending from Lolo I' 
Nez Perces Pass, and the Nez Perces Mountains, extending from Mez Perces Pass '•• the ' on- 
tinental Divide. 



3o' CANADA 

united states 



"7* BOUNDARY 



Border Ho* 



DIAGRAM OP TRI ANGULATION 
FOR THE CONTROL OF THE 

IDAHO - MONTANA BOUNDARY. 

\S97 




117- 



THE IDAHO AND MONTANA BOUNDARY LINE '27 

lation the distance t<> this point of intersection was measured with a 
steel tape and was also checked by stadia. 

It may be noted that no monuments were found marking the inter- 
national boundary near the point of its intersection with the [daho- 
Montana boundary line, and it is believed that there are Large sections 
of this important line which are not marked and have never been 
marked in anyway. Considerable work was done by the Northwest- 
ern Boundary Survey, but just how far this work proceeded is not 
known. The State Department, in answer to an inquiry on the sub- 
ject, makes the statement that " The department has no report of the 
western portion ofthe Northwestern Boundary Survey from the Pacific 
• to the summit of the Rocky Mountains.'" It is suggested that 
under these circumstances a commission similar to the one which 
ntly served in connection with the survey and remarking of the 
boundary line between the United States and .Mexico west ol the Rio 
Grande might be appropriately appointed. There was found, how- 
ever, among the records of the Northwestern Boundary Survey, in the 
manuscript-room of the state Department, a list of positions deter- 
mined, and in this list was given the position of the Mooyie Trail 
monument, as follows: Latitude, 49° 00' 01.3"; longitude, 1 Hi 14' 
59.2". This monument was identified on the ground about eight and 
one-half miles west of the Idaho-Montana boundary line, and its posi- 
tion determined by triangulation with reference to the Spokane base 
and astro l ic position as follows : Latitude. 19° 00' 01.51" ; longi- 
tude, 116° 14' 19.48". The check in latitude. 21 feet, was considered 
very satisfactory, and even the discrepancy in longitude, aboul 2,647 
feet, was not more than might be expected, considering the lack of 
telegraphic facilities by the Northwestern Boundary Survey. 

The point determined as the true one for the intersection of the in- 
ternational boundary and the Idaho-Montana boundary was located 
with reference to the latitude ofthe Mooyie monument, so that there 
may be no discrepancy when the international boundary is ultimately 
traced and marked, it being assumed that the work already done by 
the Northwestern Boundary Survey will be accepted and utilized. 
The random line northward having been inn. as previously stated, 

and the adjustments having bee ade connecting the line with the 

triangulation, the true line was then established from north to south 
and the monuments were placed. 

The line going northward starts at an elevation of about 1,850 feet 
and, descending from the summit ofthe Bitter Root Mountains, cm 



28 THE I h.\l in AND MONTANA BOUNDARY LINE 

the Clark Fork of the Columbia at an altitude of about 2,220 feet, 
then climbs to tin* .summit of the Cabinet Mountains, reaching at this 
]>oint an elevation of 6,670 feet. Continuing from this locality, it in- 
tersects many canyons tributary to the Kootenai River and crosses the 
latter, touching the platform of the station-house at Leonia, a station 
ontheGreal Northern Railroad, at an elevation of 1,824 feet; thence 
it ascends another high ridge, the Yak Mountain, reaching an alti- 
tude of 6,585 feet, whence then' is a gradual descent, crossing, how- 
ever, many lateral streams to the international boundary, at which 
point the elevation is about 4,500 feet. The country traversed is ex- 
tensively t renched with canyons of considerable depth, and the sides 
of the mountains are in many places very precipitous. The profile 
shows a total rise and fall of about 63,000 feet. The line is for the 
most part through a heavily timbered country, and there are few roads 
or trails, so thai the question of transportation was a rather difficult 
one. The length of the line surveyed passes through a latitudinal 
interval of 1° 1/24.65", or about 70i miles. 

Previous to the work herein referred to, no attempt had ever been 
made to locate and mark the Idaho-Montana boundary line, but the 

Northern Pacific and Great Northern Railways had estimated the 

points at which it crossed their line and established marks according 
to this estimation. The accepted crossing on the Northern Pacific 
was found to be about oiie-i piarter of a mile west of the true line, and 
that of the Greal Northern about one mile east of the true line, along 
the railway line, but only about one-half mile east thereof in direct 
longitude. Kootenai County, Idaho, spent a considerable sum of 
money in grading a road up the mountain from Leonia toward 
Sylvanite, which, when the boundary line was located Boon after, was 
found to be in Flathead County, Montana. 

The monuments used along the meridional portion of the line are 
of two kinds, stone and iron. The stone monuments are of granite, 
six feet in length and ten inches square, undressed, except for spaces 
sufficient to permit of the cutting of the words " Idaho " and ,- Mon- 
tana " on opposite sides. These monuments are placed in the more 
prominent localities and are monolithic in all cases when it was pos- 
sible to transport them in one mass to the proper position ; otherwise 
they were cut in ten sections, so that they could be carried on pack 
mules, and were bolted and cemented -together when established in 
place. The monuments at the international boundary and at the 
summit of the Bitter Knot Mountains (these being the terminal points 



THE COPPER RIVER DELTA 29 

of the meridional portion of the line) are of stone made from sections 
as described, and monoliths are placed near the points at which the 
boundary line crosses the Northern Pacific and Great Northern Rail- 
ways. The iron monuments are hollow posts of wrought iron, six 
feet in length and about four inches in outer diameter, covered with 
a coat of asphaltum tar. They were flared at the bottom to a width 
of 12 inches, so that they might be more securely planted in the 
ground. These posts are set to a depth of three feet below the surface 
of the ground, three feet remaining above ground, and a conical 
mound of earth is raised around them to a height of two feet. On 
the tops of the posts are riveted bronze caps, on which is cast appro- 
priate lettering, and the number of the monument and the distance 
from the international boundary in miles are stamped in large figures. 
In addition to the four stone monuments referred to above, 89 iron 
monuments were placed. The sites for the monuments were chosen 
with reference to the topographic features of the country instead of 
being placed at even miles, as has usually been the custom on bound- 
ary lines, but there are no intervals greater than a mile between monu- 
ments. They were placed generally on summits or near streams, 
roads, or trails. Between the monuments the line is thoroughly cut 
out and adjacent trees are blazed, so that the line can be readily recog- 
nized in any locality. 



THE COPPER RIVER DELTA 

The entrance to the Copper River has become, within the past few 
years, a region of great interest and importance, and in order to develop 
its geography a Coast and Geodetic Survey party has been sent there 
for the past two seasons. Landing in the vicinity of Orca, Mr H. P. 
Ritter, under whose direction the operations were conducted, imme- 
diately began a triangulation of the surrounding country. His party 
consisted of Mr E. B. Latham and Mr H. C. Denson, both of the Coast 
and Geodetic Survey, with a foreman and eight hands. The follow- 
ing information has been taken from the reports of Messrs Ritter mid 
Denson, which have just reached Washington. 

Astronomical observations were made at several points, notably at 
Orca and at Kokinhenic. The work comprised a survey of the delta 
and its vicinity, roughly embracing about 1,000 square miles. The 
triangulation, of which the base was in the vicinity of Kokinhenic 



30 THE COPPER RIVER DELTA 

astronomical station, covers the entire delta, and many observations 
were taken on the mountains lyingto the east, north, anil west. This 
work served to locate their position and determine their heights. 

Hydrographic examinations were made at the mouth of the river 
and at other places. The plane-table work covered the shore-line, 
positions of sloughs, reefs, etc., and the tidal observations were used 
in reducing the hydrographic work. Meteorological observations were 
also made, as well as magnetic observations, at I >rca and at a point in 
the middle of the delta. A large part of the topography was executed 
by application of the photo-topographic method. A map on a scale 
of 1 : 80000 was prepared from the results of the season'.- work. 

The longitude depends on the transportation of chronometers, de- 
termining a sea rate from observations at San Francisco and Seattle 
and a land rate after having carried the chronometer ashore and made 
sufficient observations for this purpose. 

Tidal observations were carried on at all stations occupied by the 
party, namely. Orca, ECokinhenic, Pete Dahl Slough, and Eyak River. 
These observations were made in such a way that the series for con- 
secutive stations overlap, thus fixing the relation between the tides 
at the two station-. 

At both Orca and Kokinhenic magnetic observations were made — 
at the former place in May and at the latter in .June. 

The photo-topographic camera was continually used, and the neces- 
sary developing accessories were carried along, so that the negatives 
were largely developed in the tield. Owing to the general unfavor- 
ablenesa <<l' the weather, no systematic scheme could he carried out, 
although a large amount of valuable data was obtained. One hun- 
dred and eighty views were taken with the topographic camera and 
88 with an ordinary view camera. 

The country in the vicinity of the mouth of the Copper River, as 
seen when approaching it from the sea, has the appearance of a vast 
Bnow-peaked mountain range whose tops are covered with perpetual 
snow. Innumerable glaciers move down the mountain sides and fill 
the deeply cut canyons. From the head of the delta to the ocean reef 
i- a distance of about 25 miles. The delta is 50 miles wide, and the 
mountains range from 1,000 to 8,000 feet in elevation. The Hats at the 
mouth of the river are cut up into numerous islands hy the many 
tidal sloughs and small streams flowing from the glaciers. Many in- 
teresting features may he noted in regard to this particular locality, 
among which may be mentioned the violent winds, which hegin dur- 



THE COPPER RIVER DELTA 31 

ing the month of September and last through the winter until early 
spring. They are of such violence that it is impossible for any one 
to cross the delta while they prevail. 

Tbe bod}'' of water intervening between the flats and the ocean reefs 
is navigable to boats drawing from three to four feet of water, and is 
in places navigable to these only at high tide. By the receding tide 
an area of about 250 square miles is completely drained, and the sur- 
face presents one unbroken expanse of mud. The currents during 
tbe rising tide are extremely swift, as the ocean reef acts as a barrier 
until the water rises over it, when it flows in with great rapidity. The 
average temperature of the delta during the months of June, July, 
and August was found to be about 50° F. During the month of Sep- 
tember it is 10° less, accompanied by freezing weather during the 
nights. The vegetation is very marked. On the flats are found flowers 
and marsh grass ; on the sand dunes are alders, berry bushes, and 
cottonwood trees, while on the mountain side hemlock and firs grow 
in abundance. 

From the head of the delta to where the river leaves the marsh and 
spreads out over the mud flats it flows nearly south, is about five miles 
wide, and consists of numerous changeable channels, varying in depth 
from five to twenty feet. The river breaks through the mountain range 
about 30 miles from the coast, and is here flanked on the east side by 
Miles Glacier and on the west hy Childs Glacier. In this vicinity 
are the rapids, which form an insurmountable barrier to all kinds of 
upstream navigation except canoes. 

Tbe most westerly branch of the delta is known as the Alaganik 
Slough, being the most extensively traveled and important branch of 
the river. Its length is about 15 miles, and it varies in width from 
one half mile to one mile, with depths from five to fifteen feet, de- 
pending on the stage of the tide. This branch is a tidal stream. Tbe 
average tide at the lower end during the stay of Mr Ritter's party was 
about ten feet, Avhile at Alaganik, at the upper end, the tide was from 
two to three feet. The navigation of this branch is facilitated by the 
fact that during flood-tide the direction of tbe current is east, while 
;U ebb-tide it is west. This effect is felt as far as Alaganik. 

On tbe Copper River delta are two large canneries, one at Orca and 
tbe other at Odiak. The fishing season begins about May and ends 
with Jul}'. During this time each cannery turns out about 30,000 
cases. 

E. D. Preston. 



OUR NEW POSSESSIONS AND THE INTEREST THEY ARE 

EXCITING 

The intense interest which is felt throughout the United States re- 
garding the islands which the events of the. past year have brought 
into closer relations with us is indicated in many ways, but especially 
in the large number of inquiries which are being received by the vari- 
ous departments of the government for information along these lines. 
Two editions of the monograph, •'('aha, Puerto Pico, the Hawaiian. 
Philippine, ami Samoan Islands/" issued by the Bureau of Statistics 
of tie- Treasury I department, have been entirely exhausted, and a third 
edition, containing much additional information received from gov- 
ernment officials in those islands, as well as from other sources, has 
just been issued ami the statistics of their commerce brought down to 
the latest possible date. Thestudyof this latest information regard- 
ing these islands leads the Bureau of Statistics to the conclusion that 
their present consuming power i<. in round terms, one hundred mil- 
lion dollars — about equally divided between agricultural products and 
manufactures, but that this can and will be greatly increased by the 
introduction of modern methods of production and by the creation of 
roads and railways by which the uncultivated area can he opened, 
consuming power being dependent upon producing power. Only 
about two millions of the thirty-live million acres composing the 
[sland of Cnl. a have, it is estimated, ever been under cultivation, and 
;i considerable percentage of this is now uncultivated, owing to the 
devastation of the recent wars. In Puerto Rico, while there is already 
;i dense population, the productive capacity of the island can, it is be- 
lieved, be greatly increased by the construction of railways and roads 
in the interior of the island, which has now few wagon roads at any 
distance from the coast capable of use for transporting agricultural 
products. In the Philippine Islands conditions are quite similar, and 
the introduction of railways and wagon roads would enable the cul- 
tivation of large areas of extremely productive land, which have not 
up to this time been brought under cultivation. In the Hawaiian 
Islands a considerable increase is being made in the productive area 
by irrigation from artesian wells. In the Samoan Islands, which are 
also discussed, the cultivable area is comparatively small, ami espe- 
cially so in the single island of Tutuila, which falls to the United 



THE TOTAL ECLIPSE OF THE SUN 33 

States under the new treaty between Great Britain, Germany, and the 
United States, the chief value of this island being its harbor, which 
is undoubtedly the finest island harbor in the South Pacific and per- 
haps of the entire Pacific Ocean. 

All the products of these islands are of a class which the United 
States is constantly required to import in great quantities. The an- 
nual importation of tropical products into the United States averages 
fully $250,000,000 in value, and as this large importation is composed 
chiefly of sugar, coffee, fruits and nuts, fibers, spices, drugs, dye and 
cabinet woods, and other tropical growths, all of which can be pro- 
duced and are now being produced, in greater or less quantities, in 
these islands, it seems probable that their new relations with the 
United States may lead to the expenditure in them of most of the 
money which our people are compelled to send abroad for tropical 
products, and that in return we shall furnish them the increased sup- 
plies of foodstuffs and manufactures which their increased earnings 
will lead them to demand. 

O. P. Austin. 



THE TOTAL ECLIPSE OF THE SUN, MAY 28, 1900 

The path of the shadow of the approaching total eclipse of the sun, 
May 28, 1900, begins at sunrise over the Pacific Ocean, just to the west 
of Mexico, extends thence northeastward over the Southern States from 
New Orleans, La., to Norfolk, Va., crosses the middle portions of the 
North Atlantic Ocean to Portugal, and terminates near the northern 
end of the Red Sea at sunset. The location of this track in the United 
States is remarkable for its convenient accessibility to a multitude of 
people, who with a minimum of trouble can easily view the wonderful 
phenomenon of the solar corona. The track passes over New Orleans, 
La., centrally, touches Mobile, Ala., on the southern and Montgomery, 
Ala., on the northern edge, passes just to the north of Columbus, 
Macon, Milledgeville, and Augusta, Ga., a few miles south of Atlanta, 
Ga., a little north of Columbia, S. C.,just south of Charlotte, N. C, 
and quite centrally over Raleigh, X. <'., and Norfolk, Ya. It is easily 
computed that more than half a, million persons will see the total 
eclipse, of more or less duration, from their homes, and it is not un- 
likely that many more will take advantage of the opportunity to see 
the event of a. lifetime Educators ought to encourage their students 
to go to the track at s< • point of it, and thus arouse in them a prac- 



34 THE CENSUS OF 1900 

tical interest in solar physics; transportation companies should find 
an opportunity, unite equal to an exposition, a yacht race, or a grand 
parade, of enticing many to make such an excursion. The fact that 
the track, instead of falling on the inaccessible places of the earth, is 
so near to suitable hotel accommodations will make the event one of 
unusual popularity in the United States. 

The U. S. Weather Bureau has heen conducting a cloud survey of 
the region near the track during the seasons of 1897, 1898, and 1899. 
with the object of determining the localities which have the least 
tendency to cloudiness at that time of the year. The result is that 
near the Atlantic Coast and extending back into North Carolina the 
prevailing cloudiness at the morning hour of the eclipse, 8 a. m. to 
'.» a. m.. is about 4<> per cent. In the states of Georgia and Alabama 
the percentage falls to less than 20 percent Near the Gulf of Mexico, 
in Mississippi and Louisiana, it rises again to more than 30 per cent. 
Hence it follows that the chances for fair weather are about twice as 
good in Georgia and Alabama — that is. on the highland of the southern 
end of the Appalachian system— as near the coast in either direction. 
Unfortunately the duration of the totality on the central line increases 
from 1 minute 1.'! seconds near New Orleans, ha., to 1 minute 42 seconds 
near Norfolk, Va., so that astronomers would naturally select stations 
as near lie- Atlantic Coasl as possible, in order to secure the longest 
look at the corona. Since the probability of cloudiness is a maximum 
at the very part of the track where the duration of the eclipse is greatest, 
there must !>•• some balancing of chances in selecting the sites of the 
observing stations. 

F. II. BlGELOW. 



THE CENSUS OF 1900 

By Dr P. H. Winks, 
Assistant Director of the Census 

The census impresses the imagination of the American people as 
something vast and mysterious simply hecause of the magnitude 
of the numbers with which it deals and the extent of territory 
which it covers. The elements that go to make up a census are 
very few and very simple. The whole suhject divides itself into two 
parts, collection of data and handling of data collected. 



THE CENSUS OF 1900 35 

The census act prescribes what inquiries shall be undertaken and, 
in large part, what questions shall be asked. These questions are 
asked of every individual, of every owner of a farm, and of every 
manufacturer in the United States, all of whom are required to answer 
under penalty of law, and are liable to prosecution if false answers 
are given. For this purpose a small army of investigators is essential, 
numbering in the aggregate fifty thousand people. The country is 
divided into three hundred districts, each of which is put under the 
control of a supervisor, and for each subdivision an enumerator is 
appointed, who is expected to make a return for from 2.000 to 4,000 
of population. The statistics of manufactures are severally collected 
by special agents. The enumerators are all required to complete their 
work in thirty days from June 1, 1900, while more time is given to 
collectors of statistics of manufactures. All these facts are reported 
on schedules, which constitute what may be called the raw material 
with which the Census Office has to deal. 

Second, the Census Office itself may be regarded as a great manu- 
facturing establishment in which this raw material is collected into 
printed books. Referring only to the population, it may be said that 
this conversion involves four distinct processes. In the first of these 
the facts recorded on the schedules are transferred to cards, one card 
for ever}' individual enumerated, in which holes are punched accord- 
ing to various possible answers to questions contained in the schedule- 
There are on each card two hundred and forty distinct positions which 
any particular hole may occupy. The position of the hole shows its 
significance. The second process is that in which these cards are 
counted by electricit} r . The electrical counting-machine used in the 
last census is the invention of Herman Hollerith. It is so contrived 
that needles passing through the punched holes on each card form 
electrical connections which operate clock-faced dials, showing num- 
bers corresponding to each individual fact or combination of facts. 
The third process consists in entering the number on result slips and 
combining them in tabular form as copy for the printer. The final 
process is the setting-up of the type and the preparation of the 
stereotyped plates for the press. 

All this is very simple in theory and in practice, but it involves 
an enormous amount of work. The work done in the last census 
was equivalent to between ('>,<)()() and 7,000 years for one man. The 

weight of the cards used was 200 tons, and of the schedules returned 

by the enumerators 150 tons. There is not a day during the continua- 



36 GEOGRA 1'IIK ' NOMENi 'LATURE 

tion of the census work in which it is not necessary to handle four or 
five tons of paper, while the number of clerks and other employes in 
the office is about 3,000. To organize and govern a force like this, 
for the most part untrained and collected almost at hazard from the 
general population, requires far more than ordinary intellectual and 
executive ability. The census act directs that this immense under- 
taking shall be completed in its main outlines by the 1st of July, 1902, 
or a little more than two years from the taking of the census. It 
may be doubted whether Congress knew what is implied in this 
requirement, but the Director and his assistants are determined to 
comply with it if possible. In order so to do certain conditions are 
essential, namely, a sufficient number of clerks, competent clerks, a 
proper house in which to carry on the work, and non-interference on 
the part of Senators and Congressmen with the government and 
discipline of the office. A building in which each of the above pro- 
cesses will be conducted in a single room on the ground floor, lighted 
by skylights in the roof, has been constructed in a convenient location 
for the especial use of the Census. 



GEOGRAPHIC NOMENCLATURE 

Mr K. T. Hill's discussion of " Porto Rico or Puerto Rico " raises a question 
which shun Id lie sett led on a rational ami permanent basis as quickly as possible, 
before the usage of tourists, newspapers and their reporters is more widely 
claimed as making precedent and constituting authority in the spelling and 
pronunciation of the geographical names of the countries that have lately come 
under the United States flag. 

Mr Hill, whose excellent volume on the West I m lies could scarcely have been 
written without a competent knowledge of the Spanish language, can hardly 
be serious in alleging that " Puerto " is unphonetic and unpronounceable by 
English-speaking lips. Still less seriously can he believe that the rules of the 
Geographic Board are intended to imply the adoption by all nations, untranslated, 
of such politically significant and often temporary compound names as "The 
United States," any more than they would require the German Empire to be 
called '" Das Deutsche Reich" in this country. That the supposed difficulty is 
largely imaginary is plainly shown by the fact that in California far more 
troublesome names than " Puerto" are spelled as in Spanish, and are yet cor- 
rectly pronounced by all but newcomers to the State. That during the late 
war the popular pronunciation of Santiago and San Diego was almost identical 
merely proves the great need uf reform in English spelling; it certainly does 
not argue either that we should adopt the mistake or change the spelling of 
either name. 



PUERTO RICO, NOT PORTO RICO 37 

Long before there was a Board on Geographic Names the American mission- 
aries in the Hawaiian Islands solved in asimpleand sensible fashion the almost 
insuperable difficulty of spelling the native names and language so as to have 
them correctly pronounced b} 7 English-speaking people and the world at large. 
They simply adopted for the vowel sounds the letters consistently representing 
them in the Spanish, Italian, and German (and Sanscrit) languages, which are 
also current in the Orient in the case of the lingua franca; although this has 
been disregarded by the English in India, and has thus given rise to endless 
mispronunciations of the geographical names of that country. The question 
now before us is whether we are to repeat this blunder in our new possessions 
instead of adopting the sensible expedient of the New England missionaries 
above referred to, thus gradually working toward a popular understanding of 
phonetic spelling. We might then hope to get rid, by degrees, of the present 
orthography (or rather kakography) of the English language. Those who fondly 
hope to see English become the world-language can hardly expect to realize 
their dream so long as the present inconsistent spelling is continued; since it 
not only constitutes an obstacle to the learning of the language by foreigners, 
but wastes an enormous amount of precious time in our schools in spelling exer- 
cises whose intrinsic educational value is about equaled by that of the inter- 
conversion of medifeval weights, measures, and coins that so long constituted a 
favorite and long-protracted theme in our school arithmetics. 

With the necessity of more language study in our schools, in order to conform 
to the requirements of the new territorial acquisitions and of Pan-American 
commerce as well, our people will soon use their practical common sense with 
good effect upon these questions, and will find that what has been possible in 
California and Hawaii can as well be done by the nation as a whole, even if our 
British brethren should persist in further mutilating the geographical names of 
their possessions. I trust that whether in the future we write and say Porto 
Rico ( Portuguese) or Puerto Rico (Spanish), the policy of the Geographic Board 
to conserve to the utmost extent possible the native pronunciation and spelling 
of names will be maintained as the only means of avoiding the most dismal and 
discreditable medley on our maps and in our official documents, and the indefi- 
nite aggravation of the evil which unprogressive jingoism, whether English or 
American, would impose upon ourselves, and especially upon posterity. 

E. VV. Hilgakd. 
University of California. 



PUERTO RICO, NOT PORTO RICO 

The controversy over the name of this island 1 1 v^ been brought to a highly 
sat isfactory termination by the President of the United States, who has decided 
that the official spelling shall be Puerto Rico, on the ground that thai is the form 
in use " by the people of the island themselves." This decision was rendered 
in response to a letter addressed to i lie President by the Chamnan of the I '. s. 
Board on Geographic Names, in which reference was made to the embarrass- 
ment arising from the non-uniformity of spelling prevailing in the executive 



38 GEOGR \l'lll< LITERATURE 

departments. The President's decision is gratifying not only as the final settle- 
ment of a question into the discussion of which an astonishing amount of feeling 
and even some misrepresentation have been imported, but also and especially 
for the reason that it isfounded specifically upon the fact that Puerto Rico is 
the form in local use, thus sustaining that important feature of the policy of 
the board which makes local usage the principal factor in the determination of 
the official spelling of geographic names by the government ofthe United States. 
That the official form will speedily come into general use can scarcely be doubted. 
That rich legacy of Spanish names, so euphonious and so full of meaning, which 
constitutes a large pari ofthe geographic nomenclature of California and the 
states and territories of the southwest, has been accepted by the American people 
without question, as have also the Indian names so common in many parts of 
the country. There is no demand for nor tendency toward the simplification 
of names far more difficult, both as to spelling and pronunciation, than Puerto 
Pico, ami the proper spelling of the name of our new island possession will un- 
doubtedly commend itself to the country at large. 

J. H. 



GEOGRAPHIC LITERATURE 

Hawaiian America: Something of its History, Resources, and Prospects. By Caspar 
Whitney. Pp.357, with maps and illustrations. New York and London: 
Harper & Bros. 1890. 

This is a history of the islands and a description of their present industrial, 
social, and political condition, written in an easy, entertaining style, and pro- 
fusely illustrated with admirable half- tone cuts. It contains five maps, four of 
which are BOmewhat detailed charts ofthe islands. II. G. 

The New-born Cuba. By Franklin .Matthews. Pp. 389. New York and Lon- 
don: Harper k Pro.-. L899. 
Tins is the story of the early stages of reconstruction in ( !uba, a page of his- 
tory not yet a year old. It tell- of the installation and working of the military 
government, of the sanitation ofthe towns, the relief of the starving, and the 
attitude ofthe people toward the future. The author sums up his conclusions 
at the end of the preface as follows: "Cuba's future, it is safe to predict, will 
reveal and justify the w ise and beneficent acts of the American officials during 
the most critical part of American occupation, namely, its beginning and early 
growth. . . . Whatever may lie t he result of later complications. American 
occupation of Cuba assuredly was started right." The hook is beautifully illus- 
trated with half-tone cuts. H. G. 

Practical Exercises in Elementary Meteorology. By Robert DeCourcy Ward, In- 
structor in Climatology in Harvard University. Pp. xiii + 199. Boston: 
(dun A Company. 1899. $1.25. 

The especial attention of teachers should he called to this important publica- 
tion, which is simply a manual for their guidance in teaching meteorology in 
high schools and academies. It is, in fact, an orderly publication ofthe many 



GEOGRAPHIC LITERATURE 39 

results of the wide experience of Professor Wm. M. Davis and Mr Ward in teach- 
ing meteorology during the past fifteen years at Harvard University. It may 
even he described as the natural outcome of the methods of teaching this sub- 
ject that the present writer inaugurated in 1881-'82 for the guidance of the pupils 
of the Normal School at Washington. Our ideas with regard to education, in 
meteorology as in every other branch of science, have now come to agree on one 
fundamental principle, viz., that personal experience, laboratory practice, and 
individual work are infinitely superior as methods of instruction to the old- 
fashioned study of text-books. School boards and parents must demand and 
teachers must be able to give this higher sort of instruction before it can become 
common in the schools. To this end Mr Ward's "Practical Exercises" will 
powerfully contribute. 

Mr Ward begins by requiring the pupil (and why not also the teacher?) to 
keep his own personal record of the weather. At first no instruments are to be 
used, but afterward the thermometer, anemometer, rain gauge, psychrometer, 
and barometer are successively introduced ; eventually the nephoscope, thermo- 
graph, and barograph appear. The use of these instruments of course implies 
that the observer shall have a general understanding of their methods of action, 
the errors to which they are subject, and the application of the numerical cor- 
rections that are given in the tables also published in Mr Ward's book. 

It is not designed or desired that the classes for which this book is written 
should go very deeply into the complex problems of meteorology. As Mr Ward 
says, complicated matters should be left to later years. "The teacher who has a 
fairly good knowledge of one comprehensive modern text book of meteorology 
will find himself sufficiently well equipped to answer the questions that will be 
put by the class." The first care of the teacher must be to stimulate good habits 
of observation and of careful generalization ; the search for hidden causes and 
true explanations must come later. "The interest of a class can easily be kept 
up throughout a school year by means of a progressive system of observations." 
The study of the weather should be begun in the lower, if not the lowest, grades 
of the ordinary grammar school. It is therefore necessary that teachers should 
have studied the subject previously in their normal schools, a fact that the em- 
ployes of the Weather Bureau have for twenty years past been constantly em- 
phasizing. Mr Ward believes that the higher instrumental observations, such 
as the barometer, psychrometer, and nephoscope, may be profitably undertaken 
in the high school years if not in the last year of the grammar school. 

Chapters IV- VI I deal with the weather map, its construction and use ; chap- 
ter IX with the direction of the wind in its relation to the gradient of pressure, 
and chapter X with the velocity of the wind. After this follow the chapters on 
cyclones and anticyclones, methods of studying the winds, the weather se- 
quences, tlic temperatures of the air at different heights, the diurnal variation 
of direction and velocity of wind. Finally, the observation and formal ion of 
dew, frost, ami clouds completes the book, which is full df good suggestions to 

both teachers and scholars. 

fortunately, meteorology may be studied in city Schools quite as satisfactorily 

as in the country, as has Ween abundantly demonstrated by every-day experi- 
ence in Brooklyn. 



40 CORRESPONDENCE 

The strong point of the present handbook is that it does not attempt to handle 
difficult scientific problems. It is adapted to every one's capacity, but it re- 
quires thai the pupil acquire habits of accurate observation and logical reason- 
ing, instead of t lie inaccurate and illogical processes that so commonly prevail- 
We believe that it will exert a strong and beneficial influence in the grammar 
and high schools of the country. 

Cleveland Abbe. 



CORRESPONDENCE 

Royal Scottish Geographfcal Society, Queen Street, 

Edinburgh, November SO, 1S99. 
The Editor, The National Geographic Magazine, Washington, D. C. 
Dear Sir: In your November number, opposite pa<_ r e 440, yon reproduce our 

map of northwest Canada and southwest Alaska, and this map is adduced as 
a proof that, "even after the Joint High Commission had been agreed upon, 
the best informed British cartographers had not b scorae aware of any conflict- 
ing claim," referring to the boundary between British territory and Alaska. 

First of all, I must admit that the map is ver\ badly printed [in our Maga- 
zine]. Nevertheless, if Mr Foster had examined it attentively he would have 
seen that the pink coloring, representing British territory, extends to the west 
of the line claimed by the United States; indeed, owing to had printing, it 
extends over some of the islands belonging to the United States. Of course, 
the copy in the Nationai Geographic Magazine does not show this, being in 
black and white only. 

We do not discuss at length political questions, hut as shown by one or two 
notes (on page f88, volume xi). we are quite aware of the questions in dispute 
relating to the boundary and should not publish a map that was erroneous in 
this respect unless due. as in this case, to had printing. 
Yours very truly, 

W. A. Taylor, 
Acting Editor, 77<< Scottish Geographical Magazine. 



The Russian Government is making preparation for the construction of a new 
railway from southern European Russia to Turkestan. This will considerably 
shorten the route from the commercial centers of Russia to Central Asia. 

On October 24 the government of General Castro announced to the represent- 
atives of foreign nations its exercise of governmental functions throughout the 
Republic of Venezuela. It was recognized as a de facto government by Great 
Britain on November 18 and by the United states on November 21. 

Tiik first grain elevator ever constructed in the Netherlands has just been 
completed at Amsterdam by the municipal government. Its total capacity is 
from Hi, OHO to 18,000 metric tons, its maximum receiving capacity 440,920 
pounds per hour, and its discharging capacity, on the harbor side, 220,460 
pounds per hour. 



NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 



President 
Alexander Graham Bell 

Vice-President 
W J McGee 



1897-1900 

Marcus Baker 
Henry F. Blount 
F. V. CoviEEE 
S. H. Kauffmann 
Willis L. Moore 
W. B. Powell 



Board of Blanagers 
1S9S-1901 
A. Graham Bell 
Henry Gannett 
A. W. Grekly 
John Hyde 
W J McGee 
F. H. Newell 



1S99-1902 
Charles J. Bell 
G. K. Gilbert 
David J. Hill 
C. Hart Merriam 
H. S. Pritchett 
J. Stanley-Brown 



Treasurer 
Henry Gannett 

Recording Secretary 
Joseph Stanley-Brown 



Corresponding Secretary 
Willis L. Moore 

Foreign Secretary 
Eliza Ruhamah Scidmore 



OFFICES OF THE SOCIETY 

Rooms 107, 108, Corcoran Building, Fifteenth and F Streets N. W., Washington, D. C. 
Office Hours: 8.30 A. M. to 5.00 P. M. Telephone No. 471. 

The National Geographic Magazine is sent free of charge to all members of the 
National Geographic Society 

Retoiisodatii for HenMip in tie National Geographic Society. 

Tin' following form is enclosed for use in the nomination of persons for member- 
ship. Please detach ■iml nil in blanks and send i*> the Secretary. 

Does: Resident, $ 5 ; Non-resident, $2 ; I. if'' membership, $50. If cheek be en- 
closed, please make it payable to order of the National Geographic Society, and, if at a 
distance from Washington, remit by New York draft or P. <>. money-order. 

1900 



To the Secretary, National Geographic Society, 

II 'asliington, P. < '. 

Please proposi 
occupation and addiu ; 



for~. membership in the So 



NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 








1" ' 



CHESAPEAKE & OHIO RY. 

""THE F. F. V. LIMITED is one of the finest trains hauled over any railway track in America. It runs 
■etween Cincinnati and New York, the route from Washington being over the Pennsylvania 
system. It has every modern convenience and appliance, and the dining-car service has no superior if 
it has an equal. The road-bed is literally hewed out of the eternal rocks; it is ballasted with stone 
from one end to the other ; the greater portion is laid with one-hundred-pound steel rails, and although 
curves are numerous in the mountain section, the ride is as smooth as over a Western prairie. 

One of the most delightful rides in all the route is that through the New River valley. The 
mountains are just low enough to be clad with verdure to the very top, and in the early spring every 
variety of green known to the mixer of colors can be seen, while the tones in autumn take on all the 
range from brown to scarlet. 

These facts should be borne in mind by the traveler between the East and the West. 

H. W. FULLER, Gen/. Pass. Agent Washington, D. C. 

The Fastest and Finest Train in the West 



IS 




The Overland Limited 



TO. 



<0 '« p£roS» kV 



^ UTAH and CALIFORNIA. 



FROM 16 TO 20 HOURS 
SAVED BY USING 



"THE OVERLAND ROUTE 

Double Drawing-Room Pullman Sleepers. 

Free Reclining Chair Cars. 

Pullman Dining Cars. 

Buffet Smoking and Library Cars. 



ft 



Send for Descriptive Pamphlet •■49-96,'' 
Folders and other Advertising Matter. 
(Mention thin publication.) 



E. L. LOMAX, 

General Passenger and Ticket Agent, 

OMAHA, NEB. 



Please mention this Magazine when writing to advertisers. 



XATIOXAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



THE CHICAGO, MILWAUKEE AND ST. PAUL RAILWAY 

Electric Lighted and Steam Heated Vestibuled Trains between Chicago, Mil- 
waukee, St. Paul and Minneapolis daily. 

Through Parlor Cars on day trains between Chicago, St. Paul and Minneapolis. 

Electric Lighted and Steam Heated Vestibuled Trains between Chicago and 
Omaha and Sioux City daily. 

Through Sleeping Cars, Free Reclining Chair Cars and Coaches between Chicago 
and Kansas City, Mo. 

Only two hours from Chicago to Milwaukee. Seven fast trains each way, daily, 
with Parlor Car Service. 

Solid trains between Chicago and principal points in Northern Wisconsin and 
the Peninsula of Michigan. 

Through Trains with Palace Sleeping Cars, Free Reclining Chair Cars and Coaches 
between Chicago and points in Iowa, Minnesota, Southern and Central Dakota. 

The finest Dining Cars in the World. 

The best Sleeping Cars. Electric Reading Lamps in Berths. 

The best and latest type of private Compartment Cars, Free Reclining Chair 
Cars, and buffet Library Smoking Cars. 

Everything First=class. First-class People patronize First-class Lines. 

Ticket Agents everywhere sell tickets over the Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul Ry. 

GEO. H. HEAFFORD, 

General Passenger Agent, Chicago, III. 



CALIFORNIA.. 

f~XF course you expect to go there this winter. Let 

me whisper something in your ear. Be sure that 

the return portion of your ticket reads via the . . . 

Northern Pacific-Shasta Route* 

Then you will see the grandest mountain scenery in 
the United States, including Ht. Hood and fit. Rainier, 
each more than 14,000 feet high, fit. St. Helens, 
fit. Adams, and others. You will also be privileged 
to make side trips into the Kootenai Country, where 
such wonderful new gold discoveries have been made, 
and to Yellowstone Park, the wonderland not only of 
the United States, but of the World. Close railroad 
connections made in Union Station, Portland, for Puget 
Sound cities and the east, via Northern Pacific. 

CHAS. S. FEE, 

General Passenger Agent, St. Pau>, Minn. 
Please mention this Magazine when writing t<> advertta 



NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



| 



\ 



PEOPLE like to read about the great 
and wonderful country of the 
Southwest ; of its quaint and curious 
towns, its ancient civilizations, its 
natural marvels. They like to get ac- 
curate information about California 
and the Pacific Coast. This is because 
most people want to some day see these 
things for themselves 



«$*£ 



A charming book covering these 
facts is issued by the 

PASSENGER DEPARTMENT 

OF THE 

Southern Pacific Railway, 

and will be sent to any one, postpaid, 
on receipt of TEN CENTS. 



«^W«^5 



% 
I 

v 



t 



THE BOOK IS ENTITLED 

I " Through Storyland 

to Sunset Seas/' 



N 

N 

S 
N 



<j£*j£ 



to 



You can get a copy by writin 

S. F. B. MORSE, 

General Passenger Agent, 
Southern Pacific, 

New Orleans, 

and sending 1 cts. to defray postage. 



<J£*J£ 



I 

* 3 

* m 

* '4 

i 
i 

I 

i 

I 

S 

: 



AND IS A WONDERFULLY HAND- 
SOME VOLUME OF 205 PAGES, 
WITH 160 ILLUSTRATIONS. . . . 

The paper used is FINE PLATE 
PAPER, and every typographical de- 
tail is artistic. It is a story of what 
four people saw on just such a trip as 



\ 



you would like to make y 

H 

i 



Please mention this Magazine when writing to advertisers. 



XATIOXAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



Burlington 




Leave BOSTON every Tuesday 
Leave CHICAGO every 'Wednesday 
Leave ST. LOUIS every Wednesday 



PERSONALLY CONDUCTED 
TOURIST PARTIES TO 

California 

Comfortable and Inexpensive 




C ELECT PARTIES leave Boston every Tuesday via Niagara Falls 
and Chicago, joining at Denver a similar party, which leaves St. 
Louis every Wednesday. From Denver the route is over the Scenic 
Denver and Rio Grande Railway, and through Salt Lake City. 

Pullman Tourist Sleeping Cars of a new pattern are used. They are thoroughly com- 
fortable and exquisitely clean, fitted with double windows, high-back scats, carpets, 
spacious toilet-rooms, and the same character of bedding found in Palace Cars. They 
are well heated and brilliantly lighted with Pintsch gas. Outside they arc of the regu- 
lation Pullman color, with wide vestibules of steel and beveled plate glass. Beautifully 
illustrated books on California and Colorado, with maps, train schedules and com- 
plete information can be had from any of the following Burlington Route agents: 



E. J. SWORDS 

Ii7!> Broadway 

NEW YORK CITY 

F. E. BELL 

J I 1 C'ark Street 

CHICAGO ILL 



W. J. O'MEARA 

::<)»; Washington Street 
BOSTON, MASS. 

C. D. HAGERMAN 

703 I'.uk HrnMing 

PITTSBURG, PA. 



H. E. HELLER 

«;:5U' Chestnut Street 

PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

J G. DELAPLAINE 

Broadway and Olive Streets 
ST. LOUIS, MO. 



Please mention ilii- Magazine when writing to advertisers. 



NATIONAL GEOGBA 1'IIH MAGAZINE 



Shortest Line 



TO 



St. Paul and Minneapolis 



and the Northwest 



Chicago 
Great 



Maple 
Leaf 
Route" 



Western 



RAILWAY 



For tickets, rates or any detailed information apply 
to your home" agent or write to 

F. H. LORD, 

Oen'l Pass'r and Ticket Agent, 
CHICAQO. 






mtototototoMiiM 



« 



A VITAL POINT 



IMPROVEMENT THE CIDER OF THE AG 




A TYPEWRITER'S 
PRINTING MECHANISM 

MUST BE SCIENTIFICALLY CON- 
STRUCTED. THIS POINT IS OF 
UTMOST IMPORT FOR 

EASY OPERATION AND 

PERFECT EXECUTION. 



Cbe Smith.. 
Premier 
typewriters 



Superior on This Point as Well as on All Others. 



ONLY CORRECT 
PRINCIPLES EMPLOYED. 



The Smith Premier Typewriter Co., 

SYRACUSE, N. Y. , U. S. A. 









Catalogues and Information at Washington Office, No. 519 Eleventh Street. 



Please mention this Magazine when writing to advertisers. 



NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE. 



THE AMERICAN FORESTRY ASSOCIATION. 

ORGANIZED APRIL, 1882. INCORPORATED JANUARY, 1897. 

OFFICERS FOR 1899. 

President: Hon. James Wilson, Secretary of Agriculture. 
First Vice-Pies ■ Dr B E. Fernow. Vice-Pres. for District of Columbia: George W. McLanahan. 

CorrespondingSec'y: F. H. Newell. Recording Secretary and Treasurer: George P. Whittlesey. 

The object of this Association is to promote : 

i. A more rational and conservative treatment of the forest resources of this continent. 
2. The advancement of educational, legislative, and other measures tending to promote this object. 
» The diffusion of knowledge regarding the conservation, management, and renewal of forests, 
the methods of reforestation of waste lands, the proper utilization of forest products, the plant- 
ing of trees for ornament, and cognate subjects of arboriculture. 
Owners of timber and woodlands are particularly invited to join the Association, as well as are all 
persons who are in sympathy with the objects herein set forth. 

Life Membership, $50. Annual Membership, $2.00. 

mrAnrCTrD thk official organ of 

rUnto I tn : the American forestry association. 

A monthly magazine devoted to Arboriculture and Forestry, the care and use of 
forests and forest trees, and related subjects. 

Subscriptions, $1.00 a Year. (Furnished gratis to members of the Association.) 

Address all communications to 

Corcoran Building, Washington, D. C. 



HENRY ROMEIKE'S BUREAU OF PRESS CUTTINGS, 

no Fifth Avenue, New York, 

Reads every paper of importance published in the United States, and through its 
European agencies in London, Paris, Berlin, and Vienna every paper of importance 
published in Europe and the British Colonies. One subscription on any given sub- 
ject will brino- notices from the United States, and if desired also from the European 
papers. Write for terms - 

WOODWARD h LOTHROP 

invite attention to their selections and importations in desirable 

merchandise for the present season, 

comprising in part 

Paris and London Millinery, Silks, Velvets, 
High-class Dress Goods, Ready-to- Wear 
Outer Garments for Women, Girls and Boys, 
Hand-made Paris Lingerie, Corsets, Infants' 
Outfittings, Hosiery, Laces, Ribbons, Em- 
broideries, Linens, Upholstery Goods, Books, 
Stationery, Card Engraving; also Paris, 
Vienna, and Berlin Novelties in Leather and 
Fancy Goods, Sterling Silver Articles, Lamps, 
Clocks, Bronzes, etc , for Wedding Gifts .... 

10th, 11th and F Streets, Washington, D. C. 

Please mention this Magazine when writing to advertise 



NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



NEW GEOGRAPHICAL BOOKS 
Carpenter's Geographical Reader — South America . . $0.60 

A personally conducted tour through the most characteristic parts of the Continent. 

Children visit the different countries and observe the people in their homes and at their 

work. They learn much of the natural wealth of the countries, of the curious animals o' 

the different zone-, and of the wonderful flowers and trees of the tropics. Written in familiar 

ational style. Colored maps and beautiful illustrations. 

Oilier Books of the Scries. 

Carpenter's Geographical Reader — North America . $0.60 

Carpenter's Geographical Reader — Asia .... .60 

THE NATURAL GEOGRAPHIES 

Natural Elementary Geography .... .60 

Natural Advanced Geography ..... 1.25 

Tli. have met with the most astonishing success of any geographies 

published and are now used in nearly all the leading schools throughout the country. They 
are the oulj igraphies having corresponding maps drawn on the same scale and 

showing the relative size ol countries. Other new featu 



Send price and receive, postpaid, copies of these valuable books 

AMERICAN BOOK COMPANY 

NEW YORK CINCINNATI CHICAGO BOSTON ATLANTA PORTLAND, ORE 



SEZINJD TO TMEl 

MACMILLAN COMPANY 

For the LATEST TEXT-BOOKS and WORKS OF REFERENCE 

ON EVERY BRANCH OF SCIENCE BY 

LEADING AUTHORS. 

PROF. I.. H. BAILEY (Cornell University), PROF. NICHOLS and his Colleagues (De- 

works <.ii I: . / ulture and Botany partment of Physics, Cornell Univ.), in Physics, 

PROF. THORP (Mass. Inst. Tech.), on Indus- Electricity, etc. 

trial Chemistry. J.;..-" net. 

PROF. PACKARD (Brown Univ.), on Entomology, 
$4.50 net. 



PROF. LAMBERT (Lehigh University), on Dif 
ferential and Integral Calculus. $1.50 net. 



PROFS. HARKNF.SS an,, MK.KI.KY (Bryn rROF IACHMAX ( UnU , of Oregon), The 

Mawr and Haverford), Theory oj Analytic Spirit 0/ Organic Chemistry. $i. 5 ouet. 
Functions. $3.00 net. 

PROF. DAVENPORT (Harvard University). PROF. TARR (Cornell Univ.), Physical Geogra- 

Experimental Morphology. Vol. I, (2.60; Vol phy, Geology, etc. 

II, $2.00. 

PROF. HENRY P. OSBORN (Columbia Univ.)> PROF. CoURKY (Tufts College), Dictionary ol 

Editor of the Columbia Biological S Chemical Solubilities. 

These are a few only of the names represented in the Catalogue or the New 
Announcement List sent free). 

THE MACMILLAN COMPANY, Publishers, NEW YORK. 



Please mention this Magazine when writing to advertise) s. 



NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



The Leading Scientific journal of America 

SCIENCE 

A JOURNAL DEVOTED TO THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE. 

PUBLISHED EVERY FRIDAY. 

Annual Subscription, $5.00. Single Copies, 15 Cents. 



From its first appearance, in 1883, Science has maintained a repre- 
sentative position, and is regarded, both here and abroad, as the leading 
scientific journal of America. 

Its Editors and Contributors come from every institution in this country 
in which scientific work of importance is accomplished, including Harvard, 
Yale, Columbia, Pennsylvania, Johns Hopkins, Cornell, and California 
Universities, among others. 



EDITORIAL COMMITTEE. 

S. Newcomb, Mathematics ; R. S.Woodward, Mechanics ; E.C. Picketing, Astronomy; 
T. C. MENDENHADL, Physics ; R. H. THURSTON, Engineering ; IkaRemsEn, Chemis- 
try ; J. Lfi ConTE, Geology ; W. M- Davis, Physiography ; Hknry F. Osborn, 
Paleontology; W. K. BROOKS, C. Hart Merriam, Zoology; S. II. 
Scudder, Entomology ; C. E. Bessey, N. L. BriTTON, Botany ; C. S. 
MiNOT, Embryology, Histology ; H. P. Bowditch, Physiology ; 
J. S. BILLINGS, Hygiene ; J. McKEEN CatTELL, Psychology ; 
J. W. PoWELL, Anthropology. 



NEW AND POPULAR SCIENTIFIC BOOKS. 



HARDIN 

The Liquefaction of Gases. Its Rise 
ami Development. By Willet L,. 
Hardin, Ph D., University of Penn- 
sylvania. Cloth, i2mo, $1.50. 

A popular yet complete account of the methods 
in the liquefaction of air, among other 
gases. 

GANONG 

The Teaching Botanist. A Manual 
of information upon Botanical In- 
struction, together with Outlines and 
Directions T r a Comprehensive Ele- 
mentary Course. By William F. 
lONG, Ph.D., Smith College. 

Cloth, 1 2mo, $1.10 ml. 

a manual of information upon botanical in- 
struction, witii outlines and directions for an 
elementary coi 



MACBRIDE 

The Slime Moulds. A Handbook of 
North American Myxomycetes. By 
Thomas II MACBRIDE, Professor of 
Botany, University of Iowa. 
Cloth, 121110. 

A list of all species described in North 
America, including Central America, with an- 
notations. 

SUTER 

Handbook of Optics. For Students 
of Ophthalmology. By William N. 
Suter, M. I)., National University, 
Washington, D. C. 

1 loth, [2mo, $1.00 "''/■ 
Aim- ightintol lie phenom' 

ena ol refra I i< m is ipplied i<> ophl halti 
1 |ian ca lib obtained fn im the usual 1 1 
, . 



THE MACMILLAN COMPANY, Publishers, NEW YORK. 



Please mention this Magazine when writing to advertisers. 



NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



APPLETON'S 

GEOGRAPHICAL SERIES. 



Edited by H. J. MACKINDER, M. A., Student of Christ Church, 

Reader in (ieography in the University of Oxford, 

Principal of Reading College. 



series will consist of twelve volumes, eacli being an essay descriptive 
of a great natural region, its marked physical features, and the life of its people. 
Together the volumes will give a complete account of the world, more especially 
as the field of human activity. 

The series is intended for reading rather than for reference, and will stand 
removed on the one hand from the monumental work of Recius, and on the 
other from the ordinary text-book, gazetteer, and compendium. 

Bach volume is to be illustrated by many maps printed in colors and by 
diagrams in the text, and it will he a distinguishing characteristic of the series 
that both maps and diagrams will he drawn so that each of them shall convey 
salient idea, and that together they shall constitute a clear epitome of the 
writer's argument. With a like object, the pictures also will be chosen so as 
to illustrate the text and not merely to decorate it. A detailed announcement 
of this important series will be presented later. 

List of the Subjects and Authors. 

Britain and the North Atlantic. By the Editor. 

Scandinavia and the Arctic Ocean. By Sir CLEMENTS R. Markham, 
K. C. B., P. R. S., President of the Royal Geographical Society. 

The Romance Lands and Barbary. By Ei.iskk RbcluS, author of the 
"Nouvelle Geographie Universelle." 

Central Europe. By Dr. JOSEPH I'artsch, Professor of Geography in 
the University of I'.reslau. 

Africa. By I »r. J. Scott Kit. til. Secretary of the Royal Geographical 
Society ; Editor of " The Statesman's Year-Hook." 

The Near East. By D. G. HOGARTH, M. A., Fellow of Magdalen Col- 
lege, Oxford ; Director of the British School at Athens; Author of "A 
Wandering Scholar in the Levant." 
7. The Russian Empire. By Prince Krai-otkin, author of the articles 

" Russia" and " Siberia" in the Encyclopedia Britannica. 
:;. The Far East. By Archibald Lijti.i 

India. By Sir T. HUNGBRFORD HOUHCH, K. C. I. E-, C. B., R. E., Su- 
perintendent of Indian Frontier Surveys. 

10. Australasia and Antarctica. By Dr. H. 0. FORBES, Curator of the 

Liverpool Museum ; bite Curator of the Christ Church Museum, N. Z. ; 
Author of "A Naturalist's Wanderings in the Eastern Archipelago." 

11. North America. By Prof. I. ix., University of Michigan. 

12. South America. By Prof . John C. Brounek, Vice-President Lelaud 

nford Junior University. 

Maps by J. G. Bartholomew. 

D. APPLETON & CO., Publishers, 

NEW YORK. 



mention this Magazine when writing to advertisers. 



XATIOXAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



IMPORTANT ANNOUNCEflENT ! 

THE 

INTERNATIONAL 
GEOGRAPHY. 

The last few years have proved so rich in geographical discov- 
eries that there has been a pressing need for a resume of recent ex- 
plorations and changes which should present in convenient and 
accurate form the latest results of geographical work. The addi- 
tions to our knowledge have not been limited to Africa, Asia, and 
the Arctic regions, but even on our own continent the gold of the 
Klondike has led to abetter knowledge of the region, while within 
a short time we shall have much more exact geographical informa- 
tion concerning the numerous islands which make up the Philippines. 
The want which is indicated will be met by The International Geog- 
raphy, a convenient volume for the intelligent general reader, and 
the library which presents expert summaries of the results of geo- 
graphical science throughout the world at the present time. 

Seventy authors, all experts, have collaborated in the production 
of The International Geography. The contributors include the lead- 
ing geographers and travelers of Europe and America. The work 
has been planned and edited by Dr. H. R. Mill, who also wrote 
the chapter on The United Kingdom. Among the authors are : 

Professor W. M. Davis (The United States), 

Dr. Fridtjof Nansen (Arctic Regions), 

Professor A. Kirchhoff (German Empire), 

Mr. F. C. SELOUS (Rhodesia), 

Professors de L apparent and Raveneau (France), 

Sir Clements R. Markham, F. R. S. (Ecuador, Bolivia, and Peru), 

Sir John Murray, F. R. S. (Antarctic Regions), 

Count PFEIL (German Colonies), 

Mr. James BrycE, M. P. (The Boer Republics), 

Sir II. II. Johnston, the late Sir Lambert Playfair, 

Sir P. J. Goldsmtd, Sir Martin Conway, 

Sir George s. Robertson, Sir William MacGregor, 

Sir Charles Wilson, ['. R. S. ; the Hon. I). W. Carnegie, 

Airs. Bishop, Dr. A. M. W. Downing, F, R. S. ; 

Dr. J. vScOTT KELTIE, and 

Mr. G. G. CHISHOLM, the editor of the Times Gazetteer. 

The book is illustrated by nearly five hundred maps and diagrams, which 
have been specially prepared. It is designed to present in the compact limits 
of a single volume an authoritative conspectus of the science of geography 
and the conditions of the countries at the cud of the nineteenth century. 

D. APPLETON & CO., Publishers, 

72 Fifth Avenue, New York. 

Please mention thie Magazine when writing to advertisers 



NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



DOUBLEDAY & McCLURE CO. 

141-155 East 25th Street, New York. 



The United States of Europe. W. T. Stead 

ON THE EVE OK THE PARLIAMENT OF PEACE. 

Mr. Stead's recent talks with the Czar and with all the great European statesmen 
lend much value to this timely review of current politics, written with special reference 
to the Russian Peace Rescript and American "Expansion." It covers such pertinent 
maiu-rs as America's task in Cuba and the Philippines, the "Chinese Puzzle," South 
African Problems, the Pashoda Muddle, the Concert of Kurope and its work in Creteand 
Candia, and soon, with many suggestive forecasts. 

Size, 5'j \ s ' 4 : pages, 468; over 100 portraits, maps, and illustrations; binding, cloth. 
Price, $2.00. 

Sketches in Egypt. Charles Dana Gibson. 

" Egypt," says Mr. Gibson, "'has sat for her likeness longer than any other coun- 
try." The recent important events that have turned all eyes toward the Upper Nile 
have not disturbed in the least the ancient composure and serenity of the Land of the 
Pharoahs, and few countries offer such a tempting field to the artistic pen. Mr. Gibson's 
forceful and suggestive drawings are well reinforced by his written impressions — more 
complete than he has ever before published— and the whole makes up a uniquely in- 
teresting record, from an artist who occupies a peculiar position among us. It is the real 
Egypt from a new Standpoint. No pains have been spared to produce a true art work, 
giving really adequate presentations of Mr. Gibson's drawings. 

Size, 7 ' 4 \ io'j; cloth decorated; pages, 150; type, 12 point. Regular edition, $3.00 
net. Edition de Luxe, 250 signed and numbered copies, each accompanied by a portfolio 
containing art proofs of ten of the most important pictures, on Japan silk tissue and 
mounted on plate paper suitable for framing. Price per copy, $ 10.00 net. As soon as 
ACTUALLY PUBLISHED THE PRICK ON ALL DE Ll'XK COPIES NOT SUBSCRIBED FOR WILL 
BE RAISED. 

From Sea to Sea. Rudyard Kipling. 

35th THOUSAND. 

This is an authorized edition of the collected letters of travel which Mr. Rudyard 
Kipling has written at various times between 1889 and 1898, and has just edited and 
revised. It includes hitherto unpublished matter, as well as an accurate text of the 
"American Note-,." with " Letters of Marque," " The City of Dreadful Night," "The 
Smith Administration," etc., etc. 

Even Mr. Kipling never wrote anything more entirely irresistible than are, for in- 
stance, his letters on Japan. The ludicrousness of the Japanese " heavy cavalry," the 
fascinating O-Toyo, the cherry blossoms, and the wonderful art which permeates the 
daily life of natural Japan — all these things become permanent in the reader's mind and 
can never be forgotten; and they show a side of the author which is not at all promiuent 
in most of his other work. 

Size, 5x7)4; two volumes in box; pages, S60; type, 10 point; binding, cloth. 
Price, f 2.00. 

Please mention this Magazine when writing to advertisers. 



XATIOXAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



The American Anthropologist. 

The only American magazine devoted to the science of Anthropology ; 
published at the National Capital. No one interested in anthropology in any 
of its branches can afford to be without it. Subscribe today. 



Handsomely Printed and Illustrated. Published Quarterly. Four Dollars a Year. 

Address: THE AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGIST, 

G. P. Putnam's Sons, 27 and 29 West 23d Street, New York City. 




1 ./ 



0? _,,ra£ 



s. / 




A ]'i ■ t.1 j I long r of the staff of the Washington E> ning Sla , r< ign d 

his position to go to Guatemala Be fori hi lefl Washington he had been a firm believer in thi 

in.-. i ii qa p i md tool lot of them with him I 

■ I ner, wh ich Bails fi Ban Fi :o md to] 

Central A rica, by making known to him thi mai I irtm of R-I-P-A-N 

medical wonder of the centui i the captain's enthu i In ["abides 

and that the 1 ilmles 

now known most fuvorably throughout Central Am R Tabuh q 

compose t he mind, I ion, and invi Om 

WANTED [-1 3 will in .i benefit. Tl pain ind 

prolong lifi On< R-I-P-A-N-8 on the pai 

R-I-P-A-N-S. 10 fi for 18 .•.'in be had Pen 

od one I hout and testimoi n m tiled to any ad o I he 

Ripans < hemical Co., lew } ork. 



Please mention tliis Magazine when writing to advertisers. 



.V. I TIONA I ' . 1-lnaRAPHIC M. IGA ZINE 



LECTURE COURSES 



OF THE 



NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY. 






The program of the lectures for each month and all other announcements 
by the Society will be published regularly in the National Geographic 
Magazine. 

THE POPULAR COURSE, 

delivered in the 
FIRST CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH, TENTH AND G STREETS NORTHWEST, 

on alternate Friday evenings at 8 o'clock. 

January 5. — British South Africa and the Transvaal . . Col. F. F. Hilder, 

Bureau of American Ethnology. 

January 12. — The Samoan Islands Mr Edwin Morgan*, 

Secretary Samoan Commission. 

January 26. — The More Civilized Filipinos . . Hon. Dean C. Worcester, 

Of the Philippine Commission. 

February 9. — Explorations on Yaugste Kiang . Mr Wm. Barclay Parsons, C. E. 

Surveyor of the railway route through the Yangste Kiang vallev. 

February 23. — From the Andes through Bolivia and Back . Hou. Wm. Eleroy Curtis 

Ex-Director of the Bureau of American Republics. 

March 9. — Manchuria Mr M. SERGEY Fkiede, C. E. 

March 23.— The Venezuelan Boundary .... Mr Marcus Baker. 

*The International Geographic Congress . Gen. A. W. Greei.y, U. S. A. 

* The Missions of California . . . Mr J. Stanley-Brown. 
*Cuba Mr George Kennan. 

* Presidential Address . . . Dr Alexander Graham Beu. 



* The date to be announced later. 



NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



THE TECHNICAL COURSE, 

delivered in the 

ASSEMBLY HALL OF COLUMBIAN UNIVERSITY, FIFTEENTH AND H STREETS 

NORTHWEST, 

on Friday evenings at 8.15 o'clock. 

January 19. — The Black Hills of South Dakota ... Mr N. H. Darton, 

U. S. Geological Survey. 

February 2.— Explorations around the Arctic Circle . . Dr Frank Russell, 

Harvard University. 

February 16. — How Geographic Environment has Shaped American History, 

Mr J. W. Redway, Geographer. 

March 2. — The Geographic Distribution of Seed Plants . Prof. John M. Coulter, 

Chicago University. 

March 16.— The Roman Forum Prof. Mitchell Carroll, 

Columbian University. 

March 30. — Subject not yet announced Dr Wm. M. Davis, 

Harvard University. 

* The Dykes of Holland Gerard H. MaTThes, 

U. S. Geological Surve\'. 
*The Floods of the Ohio and Mississippi Valleys . H. C. Frankenfield, 

U. S. Weather Bureau. 



* The date to be announced later. 



THE LENTEN COURSE. 

The subject of this course is The Growth of Nations, as illustrated by the geo- 
graphic and social development of leading European nations. This course of six 
lectures has been projected with the view of bringing out the elements of national 
power, and emphasizing the importance of individual character and of natural con- 
ditions in shaping national growth. The course will be complementary to that of last 
season on "The Growth of the United States." The lectures will be delivered in 

COLUMBIA THEATER, F STREET NEAR TWELFTH, 
4.20 to 5.30 p. m., on Tuesday afternoons, during March and April. 

March 6. — The Netherlands ..... Professor J. Howard Gore, 

Columbian University. 

(With a General Introduction by the President. 1 

March 13. — France . Professor Jean C. Bracq, 

Vassar College. 

March 21.* — Austria-Hungary Professor WlUJAM /.. R.IPLEY, 

Massachuael ts 1 nsl il u( e o( I'ei h ui 

March 27. Germany ....... Professor John I,. Swell, 

Howard 1 nlvi rsity. 

April 3.— England Dr. Edwin D. Mead, 

1 ..in -A Qngland Magazine 

April ro.— Russia Professor Edwin a. Grosvi 

a in hi 

* Prof. Ripley's lecture on Austria-Hungary will be delivered on Wednesday, 
bour, 



NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



$*- SOUTHERN RAILWAY 

^ GREATEST SOUTHERN SYSTEM, 

TO ALL POINTS SOUTH, SOUTHEAST, AND SOUTHWEST. 

Through Pullman Drawing Room Sleeping Cars from New 
York and Washington to Now Orleans, Memphis, Port 
Tampa, .Jacksonville, Aogtista, and Intermediate Points — 
First-ClasM Day Coaches— lMniug Car Service. 

Fast Trains for the SOUTH leave Washington Daily at 11.15 A. M., 9.50 
P M.. and 10.45 P. M. 

Through Tourist car on the 10.45 P. M. Train every Monday, "Wednesday, 
and Friday for Texas, Arizona, and California points, without change. 

Direct line to the Summer Resorts in Virginia and the Carolinas and the 
"Winter Resorts of Florida. Gulf Coast, Texas, Mexico, and California. 

Direct Through Car Line to and from Asheville. Hot Springs, and other 
Western North Carolina points— THE LAND OF THE SKY.' 

The "New York and Florida Limited," the finest train in the world, will resume 
service January lb, 1900, leaving Washington at 6.35 P. M. daily except Sunday. Solid 
train to Florida. Dining Car Service. 

For Map Folders. Winter Homes Guide Book, and Book on "ASHEVILLE 
AND THEREABOUTS write to— 

A. S. THWRATT, Kastern Passenger Agent, 271 Broadway, New York, N. Y. 
J. C. HORTON, Passenger Agent, 201 E. Baltimore Street, Baltimcre, Md. 
L. S. BROWN. General Accent, 705 Filteenth St. N. W., Washington, D. C. 
\\. H. DOLL, Passenger Agent, Norfolk, Va. 

S. H. HARDWICK. Assistant General Passenger Agent, Atlanta, Ga. 

C. A. BKNSCOTER. Assistant General Passenger Agent, Chattanooga, Tenn. 

W. H. TAYLOE, Assistant General Passenger Agent, Louisville, Ky. 

J. M. CULP, Traffic Manager. W. A. TURK, General Passenger Agent, 

Washington. D. C. 

The Mutual Life Insurance Co. 

OF NEW YORK, 

RICHARD A. McCURDY, President, 

Is the Largest Insurance Company in the World. 



The Records of the Insurance Department of the State of New 

York SHOW THAT The Mutual Life 

Has a Larger Premium Income - - - ($39,000,000) 

More Insurance in Force ($918,000,000) 

A Greater Amount of Assets .... ($235,000,000) 

A Larger Annual Interest Income - - - ($9,000,000) 

Writes More New Business .... ($136,000,000) 

And Pays More to Policy-holders - - ($25,000,000 in 1896) 

THAN ANY OTHER COMPANY. 

It has paid to Policy-holders since I MQirfififiionoo 

its organization, in 1843, | " " *«7,OOa,l»a.29 

ROBERT A. GRANNISS, Vice-President. 
WALTER R. GILLETTE. General Manager. FREDERIC CROMWELL, Treasurer. 

ISAAC F. LLOYD, Second Vice-President. EMORY McCLINTOCK, Actuary. 

WILLIAM J. EASTON, Secretary. 



Please mention this Magazine when writing to advertisers. 



SPECIAL ANNOUNCEMENT. 



The National Gkographic Magazine has a few unbound volumes for 
the years 1896, 1897, and 1898. Each volume contains numerous maps and 
illustrations and much valuable geographic matter. It is impossible to give 
the contents of each volume, but the following subjects show their wide 
range and scope : 

Vol. VII, 189(5: Russia in Europe, by the late Hon. Gardiner G. Hubbard; 
The Scope and Value of Arctic Exploration, by Gen. A. W. Greely, U.S.A. ; Venezuela, 
Her Government, People, and Boundary, by William E. Curtis; The So-called 
Jeanette Relics, by Win. H. Dall ; Nansen's Polar Expedition, by Gen. A. W. Greely, 
U.S.A.; The Submarine Cables of the World (with chart 49x30 inches); Seriland, 
by W J McGee and Willard D. Johnson; The Discovery of Glacier Bay, Alaska, by 
E. R. Scidmore; Hydrography in the United States, by F. H. Newell; Africa since 
1888, by the late Hon. Gardiner G. Hubbard ; The Seine, The Meuse, and The Moselle, 
by Prof. Wm. M. Davis; The Work of the U.S. Board on Geographic Names, by Henry 
Gannett; A Journey in Ecuador, by W. B. Kerr; Geographic History of the Piedmont 
Plateau, by W J McGee; The Recent Earthquake Wave on the Coast of Japan, by E. R. 
Scidmore; California, by Senator Geo. C. Perkins; The Witwatersrand and the Revolt 
of the Uitlanders, by George F. Becker; The Sage Plains of Oregon, by F. V. Coville. 

Vol. VIII, 1897: The Gold Coast, Ashanti and Kumassi, by Geo. K. French ; 
Crater Lake, Oregon, by J. S. Diller ; Storms and Weather Forecasts, by Willis L.Moore ; 
Rubber Forests of Nicaragua and Sierra Leone, by Gen. A. W. Greely, U.S.A. ; A Sum- 
mer Voyage to the Arctic, by G. R. Putnam; A Winter Voyage through the Straits of 
Magellan, by the late Admiral R. W. Meade, U.S.N. ; Costa Rica, by Senor Ricardo 
Yillafranca; The National Forest Reserve, by F. H. Newell; The Forests and Deserts of 
A rizona, by B. E. Femow ; Modification of the Great Lakes by Earth Movement, by G. K. 
Gilbert; The Enchanted Mesa, by F. W. Hodge; Patagonia, by J. B. Hatcher; The 
Washington Aqueduct and Cabin John Bridge, by Capt. D. D. Gaillard, U.S.A. 

Vol. IX, 1898: Three Weeks in Hubbard Bay, West Greenland, by Robert 
Stein; The Modern Mississippi Problem, by W J McGee; Dwellings of the Saga-Time 
in Iceland, Greenland, and Vineland, by Cornelia Horsford ; Articles on Alaska, by Gen. 
A. \V. Greely, I'.S.A., Hamlin Garland, E. R. Scidmore, Prof. Wm. H. Dall, and others; 
on Cuba, by Robert T. Hill, Frank M. Chapman, John Hyde, and Henry Gannett; on 
the Philippines, by Dean ('. Worcester, Col. F. F. Hilder, John Hyde, and Charl- 
Howe; American Geographic Education, by W J McGee; Origin of the Physical 
Features of the United states, by <t. K. Gilbert; Geographic Work of the General 
Government, by Henry Gannett ; Papagueria, by W J McGee ; The Hitter Rool Forest 
rve, by It. F. Goode; bake Chelan, by Henry Gannett; The Geospheres, by W .J 
McGee; Sumatra's West Coast, by D. <<. Fairchild; The Five Civilized Tribes in the 
Survey of Indian Territory, by 0. H. Fitch ; Cloud Scenery of the High Plains, by 
Willard D. Johnson; Atlantic Coast Tides, by M. S. W. Jefferson. 



Each volume may be had for $2.00. To obtain any of the 
above mentioned articles, send 25 cents in stamps, indicating 
merely the title of the article desired. 



107-108 Corcoran Building, Washington, D" C. 



THE 



Iftational (3eograpbic flfoaGa3ine 

AN ILLUSTRATED MONTHLY 



Editor: JOHN HYDE, 
Statistician of the U. S. Department of Agriculture 

Associate Editors 

General A. W. Grkkly, Marcus Baker, 

Chief Signal Officer, U. S. Army U. S.. Geological Survey 

WJ Mc<", Wilms l. Moore, 

Ethnologist in Charge, Bureau of Chief of the Weather Bureau, U.S. 

American Ethnology Department of Agriculture 

Henry Gannett, H. S. Pritchktt, 

Chief Geographer, U. S. Geological Superintendent of the U. S. Coast 

Sut and Geodetic Survey 

C. Hart Merriam, O. P. Austin, 

Chief of the Biological Survey, U.S. Chief of the Bureau of Statistics, 

Department of Agriculture U. S. Treasury Department 

David J. Hill, Charles h. Allen, 

istant Secretary of Stale Assistant Secretary of the Navy 

Eliza Ruhamah Scidmore, Carl Louise Garrison, 

Author of " Java, the Garden of Principal of Phelps School, IVash- 

the East," etc. ing/on, D. C. 



Assistant Editor: GILBERT H. GROSVENOR, Washington, D. C. 



The list of contributors to the National Geographic Magazine 
includes nearly every United States citizen whose name has become iden- 
tified with Arctic exploration, the Bering Sea controversy, the Alaska and 
Venezuela boundary disputes, or the new commercial and political questions 
arising from the acquisition of the Philippines. 

The following articles will appear in the Magazine within the next few 
months : 

" Russia," by Professor Edwin A. Grosvenor of Amherst College, Massachusetts. 

" The Venezuelan Boundary," by Mr Marcus Baker of the Venezuelan Commission. 

"The Samoau Islands," by Mr Edwin Morgan, Secretary of the Samoau Commission. 

"The Native Tribes of Patagonia," by Mr J. B. Hatcher of Princeton University. 

"British South Africa and the Transvaal," by Col. F. F. Hilder, Bureau of American 
Ethnology. 

"The Characteristics of the Filipinos," by Hon. Dean C. Worcester of the Philippine 
Commission. 

" Discoveries in the Fossil Fields of Wyoming in 1S99," by Prof. Wilbur C. Knight 
of the University of Wyoming. 

"Explorations on the Yangtse-Kiang, China," by Mr Wm. Barclay Parsons, C. E., 
surveyor of the railway route through the Yangtse-Kiang Valley. 




< ^ 



THE 



NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 

Vol. XI FEBRUARY, 1900 No. 2 



SOME GEOGRAPHIC FEATURES OF SOUTHERN PATA- 
GONIA, WITH A DISCUSSION OF THEIR ORIGIN 

By J. B. Hatcher 

Princeton University 

In the following pages I shall attempt to describe in as clear and 
concise a manner as possible the principal geographic features of that 
part of Patagonia lying beyond the 46th parallel of south latitude 
as they presented themselves to me during my travels in that coun- 
try the past three years while engaged chiefly in paleontologic and 
geologic researches in behalf of Princeton University. I shall also 
give a brief description of the geology of the region as a basis for 
a more extended discussion concerning the agencies which have 
contributed to produce the existing somewhat unusual, not to say 
unique, drainage systems of Patagonia. I shall not attempt an itin- 
erary of my explorations, in the progress of which I crossed and re- 
crossed the southern extension of the continent in many directions, 
nor shall I undertake to describe in detail the geography of any par- 
ticular part of the region. 

The attention of the traveler in Patagonia, if be is endowed with 
any of the instincts of a naturalist, is first attracted to the long line 
of cliffs that everywhere on the eastern coast rise boldly from the 
sea to a height of from 300 to 500 feet. While still far out at sea 
this is discernible to the experienced eye of the navigator, though to 
the landsman it may appear as a low cloud or fog-hank, to either of 
which illusions its usually unbroken summit and dull gray colors 
freely lend themselves. As the vessel approaches some one of the 
few harbors of this const, commonly located at the mouths of rivers, 
its true nature soon becomes apparent, and it develops as a great sea 



42 ' ■ / ' ^GRAPHIC l'i:. I TUB ES OF SO VTHERX P. 1 T. I G ONL 1 

wall stretching far away on either hand until lost in the northern 
and southern horizons. This line of bluffs extends throughout the 
entire eastern coast of Patagonia, with but occasional interruptions 
at the mouths of the few rivers that, flowing eastward from the Andes 
across the plains, discharge their waters into the Atlantic. 

The rocks forming tin- cliffs consist of alternating layers of sand- 
stones and clays, approximately though not entirely horizontal, of a 
prevailing light brown or gray color, and everywhere remarkably free 
from any faults or other disturbances. Although the color and litho- 
logical characters of the rocks are quite similar throughout the entire 
coast line, yet there is a decided difference in their age and origin, 
as shown by the fossils contained in them. Toward the north the 
entire series of strata belong to the Patagonian beds, of Middle Ter- 
tiary age and marine origin, and contain in great abundance the fossil 
remains of oysters, pectins, brachiopods bryozoans, etc., together 
with occasional bones and skulls of whales, dolphins, and other ceta- 
ceans, all bearing unimpeachable evidence as to their marine nature. 

These marine beds attain their maximum development in the 
region of San Julian, where they show a thickness of 900 feet. From 
tin- point they dip very gently to the southeast, as is demonstrated 
by the fad that the succeeding strata gradually disappear beneath 
the waters of the Atlantic as we proceed southward along the coast. 
So slight, however, is this southerly dip that for more than 100 miles 
only the Patagonian beds are seen in the bluffs; but at a point 
about 10 miles south of the Santa Cruz River a second series of rocks 
of somewhat lighter color and composed of usually softer materials 
appear at the summit conformably overlying the Patagonian beds. 

This second series of strata constitutes the Santa Cruz beds, of 
lacustrine and seolian origin. It contains the remains of that rich 
and unique assemblage of fossil birds and mammals concerning the 
age and relations of which there has been such wide discussion. 
Continuing southward along the coast the rocks of the Santa Cruz 
beds dip gently to the southeast, so that in the region of Co}' Inlet 
their lowermost strata have reached the water level, while the entire 
series forming the Patagonian beds are here submerged beneath the 
waters of the Atlantic. 

South of Coy Inlet, as far as Cape Fairweather, the bluffs are en- 
tirely composed of the Santa Cruz beds. At Cape Fairweather 
another series of rocks appears at the summit unconformabty over- 
lying the Santa Cruz beds and designated as the Cape Fairweather 



GEOGRA PHIC FEA TURES OF SO UTITERN PA TA G ONI A 43 

beds. They are of marine origin and contain, in great abundance, 
the remains of marine invertebrates. I should also add that through- 
out the entire extent of this coast the uppermost crest of the bluffs 
is composed of from 20 to 30 feet of unstratified boulders and cla}'s, 
constituting the great Shingle formation of Patagonia, distributed 
somewhat uniformly over almost the entire surface, and of probably 
combined ice and aqueous origin. 

With this hast}' survey of the eastern coast line, let us proceed into 
the interior. Ascending the bluff we emerge upon a broad, elevated 
plain, stretching westward to the base of the Andes and abruptly 
terminated on the east, as we have seen, by the lofty escarpments of 
the sea. Its surface, with a thin veneer of soil vainly endeavoring to 
conceal the rocks beneath, is scantily covered with grass. Occasional 
bushes, seldom attaining a height of more than five or six feet, appear 
in specially favored localities. Bands of guanaco, or South American 
camels, and flocks of rheas, the so-called ostrich, feed here in great 
numbers and provide the chief sustenance of the Patagonian traveler, 
as also of the Patagonian Indian. 

Scattered over the surface of the plains in considerable numbers 
are great depressions, or rather excavations, frequently several miles 
in diameter and from 100 to more than 1,000 feet in depth, as ob- 
served in some instances near the base of the Andes. The bottoms 
of these depressions are usually occupied by small saline lakes. In 
periods of drought, which occur annually in this region, usually from 
December to April, the volume of water in such lakes is much re- 
duced by evaporation, and beds of almost pure salt are precipitated, 
occasionally attaining a thickness of several feet. 

An examination of the depressions occupied by such lakes reveals 
the fact that the bluffs on one side are always much lower than those 
on the other sides, and, further, that the lower side always lies toward 
the present drainage system of the particular region in which the 
lake is situated. All, this leads to the inference that these are resid- 
uary lakes, left as confined bodies of water at the final elevation of 
the land above sea-level, and, further, that the depressions are rem- 
nants of former drainage systems, existing prior to the last submer- 
gence, and corresponding approximately, though not entirely, with 

those of today. 

Other features to be noticed are the broad, deep, transverse valleys 
that cross Patagonia from west to east and form the chief drainage 

Bystems. These are nil true valleys of erosion, and along their bot- 



44 GEOGRAPHIl FEATURES OF SOUTHERN PATAGONIA 

toms in mosl -•.ill How the streams by which they have been 

eroded; though in some instances, like the Desire and Coy i 
there are now only intermittent streams, while in the valley of San 
•Julian no stream at present ever flows, tin- waters of the original 
stream having been captured long since at a distance of about 100 
miles from the coast by a northern tributary of the Santa Cruz. The 
Latter, considering the volume of its waters, is much the most impor- 
tant of all the rivers of the plain- of southern Patagonia. 

Another feature characteristic of these plains is the series of escarp- 
ments, often several hundred feet in height, that terminates succes- 
sion of terraces, encountered at varying elevations as one proceeds 
from the coast inland westward toward the Andes, or also in crossing 
troin north to south any of the great transverse valleys. Such escarp- 
ments have a general trend somewhat parallel with that of the pres- 
ent coast line, but extend inland for many miles along either side of 
the valleys of all the more important watercourses, ae do also the 
• nt bluffs of the sea. They are perhaps remnants of bluffs 
formed along the coast at different stages during the former depres- 
sion and late elevation of the land, which would appear to have 
been intermittent and of which we have exhibited in the present 
bluffs of the Bea the lac Between each successive escarpment 

a narrow, level plain extend-, gradually increasing in altitude to the 
westward. 

In many places over the plains the sedimentary rocks are covered 
with sheets of lava, which have usually had their origin in local dikes 
or volcanoes. Many of the latter rise high above the surrounding 
plain as imposing landmarks, serving alike to guide the traveler and 
lend variety to a rather monotonous landscape. These lava fields 
are most abundant over the central interior region, midway between 
the Andes and the coast, where they cover thousand- of square miles. 
In some instances they present a broad level surface of almost illim- 
itahle expanse, covered with highly vesicular scoriae, while at other 
times the surface over Large areas is carved into a confusing labyrinth 
of deep, almost inaccessible, canon-. In either case they present a 
most serious obstacle to the traveler. 

While these lava beds are most frequent over the central interior 
region, there is an important outlying area near the coast between 
the mouth of the Gallegos River and the eastern entrance to the 
strait of Magellan, with several extinct volcano.- and resulting 
lava streams, which appear to have been ejected at a comparatively 




BASALTH IVAL1 is CAROM 01 I FBIB1ITAB1 OF I BBOYO 010 — SHOWING PACE in I i-i.i DIBBECTBO Bl 
RABBOW. PKBFKNOICULAR CHASMS 



From a photograph by J. B. Hateht 



GEOGRA PHIC FEA TURES OF SO UTHERN PA TA G ONI A 47 

recent date. In some few instances the lavas of the great interior 
region extend westward quite to the base of the Andes, but as a rule 
the surface of the plain for a distance of some 30 to 40 miles eastward 
from the base of the mountains is free from lava. It has either never 
existed there or has been entirely swept away or covered over by 
glacial detritus, as has been observed in some few instances. 

That region lying between the western border of the lava beds and 
the foothills of the Andes is by far the most fertile of the Patagonian 
plains. Its surface, covered to a considerable depth with glacial de- 
posits, presents a series of ranges of low, rounded hills, left as terminal 
moraines by the receding glaciers. Such ranges of hills have a trend 
parallel with the base of the mountains, and are usually separated by 
broad stretches of meadow land, with numerous small glacial lakes, 
either occupying slight depressions in the meadows or, as more fre- 
quently seen, embraced by the low, rounded hillocks of the terminal 
moraines. These conditions are especially characteristic in this region 
over the bottoms and slopes of the great transverse valleys, but they 
extend also in many places out over the surface of the higher pampas- 

The rolling surface of this western plains region, abounding in wide 
pasture lands dotted over with sparkling lakes of pure, sweet water, 
presents a pleasing contrast to the semi-arid region near the coast, 
and affords a welcome relief to the traveler after a journey across the 
black, absolutely barren lava beds of the central plains. Its modest, 
unobtrusive beauty but emphasizes the grander scenery beyond, in- 
dications of which already appear in the distant ranges of the Andes, 
whose summits, buried deep in fields of snow and ice, are seen bril- 
liantly white against the intensely black background formed by the 
storm-clouds of the western sky. 

Entering the confines of the Andes, numerous rivers, deep rocky 
canons, broad open lakes of beautiful clear water, fed by glaciers that 
descend from the snow-fields at the summits, and all the other fea- 
tures characteristic of an intensely rugged, mountainous region, thrust 
themselves upon the attention and excite the wonder and admiration 
of the traveler. 

The country lying along and within the foothills of the Andes 
is in many respects the most interesting region in Patagonia, whether 
considered geographically or geologically. Taking advantage of any 
of the numerous valleys that extend westward from the western 
border of the Patagonian plains and penel rate not only the secondary 
but also the main range of the Audi's, finally emptying into the 



48 GEOGRAPHIC FEATURES OF SOUTHERN PATAGONIA 

Pacific, many facts may be observed not only bearing directly upon 
the structural and historical geology of the Amies, but also throwing 
much light on the agencies which have contributed to the peculiar 
topography and determined the unique position of the continental 
watershed at presenl existing in southern South America. 

I -:ty unique, for I believe it has no 'parallel elsewhere. That its 
true position was quite unknown and entirely unsuspected, even at 
the beginning of the last decade, is clearly demonstrated by the un- 
fortunate boundary dispute at present existing between Argentina and 
( 'Idle. This dispute, which even within the last year seriously threat- 
ened the peaceful relations of these two South Ameridan republics, but 
is now happily approaching a peaceful settlement through friendly 
arbitration, arose from an attempt by joint commissions appointed 
by the two governments to establish and properly mark an interna- 
tional boundary line extending northward from the 52d parallel of 
south latitude. In their work of delimitation these joint commis- 
sions wen- to be guided by the text of a treaty entered into by the 
two governments in l^ s l. which stipulated thai a line connecting the 
highest peaks of the Andes and dividing the waters of the Atlantic 
from the waters of the Pacific should constitute the international 
boundary line. 

An attempt at a practical application of the conditions of this 
treaty soon demonstrated its impossibility and developed the fact, 
previously unsuspected, that the continental watershed throughout 
the entire extent of Patagonia, excepting only a small area about the 
source of the Santa Cruz River, was not formed by the main range of 
the Cordilleras but lay far to the eastward and in many instance- 
extended even beyond the lowermost foothills of the mountains. It 
was clearly impossible, however good the intention- of the respective 
commissions might be, to comply with the conditions imposed upon 
them by a treaty based upon supposed geographical conditions which 
in reality do not exist, for no line can be drawn complying with the 
evident intentions and literal condition- of the treaty. But while the 
joint com mis-ions did little toward tracing the boundary line between 
their respective domains, yet they have done much to increase our 
knowledge of the geography of the interior region of central Pata- 
gonia, which until the last two years remained almost entirely un- 
known. 

The least frequented, and therefore least known, portion of Pata- 
gonia lies between the Santa Cruz River on the south and the 40th 






GEOGRAPHIC FEA TURES OF SO UTHERN PA TAGONIA 49 

parallel on the north, or approximately between the 46th and 50th 
parallels of south latitude. I visited this region in the summer of 
1896 and 1897, accompanied by Mr 0. A. Peterson. At that time 
neither the Argentine nor the Chilian commission had entered it, the 
labors of both having been confined to the more easily accessible dis- 
tricts to the north and south. , A glance, at any of the current maps 
will demonstrate how little indeed was then known of its interior. 
The few travelers who had previously visited it contented themselves 
with a journey up the Santa Cruz River to the lakes about its source, 
or at most with a trip over the old Indian trail leading from the 
mouth of the Santa Cruz River up the River Chico to within about 
60 miles of the base of the Ancles, and thence bearing almost due 
north over the plains to the head of the Senguer River and down the 
latter stream to the Chubut, never entering the mountains at any 
point on their journey. The whole was, at the time of my first visit, 
practically an entirely unexplored region, abounding in undiscovered 
and unnamed mountains, lakes, rivers, and glaciers, many of them of 
great size and exceeding beaut}^. 

In connection with my work it became absolutely necessary to give 
names to some of the geographic features discovered, especially in 
my field-notes. Some of these names I afterwards published with 
sketch maps, showing their location, accompanying preliminary 
papers relating chief!}' to the geology of the region. I endeavored as 
much as possible to avoid any attempt at a detailed geography of the 
region, realizing at the time the speedy completion of the infinitely 
more accurate and detailed geographic work of the Argentine Limit 
Commission, in charge of Dr F. P. Moreno, to whom more than to 
any other person we are indebted for all that is at present known of 
the geography of the interior of southern South America. I am 
pleased to see that my expectations have already been partially met 
by the publication in the Geographical Journal of a paper read by Dr 
Moreno before the Royal Geographical Society of London, accom- 
panied by a sketch map giving most of the more important geo- 
graphic features, and promising a larger map with more details in 
the near future. 

I am not only gratified to see that the few names given by me have 
been adopted by Dr Moreno, but T am also confirmed as to the wisdom 
of my forbearance to enter the field of the professional geographer, 
which might very easily have resulted in a confusing synonymy of 
important geographic names. 



50 QEOGRAPHH I'EA TUBES OF SOUTHERN PATAGONIA 

Since Dr Moreno's paper is doubtless easily accessible, I shall not 
attempt a detailed description of this interesting region, but shall 
briefly discuss the factors which have contributed to produce the 
existing unusual drainage conditions. I am the more easily impelled 
to this course, since some of the theories advanced by Dr Moreno in 
explanation of certain features described by him appear to me un- 
tenable. At any rate, they are not supported by most of the observa- 
tions made by myself during the past three years. 

A study of the southern Andes at any point reveals the fact thai 
they are composed of three distinct, parallel ranges, separated by two 
deep, narrow, Longitudinal valleys. Tbe middle of the three ranges 
is everywhere much higher than the two lateral ranges and may be 
reckoned as the principal range of the Andes. The western lateral 
range is at present partially submerged beneath the Pacific, but is 
still distinctly seen in the chain of islands extending all along the 
western coast. The western of tbe two longitudinal valleys is at 
present throughout the greater extent of Patagonia entirely sub- 
merged beneath tbe sea ami is now represented by the narrow sys- 
tem of rather deep channels that separates the islands from the main 
land and oilers ail almost continuously navigable inland waterway 
extending from tbe southernmost point of the Brunswick Peninsula 
to the |_M parallel of south latitude, or throughout more than twelve 
degrees, a distance of over 7<><» miles. 

Tbe eastern lateral range of tbe Andes is ^ean in the foothills that 
rise somewhat abruptly from the eastern plains to a height in places 
of some 6,000 or 7,<» »i> feet. They are composed almost entirely of 
Secondary and Tertiary sedimentary rocks, with occasional layers of 
intrusive basalts, tbe whole thrown up in a somewhat complicated 
system of folds of usually monoclines or anticlines terminating 
toward tbe west in a lofty escarpment, the crest of which overlooks 
the deep, narrow, and irregular, eastern longitudinal valle}' that sep- 
arates the eastern lateral range from the central main range of the 
Andes. In this eastern Longitudinal valley there is located a series 
of the most beautiful mountain lakes, extending northward in a 
Bomewhat broken chain from Pake Argentina, at the head of tbe 
Santa Cruz River, to the northern limits of Patagonia. At some dis- 
tance to the south of Pake Argentina the bottom of the valley has 
not been sufficiently elevated and it is here occupied, not by fresh- 
water lakes, but by numerous narrow arms of the Pacific, as seen in 
Past Hope Inlet, Obstruction Sound. Skyring and Otway waters. and 
Usele— Pay. opposite Sandy Point, in the Strait of Magellan. 




v BOM 01 BIO r s B i'i:. i iiurii 1 1 i.s 01 * M DEB 

From a photograph by ■/. B. Hatch r 



52 GEOGRAPHIC FEATURES OF SOUTHERN PATAGONIA 

In many places important streams enter this great longitudinal 
valley from the eastern plains and discharge their waters into the 
lakes, which in turn are emptied into the Pacific through rivers inter- 
secting the main range of the Andes. This is true of all the lakes of 
this region, with the one noted exception of hake Argentina and its 
affluents. The upper courses of the great transverse valleys of Pata- 
gonia are always directly opposite some of the larger of these tributary 
valleys, so that at such place- the continental divide is exceedingly low 
and inconspicuous. This condition, together with certain glacial phe- 
nomena, has led Dr Moreno to advance the theory that formerly all 
the lakes now found in the eastern longitudinal valley discharged 
their waters into the Atlantic, and that their diversion to the Pacific 
has been due to the damming of their eastern outlets with glacial 
drift. 

A careful examination of all the facts does not, I think, justify such 
an assumption. I have examined with considerable care several of 
the low continental divides about the eastern extremities of some of 
these lakes, and have never found the original rocks there covered to 
any considerable depth with glacial detritus. The great terminal 
moraines left by the former ice-cap could always he seen crossing the 
transverse valleys some distance to the eastward of the continental 
divide, where 1 have observed them to have a thickness of more than 
300 feet, as displayed in the bluffs of some of the streams which have 
cut their way through these moraines in their course to the Atlantic. 

A. more plausible explanation, it appears to me, is afforded by a 
consideration of the feature- at present existing throughout Patagonia 
and Tierra del Fuego in connection with a proper understanding of 
the relative land and sea areas that existed there during late Tertiary 
times, with an appreciation of the greater elevation which has taken 
place over northern than over southern Patagonia in recent times. 

from the present distribution of the rocks forming the marine Pata- 
gonian beds we know that during Middle Tertiary times the entire 
southern extremity of the continent excepting the higher peaks of the 
Andes was submerged beneath a shallow sea. That this sea was no- 
where very deep is shown by the character of the fossils, which are 
everywhere extremely abundant, and all belong to shallow water and 
littoral forms. The accumulation of the 900 feet of rocks now forming 
the Patagonian beds, containing throughout the fossil remains of char- 
acteristic -hallow-water forms, can only be explained by assuming 
that this region was undergoing a subsidence sufficiently gradual to 



GEOGEA PHIC FEA TTJRES OF SO UTHERN PA TA G ONIA 53 

just keep pace with the sedimentation going on over the bottom of 
the sea. After a time the rate of subsidence became less rapid or 
ceased entirely, and the shallow sea was gradually converted into a 
series of estuaries, lakes, and dry lands, in and over which were de- 
posited the Santa Cruz beds of lacustrine and seolian origin. For a 
long period, extending over late Miocene and earl}' Pliocene times, 
this region was elevated above the sea. During this long period of 
late Tertiary elevation the surface of the land was subjected to ero- 
sion, and the courses of all the more important valle} r s and drainage 
systems now existing were then determined. Toward the close of the 
Pliocene this entire region was again submerged beneath the sea for 
a short period, but sufficient for the deposition of the marine Cape 
Fairweather beds. During this second period of submergence the 
Andes would appear as a long archipelago of high mountainous 
islands. 

At the close of the Pliocene there began over this region a process 
of elevation, which, as has been shown, was much more considerable 
toward the north than in the south. This difference in the amount 
of elevation accomplished in the northern and southern regions has 
determined the presence of the series of fresh-water lakes, now found 
in the north in the same relative positions that are occupied farther 
south by the fiords and inlets from the Pacific. I have obtained ab- 
solute proof that this elevation in the north along the Andes has not 
been less than 5,000 feet, and that it has been much greater in the 
north than in the south and far greater along the Andes than over 
the plains. 

As this elevation proceeded, each of the transverse valleys, which, 
as we have already remarked, had their origin previous to the last 
submergence, would appear successively first. as straits connecting the 
two oceans, and next as valleys, with deep bays along the coast. The 
Strait of Magellan is the last or most southerly of these great trans- 
verse valleys, and still exists as a strait connecting the two oceans. 

Turning now to the eastern longitudinal valley, it will be seen that 
as the elevation progressed it would at first be broken up into a series 
of fiords and inlets toward the north still communicating with the 
Pacific through the deeper channels intersecting the main range of 
the Andes. In time such communications would be severed and the 
heads and arms of the fiords would be left as Lakes to discharge their 
waters into the Pacific by the last and deepest of the connecting chan- 
nels. We have thus represented between the Strait of Magellan and 



54 GEOGRAPHIC FEATURES OF SOUTHERN PATAGONIA 

Lake Argentina every stage in the development of the present lake 
systems of the southern Andes. 

A glance at one of Fitzroy's charts of the Magellan Strait instantly 
reveals the fact that it is much deeper in its western than in its eastern 
course. In fact, it is extremely shallow throughout its entire course 
from Useless Hay eastward to (ape Virgin, and only a comparatively 
slight elevation would here suffice to bring its bottom above sea-level 
and convert it into a valley connecting Tierra del Fuego with the 
mainland, and changing Useless Hay firsl into a fiord, and later into a 
lake as the elevation increased, sending its waters to the Pacific by 
way of the much deeper western channels of the straits. 

The same conditions that exist today in the Strait of Magellan have 
existed at some previous time over all the great transverse valleys of 
Patagonia, and an elevation similar to that winch has taken place 
moie to the northward would produce conditions along the course of 
this strait identical with those now existing farther north. So also 
an elevation of the region south of hake Argentina similar to that 
which has taken place ninth of this lake would convert Last Hope 
Inlet. Obstruction Sound, Skyring Water, and Otway Water from 
marine fiords connecting directly with the Pacific into a series of 
fresh-water lakes discharging their waters into the same ocean. 

At present Otway Water is separated front Cabeza del Mar, a small 
bay extending inland from the eastern extension of the Magellan 
Strait, by a narrow neck of land only eight miles in width, and with 
a maximum altitude of perhaps less than 100 feet. Notwithstanding 
this low altitude, the low binds extending along the heads of both of 
these bays are largely composed of sedimentary rocks covered over 
with only a thin layer of glacial detritus, proving conclusively that 
the former connection that doubtless existed between these two bodies 
of water has been broken not by a damming up by glacial materials, 
but by an elevation sufficient to bring the sedimentary rocks at the 
bottom above the water level. 

From the observations and conditions already referred to, and 
many other facts bearing directly upon these questions, I believe that 
the longitudinal valleys separating the main range from the two lat- 
eral ranges of the Andes, and also the great transverse valleys cross- 
ing Patagonia from east to west, had their origin previous to the last 
submergence, which took place over this region in late Pliocene times 
and continued only for a relatively short period. This submergence 
was greater over the western than over the eastern Andes, thus ren- 



KITE WORK OF THE WEATHER BUREAU 55 

dering the western channels much deeper than the eastern. Toward 
the close of the Pliocene there began over this region a process of 
elevation, which, though general over the entire region, was greatest 
along a line approximating that of the axis of the eastern lateral range 
of the Andes, and was also greater, over northern than over southern 
Patagonia. As the elevation proceeded the general surface of the 
land would be brought above water level, while the longitudinal and 
transverse valleys would remain submerged and appear respectively 
as channels from the Pacific and as straits connecting the two oceans. 
This condition may be termed the first stage in the process of eleva- 
tion and is now seen in the Magellan Strait. 

After a time a second stage would be reached, in which the trans- 
verse valle}^ would no longer appear as straits, but as land valleys, 
while the channel of the eastern longitudinal valley would be broken 
up into a series of fiords extending inland from the continuous chan- 
nels of the deeper western longitudinal valley. This second stage is 
now seen in the region lying between the Strait of Magellan on the 
south and Lake Argentina on the north. 

A third stage appears when the amount of elevation accomplished 
is sufficient to sever the connection existing between the east and west 
longitudinal valleys and reduce the fiords entering the eastern valley 
to a series of lakes discharging their waters by rivers into the chan- 
nels of the western valley, still submerged beneath the sea. This 
third stage is seen in the region north of Lake Argentina, while a 
fourth stage, in which the bottom of the western longitudinal vallej' 
is brought above water level, appears in extreme northern Patagonia 
and the region to the northward, where it embraces the principal 
agricultural lands of Chile. 



KITE WORK OF THE WEATHER BUREAU* 

By If. C. Fkankknfield, 
U. S. Weather Bureau 

As early us the year 1895, Prof. Willis L. Moore, Chief of the U. S. 
Weather Bureau, determined to undertake at the earliest practicable 
moment a study of the meteorological conditions existing in the free 
air over the United States, the data to be obtained from automatical! y 



56 A' / TE WO It A" /•' THE 1 1 A. I Til Ell B UR E. I t ' 

recording instruments attached to kites, [ndependent observations 
at Bingle stations had been made previously by private individuals, 
notably those under the direction of Mr A. L. Rotch at Blue Hill 
rvatory, Mass.; but observations from a single station, while ex- 
tremely valuable in themselves, are useless when comparative results 
are Bought. It was the hope of the Chief of the Weather Bureau in 
establishing a chain of kite stations that it would he possible to con- 
struct daily synchronous charts of pressure, temperature, and wind 
velocity from the data thus obtained for different elevations up to at 
t. and that from a study of these charts a marked ad- 
vane.- could be made in the present system of weather forecasting. 

An immense amount of time, labor, and experimentation was neces- 
sary before the kite apparatus could he brought to a high state of 
efficiency, the observers properly instructed, and the stations estab- 
lished, and it was not until the spring of the year 1898 that the work 
was fairly launched. In all seventeen stations were established, 
mostly in the great river valley- ami the Upper Lake region. 

'I'lw standard kite aged was constructed largely after the Hargrave 
model, with various improvements suggested by actual trial and ex- 
periment. At some stations the ki,te contained 68 square feet of .surface, 

at Others a -mailer kite of 1"> square feet wa- used, and at still others 

a slightly larger one of 72 square feet of surface was occasionally used. 
The meteorograph, an instrument for recording automatically the 

jure, temperature, and relative humidity of the air. was devised 
by Prof. C. B\ Marvin of the Weather Bureau. The mechanisms were 
inclosed in a light aluminum case, the whole being suspended within 
the framework of the kite. 

It wa- Boon discovered that the hope of a daily synchronous chart 
of the conditions existing at high altitudes could not be realized. On 
many days ascensions were impossible, owing to the absence of suffi- 
cient wind tosustain the kites. Neither could they he flown in stormy 
weather. There were made only 1»'» per cent of the total number 
jcensions which would have been possible had wind and weather 
conditions been favorable. The percentage varied from 75 at Dodge 
City, Kan-., to 12 at Knoxviile, Tenn. When by chance ascensions 
were made at a majority of the stations on any one day, varying wind 
conditions necessitated their being made at different hours, thereby 

* Summarized from Vertical Gradients of Temperature, Pressure, and Wind Direction : 
Weather Bureau Bulletin !•', - Department of Agriculture. 



KITE WORK OF THE WEATHER BUREAU 57 

destroying the synchronism of the observations, without which aerial 
observations would be of little assistance to the forecaster in his work. 

However disappointing the results obtained may have been when 
viewed from the standpoint of weather forecasting, they were very 
far from being so from another. An immense amount of data was 
obtained from the 1,217 ascensions and 3,835 observations, particu- 
larly in reference to temperature variations with increase of altitude, 
and it is believed that our previous knowledge of this subject has been 
materially increased. 

Briefly summarized, the results of the observations were as follows : 

There were considered in all 3,835 observations, of which 603 were 
at 1,000 feet elevation, 906 at 1,500 feet, 928 at 2,000 feet, 746 at 3,000 
feet, 423 at 4,000 feet, 182 at 5,000 feet, 38 at 6,000 feet, 7 at 7,000 feet, 
and 2 at 8,000 feet. Qf the two at 8,000 feet, one was obtained at 
Washington, D. C, and the other at Dodge City, Kans. In the Mis- 
sissippi Basin, except on the slope of the Rocky Mountains, high 
ascensions were impossible, as the average wind velocity was but six 
miles or less per hour. 

The mean rate of diminution of temperature, with increase of alti- 
tude, was found to be 5 degrees for each 1,000 feet, or only 0.4 degree 
less than the true adiabatic rate. This is strictly a mean value, ob- 
tained from observations taken at all elevations from 1,000 to 8,000 feet 
and under varying conditions of weather and at different hours. 

The largest gradient, 7.4 degrees per 1,000 feet, was found up to 
1,000 feet, and thence up to 5,000 feet there was a steady decrease to 
3.8 degrees, the rate of decrease varying inversely with the altitude. 
A hove 5,000 feet there was a tendency toward a slow rise in the gra- 
dient, hut the lack of a sufficient number of observations above 6,000 
feet prevents a positive assertion to this effect. The morning gra- 
dients were also greatest up to 1,000 feet, and least up to 5,000 feet, 
and the rate of decrease was about the same as that of the mean, the 
curvea showing a very close agreement in this respect. The average 
morning gradient was 4.8 degrees per 1,000 feet. 

The afternoon gradients were larger, but not decidedly so, the aver- 
age value being 5.. S degrees per 1,000 feet. The greatest rate of de- 
crease is still found at 1,000 feet, and the least up to 5,000 feet, if the 
\'cw observations at 7,000 feet are not given equal weight. 

The morning, afternoon, and mean gradients for the different ele- 
vations from 1,000 to 8,000 feet are given in the following table: 



58 KITE WORK OF THE WEATHER BUREAU 

Decreets* of Temperatun for Each Respective 1,000 Feet of Altitude 





1. 1 

feet. 


1,500 
feet. 


2,000 
feet. 


3,000 
feet. 


1,000 
feet. 


5,000 
feet 


6, "i 

feet. 


7,000 
feet. 


B, 

feet. 


Mean. 




O 

7.8 
7.5 
7.4 


o 

6.5 
6.4 

5.8 


o 

i a 

6.0 
5.2 


o 

4.0 
5.6 

1.1 


o 
3.7 

4.0 

4.0 


o 

3.7 

4.3 
3.8 


o 

3.0 
4.:, 
4.1 




3.4 

3.5 

3.4 


o 
3.0 

4.0 




1 - 




5.8 




5.0 







A grouping of the stations according to their geographical locations 
disclosed the fact that the mean rate of temperature decrease with 
increase of altitude was much greater in the central Mississippi water- 
shed than in the Upper Lake region, the central West, or the extreme 
Easl as represented by the single station at Washington. In the 
afternoon, however, the differences were very small, the maximum 
being only 0.7 degree per thousand feet. 

The morning, afternoon, and mean results for the various districts 
are Bhown in the following table: 



Gradient per Thousand Feet 



District. 


Morning. 


Afternoon. 


Mian. 


Atlantic Coast - - - 




3. 1 
5.8 
4.:. 
4.3 



6.0 

... 1 
6 1 



3.6 


< 'entral M ississippi 
1 'pper Lake region 
Central Wesl 




• 




1 E 




4.7 







It will lie at once remarked that there is a very close agreement 
between the means for the Upper Lake region, those for the central 
West, and the grand mean of 5.0 degrees, as well as a marked defi- 
ciency on the Atlantic Coast, amounting to 1.4 degrees per thousand 

let. 

Negative gradients of temperature, or " inversions. '' were quite fre- 
quent during the morning hours at a number of the stations, and they. 
of course, hear a direct relation to the amount of cloudiness and the 
velocity of the wind. At Washington on June 21, 1898, the tempera- 
ture at an elevation of 866 feet was 14 degrees higherthan at thesur- 
face, and 10 degrees higher at 1,700 feet. At Dodge City, Kans., on 
October 23, 1898, there was an inversion of more than 11 degrees at 
an altitude of over 5,000 feet. As a rule, however, the amount of in- 
version was less at Dodge City than at Washington on account of the 
prevailing higher winds at the former place. 



KITE WORK OF THE WEATHER BUREAU 59 

The central fact of importance which the study of inversions de- 
veloped was that they were most pronounced with the radiation of 
relatively warm southeast to southwest winds, the marked cold at the 
surface and the higher warm air presenting a marked contrast, which 
was not so apparent when the upper air blew from a colder northerly 
direction. 

Inversions were sometimes caused by cloud formation in the earty 
morning. Below the clouds there would be little or no temperature 
change, while above there would be an increase on account of the di- 
rect action of the sun's rays. On October 1, 1898, a marked case of 
this character occurred at Dodge City, there being a rise in tempera- 
ture of 11.5 degrees within a few minutes after the kite emerged from 
the upper surface of the clouds. 

The most remarkable instances of inversion were found at Duluth, 
Minn. Nearly one-half of them occurred in the late morning and 
early afternoon, during cloudy weather, and were due to the easterly 
surface winds from Lake Superior, the warming effect of these winds 
being sensible at times to the height of nearly 6,000 feet. During 
these inversions the direction of the upper air current would be almost 
or entirely diametrically opposite to that at the surface. On June 3, 
1898, there was an inversion of 2 degrees at an elevation of 5,372 feet, 
and on September 20, 1898. one of 1 degree at an elevation of 5,714 
feet. 

The effect of the presence of clouds upon the temperature gradient 
was quite uniform, though not at all times decided. In a great ma- 
jority of instances there was a decrease in the rate of temperature 
fall, frequently amounting to a complete arrest, and less frequently to 
an inversion. After the kite emerged from the clouds the rate of 
temperature change would be diminished. 

In a number of instances the clouds appeared to have no effect 
whatever, and in a few rare ones there was a fall in the temperature 
as the kite came in contact with the clouds. 

As a rule, the temperature gradients were greater in clear than in 
cloudy weather, although exceptions were quite numerous. 

The relative humidities at and above the surface of the earth dif- 
fered but little, and, except at 2,000 and 8,000 feet, the upper air per- 
centages were the lower. The mean results obtained from all the 
observations were 60 per cent at the surface and 58 per cent above, a 
difference of 2 per cent, There were, however, some marked differ- 
ences at individual stations, viz., Washington, 14 percent; Omaha, 






KITE Iio/'A' OF THE WEATHER BUREAU 



Nebr., 29 percent; Springfield, 111., 21 per cent, and Fort Smith, Ark., 
er ••rut. tin- Burface humidity being the higher, except ;it Fort 
Smith. At thirteen out of the entire seventeen stations the differ- 
ence did not exceed 1" per cent, and at nine stations it was 5 per 
(•.•nt or l< 

For obvious reasons, as the altitude increased, tin- relative humid- 
ity decreased whenever tin- winds were from north to west, particu- 
larly from the northwest, ami increased with wind- from east to 
south, particularly with those from tin- east. When the kite was in 
or near clouds, the humidity would almost invariably rise, falling 
again when the kite was freed from cloud influence. 

Vapor pressures were expressed in percentages obtained by the 

formula ^ . " p " representing the vapor pressure at any given altitude 

/' 
and "/- '" that observed simultaneously at the earth's surface. The 
mean thus obtained was 59 per cent, and there was a Bteady, though 
by no means uniform, decrease with increase of altitude. The ] >« - r- 
centage al 1,500 feet was 82 and at 8,000 feel 11. The decrease was 
mosl rapid between 2,000 and 5,000 feet, where it averaged 9 percent 
for each 1 ."in i feet. The lowest percentage, 52, was found at Omaha, 
Nebr., ami the highe8t,.77, at Pierre, S. Dak. 

A comparative statement of kite, balloon, and mountain observa- 
tions is given in-low. In determining these results the records of 
1,123 kite ascensions were used. There were l balloon ascensions by 
Hammon and 1 by Hazen. It i< not known how many observations 
were made by I [ami. 

Diminution of Vapor Pressun with AUitudt 

Value of - for each respective 1,000 feet of altitude 



itions. 





Hammon) 

Mountain ( II 







feet. 










0.96 






".-i 




- 


0.81 



1,000 


:.. 




7. "no 

feet. 


feet. 


0.61 


0.62 

nil 

0.67 
0.61 


"..V.i 

0.46 
0.54 


0.39 


0.44 


0.78 


0.44 

n.ii 




0.66 0.61 


".::7 
".17 



Mean 
feet 



0.59 

".7--. 
".7" 

0.66 



Differences in wind direction were indicated by tie- changes in the 
azimuths of the kites. These showed that, a- an almost unvarying 
rule, the general direction- above and at the surface were practi- 



KITE WORK OF THE WEATHER BUREAU 61 

cally the same, the differences being confined to a deflection toward 
the right at the kite. This deflection frequently increased with the 
altitude, but rarely exceeded 90 degrees. In some few instances the 
kite was deflected toward the left, but not to any great extent. When 
the deflection was toward the left, the wind velocity decreased with 
increase of altitude, as shown by the diminished pull on the kite wire. 
As a matter of interesting coincidence, and without intention of en- 
deavoring to establish a direct relation of cause and effect between 
the two, it may also be stated that these deflections toward the left 
were quite frequently followed by thunderstorms within a few hours. 

At Duluth, Minn., there were occasionally wide divergencies of the 
kite toward the left, due to the northeast wind from Lake Superior. 
This northeast wind was very often purely local, attributable entirely 
to the influence of the lake, and corresponding in a minor way to the 
sea breezes of the ocean shores. It developed upon investigation that 
these local currents were sometimes not more than 700 or 800 feet in 
depth, and rarely more than 2,000 feet. 

Hammon * and McAdie recorded a somewhat similar experience 
with the westerly surface winds at San Francisco during their kite 
experiments in 1896, and in his paper on the subject Mr Hammon 
concluded that the strong westerly surface wind which prevails on the 
Pacific Coast nearly every afternoon has a depth of only 800 to 2,500 
feet. 

An extension of the aerial observations to other seacoasts would 
doubtless prove conclusively that the diurnal sea breezes are extremely 
shallow. 

After November, 1898, all kite stations were closed except that at 
Pierre, S. Dak., where ascensions were made whenever possible dur- 
ing the year 1899, and still continue. No extended study of the ob- 
servations made during this time has as vet been made, but a cursory 
examination of the winter temperature records discloses a condition 
of affairs radically different from that which prevails during the re- 
maining seasons of the year. The inversions are very frequent and 
decidedly marked. Indeed they are so persistent during the colder 
weather as to lead to the inevitable conclusion that during a cold 
wave the belt of cold air is not much over one mile in height, and 
often but little over half a mile. 

On several days it was also noticed that there were al leasl three 

•■Experiments «iili Kites :>i San Francisco, Cal., by W, li. Bammon, forecast official, 
ily w eather Rei iew . August I 



62 PRACTICAL EXERCISES IN GEOGRAPHY 

distinct air strata within very narrow vertical limits: a lower cold 
one extending upward about 1,500 feet; a warmer one extending to 
between 2,5 and 3,000 feet, and thenasecond cold one of unknown 
extent. 

The entire subject of aerial investigation offers a very attractive 
field to the student. The work has just begun, and future investiga- 
tors must certainly bring to light many truths, now concealed, which 
will prove of the utmost interest and value to themselves, the cause 
of science, and the world at large. 



PRACTICAL EXERCISES IN GEOGRAPHY 

By W. M. Davis, 
Professorof Physical Geography in Harvard University 

The graduate of a high-school course in physical geography cannot 
be expected to have reached the stage of independent and originalin- 
yestigation in new fields unless he possesses unusual mental capacityi 
but li«' oughl certainly to be able to recognize the outdoor occurrence 
of things similar to those that he has studied in school. This would 
be difficult if he had studied only a hook, even if its text gave good 
presentation of name.-, definitions, descriptions, ami explanations, 
supplemented by pictures and maps. It is probably for this reason 
that we find today an essential unanimity regarding the addition of 
practical exercises in some form to the lessons in physical geography 
based on a text. The reports made by the several committees of the 
National Educational Association— the Committee of Ten (1893), 
Committee of Fifteen i 189 . and the Committee on College Entrance 
Requirements 1899) -all emphasize the importance of observational 
exercises in field and laboratory ; and many progressive schools in 
which courses of high-school grade in physical geography are given 
today are doing their best to solve the difficult problems that arise 
when the attempt is made to put these recommendations into prac- 
tice. 

Attitude of Teachers. — The advantages that come from well-planned 
field ami laboratory exercises in physical geography are so great that 
the difficulties in their way must he overcome in one way or another. 
Fortunately there is today no more effective aid toward this end 
than the desire of the teachers themselves to gain it. This is mani- 



PRACTICAL EXERCISES IN GEOGRAPHY 63 

fested in many healthy ways. There is the frank recognition by the 
teachers of deficiencies in their preparation ; there are strong efforts 
to make up the deficiencies by outside study or by attending sum- 
mer courses in which laboratory work and field excursions are in- 
cluded, and I may say that no classes that I have ever had have 
shown a better spirit than those composed chiefly of school teachers 
in the summer vacations. Superintendents and principals manifest 
the same interest in progress by devoting specially assigned space in 
new school buildings to work of this kind, by making inquiry as to 
the necessary outfit, and by planning schedules in which hours for 
outdoor work have due consideration. Educational journals reflect 
the general interest in the practical aspects of geography by publish- 
ing a good number of articles that are devoted to this branch of the 
subject ; the Journal of School Geography, for example, in the thirty 
numbers issued for 1897, 1898, and 1899, contains many articles bear- 
ing on field and laboratory methods, some of them being prepared 
by the editors in direct response to questions from the subscribers. 

Relation of Practical Exercises to Text Book. — It is desirable that the 
practical work of a course on physical geography in the high school 
should be closely parallel with the book work, for the reason that the 
main outline of the subject is best presented definitely and specific- 
ally in printed form ; but it must be recognized that many obstacles 
stand in the way of the easy attainment of this ideal. In the first 
place, exercises on certain subjects must be very deliberately carried 
on, requiring even a whole school year for their proper inductive de- 
velopment. These must either anticipate the high-school course or 
they must advance independently of the text in which their equiva- 
lent is stated in printed form. The study of the weather finds some 
of its best applications in observation of storms and other special con- 
ditions at the time of their occurrence. These must be taken up in 
the order of their happening, and reference must then be made for- 
ward or back to their systematic treatment. Our climate is such that 
the open field season comes in the fall and spring, while many topics 
under the important heading of land forms will often be taught from 
the book in the winter, when field work is difficult or impossible. 
Indeed, even in fall and spring, an excursion, well planned to illus- 
trate the text in hand at the moment, may have to be postponed on 
account of bad weather, thus disorganizing our best intentions. It 
is true that laboratory work may often supplement or replace field 
work, but not sufficiently to smooth out all the difficulties noted 



64 PRACTICAL EXERCISES IN GEOGRAPHY 

above. Simple parallelism between text and practical exercises is 
therefore <>ut of the question, and we must be content if some 
effective correlation between the two is gained instead. In order to 
give specific indication of the character of various practical exercises 
and of the correlations that may he established between such exer- 
and book work, let me open the subject with some examples 
appropriate to the study of that interesting chapter of physical 
geography which is often given a forbidding appearance under the 
name of " mathematical geography." 

The Earth as a Globe. — It is seldom that justice is done to the op- 
portunity of practical work under the heading of the earth as a globe. 
The difficulties that stand in the way of various observational exer- 
- may certainly be overcome it' their accomplishment rather than 
the maintenance of a set order of school periods is made the object 
in view. Many series of observations that cannot and need not be 
made by a whole class may be made by scholars singly or in pairs: 
the avoidance of such exercises, because of the disorder that they may 
create, does not speak well Tor the discipline or for the spirit of the 

scl 1. Several of these exercises are hot performed under the name 

of nature study in lower grades than the high school ; they are men- 
tioned here because if, as is too often the case, they have not been 

performed in their proper place they should he given place in the 
high school ; hut it is manifest that such a plan disarranges the high- 
school course in physical geography and retards the attainment of the 
grade that it deserves. 

Shape of the Earth. — The only observational proof of the globular 
shape of the earth that is within the reach of VOUng scholars is offered 
at the time of an eclipse of the moon. Such an opportunity should not 
be lost sight of. The edge of the earth's shadow always having a 
curved outline, the earth must he round, as Aristotle perceived four 
centuries before the Christian era. The time-honored proof afforded 
by the gradual disappearance of <hips at sea is available only at the 
sea-shore; it is interesting to note that this proof was first men- 
tioned by Strabo. Accepting the globular form as a fact, the horizon 
plane, touching the earth's surface at the observer's station, extends 
indefinitely on all side-; the visible sky lying above, the invisible sky 
lying below the plane. As long as the earth is thought of as a large 
body in comparison to the dimensions of the sky vault, it will prob- 
ably l'c more or less consciously believed that the smaller half of the 
sky is above and the larger part is below the horizon of an observer. 



PRACTICAL EXERCISES IN GEOGRAPHY 65 

But when the earth is stated to he very small in comparison to the 
distance to the stars, the two parts of the sky separated by a horizon 
plane will be recognized as equal. The horizon planes of observers 
at different points on the earth will cut the sky into different halves, 
as may be shown by the aid of a hand globe. The uneven border of 
the sky against hills should be called the sky-line, not the horizon. 
All this is as much astronomy as geography ; but it is all essential to 
the clear understanding of matters that are constantly taught in geog- 
raphy, such as latitude and the seasons ; no safe entrance into such 
matters can be made without careful attention to fundamental con- 
cepts. 

The discovery, attributed to Eudoxus, that an observer, traveling 
north or south, sees that stars change their position with respect to 
his horizon, will be considered in connection with measures of the 
size of the earth further on. 

The causes and consequences of the earth's shape are better pre- 
sented in the text than in practical exercises. Among the consequences 
are the essentially uniform value of gravit}^ at all points on the earth's 
surface, and the absence of immense ascents and descents that must 
occur on an earth of any other shape. The nearly globular form of 
the actual earth has been of enormous importance during long past 
ages in facilitating the migration of plants and animals from one 
region to another, and in recent centuries in permitting the migrations 
of mankind and the development of commerce. 

Rotation. — The vague ideas in the minds of adults regarding the 
earth as a rotating globe suggest that no good ground was provided 
in their school days for a correct understanding of this fundamental 
problem. The problem pertains equally to geography and to astron- 
omy ; but as it should be encountered before these two subjects are 
differentiated, it is naturally classified under the first and more usual 
school subject. Very simple apparatus suffices. A pointer, pivoted 
at one end and sighted at the sun at different hours through the day, 
(•unities a young observer to gain a definite idea of the sun's (apparent) 
daily movement across the sky. (Actual sighting at the sun is not 
necessary ; when the pointer is held so that its shadow is no larger than 
its cross -section, it is properly directed.) Record of successive obser- 
vations may be made by setting up stakes so that their tops shall just 
touch the end of the pointer in the successive sights at the sun. On 
the following day the sun may be -ecu again in the earliesl position 

observed on the firs! day. the period thus measured being a natural 



66 PRAi TICAL EXERCISES IN GEOGRAPHY 

unit of time which civilized nations divide into 24 hours. It is im- 
portant to notice that the Bun's return to its original position has not 
l"-'Mi accomplished by going backward, but by continuous motion as 
if in a circuit. Tin- idea of rotation is thus clearly presented in spite 
of the fact that much of th<- sun'- diurnal path is out of sight. It 
should not be understood that these observations give school children 
their first knowledge of the movement of the sun in the sky ; that 
they have long known. But the vagueness of ordinary knowledge 
on this point is now advanced to well defined knowledge, and this is 
an important Btep. 

Regularity in the movement of rotation is easily shown by making 

rations at regular intervals of • or two hours and noting that 

equal angles are moved over by the pointer, or that eipial arcs are 
measured between the -take tops in equal time intervals. It is, I 
believe, well understood by teachers today that no preparatory Btudy 
oi formal geometry is needed as a basis for inspectional geometry of 
this kind. A little more advanced treatment is given by making 
vations at irregular period-, noting the time intervals between 
them, and proving by a continued (proportion that angles and times 
bear a constant ratio. The angle of complete rotation (360°) will he 
found to hear the same ratio to the time of a complete rotation (24 
hours) as that which obtains between partial angles and times; hence 
the movement of the Bun while it is beneath the horizon must be at the 
same angular velocity as while it is within reach of observation above 
the horizon. Day-time observations of the old moon (about third 
quarter) and evening observations of stars at home may be used to 
extend the results gained from the observations of the Bun. If the 
moon is studied, the teacher should be prepared to explain the 
questions that may rise if the difference in Length of solar and lunar 
- is detected. The chief point to be determined by star observa- 
tion is that a -tar must make a circuit of the sky in about '24 hours, 

because on the s< id evening it comes from the eastward to the 

position from which it departed with a westward motion the night 
before —an elementary matter truly, but one which is less clearly 
known to many civilized adults than it was to their barbarous an- 
cestors. 

Axis and Meridian . \- a result of these observations it is recog- 
nized that " something " must turn. Whether it is the earth or the 
sky that turn- need not be decided at once, if the teacher has the 
patience to let this archaic problem really take possession of the 



PRACTICAL EXERCISES IN GEOGRAPHY 67 

pupils' minds. In either case, the fact of turning demands an axis on 
which the turning shall take place, and if the pupils have any serious 
difficulty in discovering and stating the attitude of the axis the teacher 
may be sure that the difficult)'' lies chiefly in the form of her ques- 
tions, for the problem is essentially easy to living boys and girls, how- 
ever difficult it may seem when clothed in words to which the} r are 
not accustomed. When the " slanting " attitude of the axis of turn- 
ing is clearly recognized, all problems of size, latitude, and longitude 
are greatly simplified. By whatever short-cut the teacher presents 
the conclusion that the earth and not the sky really turns, the axis 
must be conceived as passing through the earth's center, and as de- 
fining two significant points, the poles, where it " comes out." The 
discovery of the north pole of the sky near the North star (really more 
than two moon diameters from it toward the end of the Dipper 
handle) leads to a clearer understanding of the diurnal paths of the 
stars in smaller or larger circles. 

The shadow cast by a vertical pole on level ground by the midday 
sun shows us the direction in which one must travel to reach the 
North Pole. The prolongation of this line around the earth gives a 
meridian circle. The meridians are standard lines of direction. The 
equator is the great circle that cuts all the meridians in halves, mid- 
way between the poles. A series of meridians drawn at equal dis- 
tances apart at the equator divide the earth into equal areas, con- 
veniently arranged for measuring the relative easting or westing of 
places. A small hand globe may be appealed to in this connection, 
but constant reference should be made to " outdoors " as a part of the 
real earth on whose surface the imaginary circles are to be traced. 
" There " on a hand globe is not so useful as " there," pointing out 
the window toward the equator. The latter may arouse a live sense 
of directions, always useful in self-orientation, whatever is one's path 
in life; the former may leave the subject an unreality. 

Latitude. — The determination of local solar time and of magnetic 
variation may be introduced in this connection, but more important 
is the estimation of one's position on the earth's surface with respect 
to the pole and equator. No mention of the term " latitude " need he 
made till this question is solved. It may he solved oven in thegram- 
mar school by means of the sun-circle, marked out by stake tops, ;<s 
above described. First, some general considerations. To an ob- 
server at the pole the sun or the stars would travel around the sky 
once a day, in circles parallel to the horizon. The position of the 



68 PRACTICAL EXERCISES TN GEOGRAPHY 

star circles remains fixed wherever the observer goes and however 
much his horizon changes from the position that it had at the pole. 
As the observer moves along any meridian toward the equator his 
horizon must progressively tilt from the position that it had at the 
pole; and the amount of tilting may be measured by the angle be- 
tween the tilted horizon and any one of the star orsun circles. This 
is. in essence, the method of Eudoxus, already referred to. A third 
way from pole to equator the angle would he 30°; half way, 15 ; 
two-thirds way. 60° ; al the equator, '.hi . The rotation of the earth 
is thus of great assistance in determining the relative positions of 
places. Bearing these principles in mind, let the Bun-circle be de- 
termined and represented by a series of stakes in a school yard, as in 
figure 1. Stand about 30 feet to one side of the stakes, in such :i posi- 




FlGl Bl 1 



u, ' u that the tops of all of them fall into a slanting, straight line when 
the observer's head is lowered to the height of the highest stake: 
estimate or measure the angle, CAD, by which the horizon is de- 
pressed beneath this slanting line*; and as the angle thus deter- 
mined is to 90°, so is the distance from the pole (measured along a 
meridian from the pole to the observer) to the entire quadrant of the 
meridian from pole to equator. Latitude is counted from the equator 
toward the pole; it will therefore be the complement of the angle 
.i ll ~> measured. It should be noted that latitude may he thus de- 
termined at any time of year and without knowledge of the sun's 
angular distance from the sky equator (declination i. 

• The pivol does nol lie in the plane of the sun-circle, and the slanting line does not mi 

the sun's noon altitude, [uinoxes. The noon altitude of the sun varies through 

the year, but the slanting line (the slant of the plane of the sun-circle) is constant through the 
year, whatever the declination of the Mm. in ;,n tin- method of determining latitude II is 
' the motion of the Mm in declination in a single day will qo( b< detected bj the 
rough methods <■!' record here employed. 



PRACTICAL EXERCISES IX GEOGRAPHY 69 

An interesting feature of this elementary method of latitude de- 
termination is its novelty to many teachers. It involves nothing 
that grammar-school pupils who have learned by seeing and think- 
ing, not by recitation, cannot easily apprehend if they are gradually 
led up to it by a well graded flight of steps ; the steps are not diffi- 
cult and the flight is not long. The fear that they are so, on account 
of which many a teacher dreads to introduce fundamental work of 
this kind into her teaching, only goes to show the obscurity and con- 
fusion in which the chapter on so-called "mathematical geography " 
is often enveloped. Leave out this forbidding name, teach slowly 
on the basis of gradually accumulated observations, and the imagined 
difficulties will disappear. 

The determination of latitude by the altitude of the Pole star should 
always be preceded by a proof that the star is close to the pole ; but 
even then the sun-circle method is to be preferred as being possible 
in the daytime. The measurement of latitude involving the sun's 
declination should not be introduced until the movement of the sun 
in declination has been followed and its greatest northing and south- 
ing measured by a simple method given below. 

Size of the Earth.— Nothing has yet been said of the size of the earth. 
Observations at a single station will not serve to measure the size, but 
the essence of the method of measurement may be usefully imitated, 
and, by correspondence between two schools, actual measurement 
may be made, much to the edification of the pupils. The relations of 
the local horizon to the plane of the sun-circle, as involved in the 
measurement of latitude, enables the scholar to "see," if not to dem- 
onstrate, that an angle of one degree must separate the local hori- 
zons of two stations on the same meridian, whose latitude differs by one 
degree. Similarly, if observations of the sun's midday (meridian) 
altitude were made at two such stations on the same day the alti- 
tudes would differ by one degree. Then, measuring the distance 
along the meridian arc between the stations, a simple proportion gives 
the circumference of the meridian circle: 

1° : 360° : : length of arc : circumference. 

This imitates the method employed by Eratosthenes. Two parties 

of scholars Stationed at the ends of a short meridian arc in a school 

yard or in an adjacent common may each determine the noon al- 
titude of the sun and measure the distance between their stations 
in imitation of the genuine method of earth measurement, and they 



70 PRACTICAL EXERCISES IN GEOGRAPHY 

may be convinced that if their observations were minutely accurate 
the size of the earth could be estimated from even so short an arc as 
that which they can pace during a recess interval. If a hill rises 
near the school the convexity of the hill may be taken to imitate the 
rotundity of a little earth. Two parties stationed out of sight of each 
other on the north and south slopes of the hill, and on a north and 
south line, may determine the sun's noon altitude with reference to 
the slopes of the hill (which imitate the curved, level surface of a little 
earth i, and tlun measuring the arc between their stations, the size of 
a small earth to which such a hill would fit may be determined. In 
the absence of a hill, a useful substitute may be provided in a school 
yard by placing twit tables or boxes in a north and south line fifty or 
a bundled feet apart, tilting their upper surfaces away from each other, 
and then proceeding on the pretense that the table surfaces are parts 
of a little earth, whose convex meridian may be indicated by the tops 
of a row of stakes between them. The curved surface of a globe in a 
school-room may be used to explain the geometry here involved, but 
outdoor work should not 1m- altogether replaced by such indoor sub- 
stitutes. Nothing can so well give tin,' sense of the real great earth as 
outdoor observations. 

Two schools can profitably cooperate to measure the size of the 
earth. On a certain day agreed upon beforehand the midday alti- 
tude of the sun is determined at each school. The length of the 
meridian arc between the latitude circles of the two schools may 
then lie measured on a good map ami the proportion of Eratosthenes 
again employed to find the unknown quantity. If each school de- 
termines its own latitude, the difference of latitudes replaces the 
difference of the sun's midday altitude on a given day, and then no 
agreement as to the day of observation is necessary. Why is it that 
nature study of this kind, so appropriate to the inhabitants of a 
rotating globe, is not introduced in our lower schools ? Is it because 
of the supposed difficulty or the actual simplicity of the necessary 
observations ; on account of a recognition or a neglect of their value; 
on account of a confidence in the innate abilit}' of young scholars or 
a mistrust of their powers ; or on account of preparation or lack of 
preparation on the part of the teachers? To the best of my belief, 
this is merely one of the many cases in which the real mental activity 
of school children is benumbed by substituting recitations of words 
for live performance. 



PRACTICAL EXERCISES IN GEOGRAPHY 71 

Longitude. — Difference of longitude (introduced under any name 
that is suggested by the pupils when talking freely of the relative 
positions of places on a rotating globe — the technical name to come 
in later) can be determined between two schools in any one of the 
three historical methods. As Strabo employed an eclipse of the 
moon to determine the relative easting or westing of certain points 
bordering the Mediterranean, so school children in different parts of 
the country may employ a lunar eclipse today to determine the rela- 
tive positions of the meridians on which their homes are situated, 
previous^ determining their local solar time, and subsequent!}' com- 
paring the recorded time of any phase of the eclipse by correspondence. 
As governmental parties a hundred years ago made chronometer ex- 
peditions between neighboring national capitals, so school children 
may today send a watch from one school to another by express, and 
thus make a very good determination of difference of longitude. As 
modern observers employ the telegraph for time comparisons, even 
if separated b} 7 the whole breadth of a continent or of an ocean, so 
school children may toda} 7 delegate some of their number to go to a 
telegraph office and send "time signals " from their watch (previously 
set to local solar time by their own observations) to an expectant 
party at the other end of the line. The two parties may have to wait 
half an hour or so to get the line " clear," but such a trifling delay 
should be no obstacle to success ; and even such delay may be 
avoided if a long-distance telephone is used ; then the time signals may 
be counted aloud by one party and directly heard by the other. 
Surely it is not the lack of capacity on the part of the pupils; it is 
not the expense involved ; it is not the difficulty or the uselessness 
of the work that keeps such practical experiments as these out of our 
schools. What is the real difficulty in the way of their introduction ? 
Indoor Exercises. — Practical exercises of another kind on the earth 
as a globe may be performed indoors.* A meridian section of the 
earth as a sphere and as a spheroid may be drawn to scale in order 
to show how vanishingly insignificant the polar flattening really is t 
Geographically, its value is negligible in a high-school course, however 
important and interesting it is in astronomy and however valuable it 
is historically as a proof of the earth's rotation. The height of the 
highest mountains, the depth of the deepest oceans, the mean alti- 
tude of continents, the mean depth of sea floors, and the rate of in- 

• Several of these exercises have 1 □ suggested to me by Mr W. H. Snyder, of Worcester 

Academy. 



VI PRACTICAL EXERCISES IN GEOGRAPHY 

crease of interior temperatures may all be shown on this earth section. 
Comparisons of local and general <li.stance.-s and heights may be made 
by drawing them to scale. 

Several methods of map projection may be illustrated. First the 
necessity for projection should be shown by the impossibility of 
smoothly laying a paper, cut to match a continental outline, upon 
th<- surface of a globe. The mercator (or stove pipe and cannon ball), 
the conical, and the gnomonic projections may be easily constructed : 
their difficulties may be magnified if clothed in mathematical lan- 
guage or minified if talked about familiarly. Alter a network of 
meridians and latitude circles is drawn out a continental outline may 
atted from a table giving the latitudes and longitudes of a num- 
ber of points on the coasl line. Greenland and South America on 
Mercator projection, Greenland on Mercator and conical projection, 
the margin of the unexplored areas in the Arctic and Antarctic re- 
gions on gnomonic projections all afford good practice for platting. 
Comparison of distances on globes and on map- serves to detect the 
distortion characteristic of each kind of projection. A great-circle 
sailing coin-.- between San Francisco and Yokohama, as determined 
on a globe, may be transferred to any projection by the latitude and 
longitude of a number of points on its path. The same may be tried 
on a polar gnomonic projection of the great southern ocean for a voy- 
age from Cape Horn to Tasmania. The results in the two cases are 
interesting and instructive. From my own experience with school 
teachers in problems of this kind, it is necessary to conclude that 
ietry must, as a rule, have been very badly taught to them. 

Terrestrial magnetism affords some interesting exercises, if time can 
be allowed to them. 'The local variation of the magnetic needle has 
already been determined. ( hart- published by the < oast Survey and 
elsewhere give, by means of lines of equal variation, the value- of 
local variation at any desired point. Local values thus obtained may 
be copied off on the blackboard, and the pupils may then write in 
the values on a Mercator map of the world i of their own construction, 
if desired), or on an outline map of the United States. The values 
thus charted afford practice in drawing lines of equal variation. The 
accuracy of the work can be tested by comparing the results with the 
original chart. A variation on this exercise may he made by drawing 
arrow- at various stations to represent the local direction of magnetic 
north. Extend the arrow-, curving them, if necessary, so that they 
shall not cross each other; they will then represent magnetic me- 



PRACTICAL EXERCISES IN GEOGRAPHY 73 

ridians. The north magnetic pole, in the neighborhood of Hudson 
Bay, may be thus discovered. The meaning of magnetic charts can 
hardly be made clear without performing exercises of this kind. 

The point that deserves special emphasis with regard to all the 
exercises thus far described is not so much their importance, although 
all are important, but rather their practicability'. If the shape and 
size of the earth, latitude and longitude, and terrestrial magnetism 
are taught at all, practical exercises should replace recited definitions 
as far as possible. In all stages of the work excellent practice in 
English composition is afforded by calling for written description of 
observations and for careful formulation of results. 

The Atmosphere. — The study of the atmosphere suggests a great 
variety of practical exercises, many of which are now familiarly in- 
troduced in our schools. Local observations, without and with instru- 
ments, are made and discussed systematically. They are correlated 
with the larger phenomena of the weather maps, but the work in this 
direction often falls far short of its possible measure. In this connec- 
tion I may refer to a recent book by my colleague, R. De C. Ward, 
entitled " Practical Exercises in Elementary Meteorology," in which 
the teacher and the pupil will find precise directions for the solution 
of a large number of problems that I am sure will be of great value 
in giving fuller appreciation of the treasures stored up in, but not 
always taken from, the daily weather maps. This guide book being 
now accessible, I need here refer only to certain problems that are 
associated with the seasons. Here, as under the earth as a globe, it 
is too commonly the practice to learn definitions, instead of develop- 
ing a real knowledge of the subject by the study of gradually accumu- 
lated observations. The need of plenty of time, only to be secured 
by carrying on observations during one or two years, is nowhere better 
illustrated than in this chapter of the subject. It is impossible to 
compress the necessary observations into the short time during which 
a high-school course would be concerned with the atmosphere. Ade- 
quate attention to the subject can be obtained only when the work is 
distributed over a long period in the grammar school, associated either 
with geography or with nature study. 

The Seasons. — The procession of phenomena observable in the 
annual succession of the seasons i,- observable in early school years. 
The observations here described are intended to connect the simplest 
seasonal phenomena with their causes, which are to he found in the 
revolution of the earth around tin.- sun. and in the resultant northing 



74 PRACTICAL EXERCISES TN GEOGRAPHY 

and Bouthing of the sun (or its movement in declination, declination 
in the sky being the equivalent of geocentric* latitude on the earth). 
The fact of seasonal change having been already recorded in a most 
elementary way, let a second record be made in connection with a 
search for the causes of change, as follow.-: At intervals ofa fortnight 
or a month determine the midday altitude of the sun. At similar 
intervals determine the time, and it' possible the compass direc- 
tion, of Bunrise and Bunset.1 Again, al similar intervals, have the 
scholars, or at least the brighter ones, note the Btar groups that ap- 
pear in the east Bhortly after the time and opposite to the point of 
sunset. All the facts thus determined vary systematically and in cor- 
relation with oin- another. The discovery of their system of change 
and ot'the correlations in the Bystem Bhould, it" possible, be reserved 
for the scholars. Their Intelligence is only half developed if the dis- 
coveries that they can make are made for them. In such ease it may 
be claimed that time is saved, and that the results reached are the same ; 
but it should be seen, on the other hand, that the scholar- lose much 
appreciation of the result if they do not find it for themselves, and 
that they will fail entirely to acquire the power and thehal.it of dis- 
covering if they have no practice in it. If American schools are de- 
veloped on a truly democratic basis, as befits republican institutions, 

one of their chief values will he that they aid ill giving every hoy and 

• This word, "geocentric," i- inserted here in order t" escape the criticism of the carping 
in. .11-. in oral explanation with teachers or scholars I should omil it and accept the 
consequence*, in j . r i n t ••• l statement it i- necessary i" be more circumspect. If any member 
-- should rise by hi- own exertions to an understanding of the difference betwej 

graphic and g ntric latitude, he would deserve and appreciate the fuller explanations that 

could he given in in- questions ; but \<< introduce into a first statement so fine a 

point i- i- implied in the use • •! geocentric would unnecessarily and unwisely delay and com- 
plicate prog 

+ It i- manifest that this requires observations outside <>(' the bcI i session ana sometii 

at rather inconvenient hours. But I would prot< the implication contained in objec- 

tions to outside Work, tl -[•■I'ul that none of the scholars will willingly 

little of their free time to such details as are here suggested. Early summer sunrise 
■ timed from lunset when it has been discovered during tin- winter that sunrise and 

sunset in symmetrically before an. I after midday, or the moment when the sun reaches 

it- highest altitude (meridian culmination). The general adoption of standard time intr 

confusion here, for it is desirable that sunrise and • t Bhould be recorded in local 

solar time. A watch kept t" such time by observations "t the sun at midday i- useful in this 
connection. This i* easily done when a north mark has once been established. The watch 
will then give th< tion for the steeple clocks ami factory whistles, by which 

- iii.h have t" make their morning and evening 

ompass t"t measuring the direction ..t sunrise and sunset may I..- lent t" those 
scholars whose homes give the i"--r view ol tin- horiaon. Compass readings Bhould bi 

iriation "t the needle to give true bearings. Tin- direction "i early sunrise 
may be determined fr that of late sunset whi n it ha- been discovered that tin- two are sym- 
metrical with respect t" the true meridian. 



PRACTICAL EXERCISES IN GEOGRAPHY 75 

girl in the land a chance to emerge from the mass, where individu- 
ality is lost, and to reach a position in which they can do the most 
good for themselves, their homes, and their country. The cultivation 
of intelligence is as essential to this end as the acquisition of knowl- 
edge. The observations and correlations now in discussion may be 
made to contribute usefully to both these attainments. 

The sun's midday altitude should be tabulated, and the change in 
its value should be indicated graphically. Records thus kept are in 
themselves educative, not only in forming habits of accuracy and 
neatness, but still further in familiarizing the pupils with the several 
methods of record, each best for its own purpose. Graphic record 
may be made on a diagram in which horizontal measures represent 
time (dates), and vertical measures represent angular altitude. As 
the line connecting successive points of observation is seen to be not 
straight but curved, let expectation be aroused as to the probable 
result of further observations, thus developing the habit of thinking 
forward from a basis of observations in the past and present. Test 
the expectations by comparison with later observations, and thus 
develop the more important habit of not jumping at conclusions. 
The frequency of sun observations should be increased as the 
solstices are approached, in order to give good determination of those 
important dates. Few pupils will fail to await with interest the first 
observations after the Christmas holidays, or to continue observations 
with unflagging interest even into the hot weather of late June. It 
is conceivable that some children might even carry on observations 
of this kind through the summer vacation, in order to complete their 
<urve for the year. A graphic bisection of the upper and lower cul- 
minations of the curve, by lines drawn through the middle points of 
horizontal chords, will give good determinations of the dates of the 
solstices. When the upper and lower limits of the curve are well 
determined, draw horizontal lines tangent to them, and draw a third 
horizontal line midway between these tangents. Lead up to the dis- 
covery that this middle line represents the sky equator ; that the 
date of the equinoxes is given at the two intersections of the equator 
and the sun's path, and that the angular distance (declination) 
of the sun north or south of the equator can easily be roughly 
determined lor any day of the year by measuring up or down from 
the equator line to the curved sun path. Then, and not properly till 
then, are young geographers ready to use the noon altitude and 
declination of the sun in determining their latitude. When this 



76 PRACTICAL EXERCISES TN GEOGRAPHY 

stage is reached, better values of the sun's declination may be taken 
from the Nautical Almanac for the current year, accessible in the 
Larger public libraries. If it is not accessible there, ask the librarian 
to gel it. Tin' teacher of mathematics should be able to explain how 
t<» use it in finding the sun's declination on any date. 

The Year. — The time and direction of sunrise and sunset should be 
tabulated and diagramed. The con-elation of the day's length, the 
direction of the sun at rising and setting, and the changes in midday 
altitude an- most instructive. Each quantity affords occasion for 
prediction and verification of its future values. All the changes in 
tic--' quantities arc run in a period of 365 days, and in the same 
period the star group first seen in the east shortly after sunset is again 
Been there at the same hour. Now let the scholars try to explain this 
return to a previous condition, suggesting to them that a line may be 
imagined starting :it the sun, passing through the earth, and extend- 
in-- to the distant stars. This line has been found to sweep through 
thr sky, pointing to one star group after another, and to return to the 
original group in the same period as that in which the noon altitude 
and its correlated quantities run through their variations. Then the 
earth must go around the sun once in 365 days. The time unit, 
called ;i year, has long been familial' to the scholars ; they have prob- 
ably heard or read that the earth goes around the sun in a year, but 
those words are now fuller of meaning than they were ever before.* 
The sensible constancy of the sun's diameter apparent (determined 
by letting a ray of sunlight pass through a pin-hole in one sheet of 
paper and tall upon another sheet at a fixed distance from the pin- 
hole) should serve to give a good idea of the form of the curve or 
orbit that the earth runs around. 

Inclined Altitude of Axis to Orbit. — The facts regarding noon altitude 
and the correlated quantities can all be explained if it be suggested 
that the axis on which the earth has been found to turn does not 
Stand vertical to the plane of the orbit in which it has been found to 
revolve. Here again a globe is of value as a mental aid and an aid 
in visualizing the necessary geometrical relations. So are the dia- 

* In order t" give a better determination of the length <>f the year than can It obtained 
merely by general inspection "t the eastern constellations after sunset, the following plan may 
be adopted : Observations in September and October will show th.it tin' stars occupy mun: and 
more western positions at a given hour <>n successive evenings. Let tin- more skillful scholars 
make record of the position of some recognizable star with res peel to a roof or chimney at a 
certain hour "ii a certain evening, then ask them t.i discover when tin- star will again !"■ in 

that position at that hour. It will be well to have r rds <>t this sort made on several differ 

cut evenings, so as i" lessen the possible trouble from cloudy evenings in tin- following year. 



PRACTICAL EXERCISES IN GEOGRAPHY 77 

grams that one usually finds in text-books, although they are much 
less serviceable than globes.* Whether children of under fourteen 
years of age can discover this solution of the problem or not remains 
to be proved. At least they should have a good chance to show their 
capacity to discover it, a carefully prepared chance, approached by 
the slow accumulation of pertinent observations, all familiarized by 
repetition. 

A simple construction of the earth's orbit is also serviceable at this 
stage. Draw upon a sheet of paper about a foot square a line through 
its middle parallel to one side. Locate the middle point of the line. 
Construct a scale whose units are 2^0 °f the g ide of the paper, so that 
two pins, three units apart, can be driven into the middle line sym- 
metrically on either side of the middle point. Lay a loop of thread 
or fine string 189 units in perimeter over the pins; stretch it tight 
with a pencil, and draw a curve thus guided. This curve shows the 
true pattern of the earth's orbit, the units of the scale being millions 
of miles. The orbit is as sensibly circular as are the earth's meridians. 
Take out one of the pins, and around the other draw a little circle, 
a trifle less than a unit in diameter, to represent the sun ; a good- 
sized pin-head will not be much too small for it. Assuming that the 
North star is above the plane of the orbit (or paper), the earth moves 
around the orbit so as to pass from right to left when viewed from 
the sun. Find the point on the orbit that is nearest to the sun 
(it must lie where the orbit is cut by that half of the middle line 
which passes through the sun). Conveniently for our memories, 
the sun celebrates New-Year's day by passing through this near-sun 
point, or perihelion. July 1 sees the earth at the opposite far sun 
point, or aphelion. Go backward along the orbit from perihelion 
one-ninth of a quadrant arc ; this is the point occupied on Decem- 
ber 21, the date of the sun's least midday altitude, or the winter 
solstice. Draw a line from this point through the sun ; it intersects 
the orbit at the summer solstice, which the earth passes on June 21. 
Draw a line through the sun at right angles to the solsticial line; it 
intersects the orbit in the equinoctial points. Set up a small ball on 
a vertical axis to represent the earth at the winter solstice; the sun 
can then be imagined to illuminate the near half of the earth; the 
day-and-night circle will separate the illuminated half from the dark 
half of the earth. As the earth now stands, with a vertical axis, the 

* \ simple, small and cheap " elementary globe," divested of nearly all nn s», and show i n -_c 

only tin- mosl general relief, ia published by \. I >"i Ily, Oxford, V 5 . 



> PROFESSOR HENRY ALLEN HAZES' 

plane of tin- equator passes through the .sun ; but this lias heen shown 
l>y observation to be impossible ;tt the time of the winter solstice. 
On thai date the bud is 23° south of the equator. The axis of the 
earth musl therefore be tilted 23° from the vertical and away from 
the ~nn in order to imitate actual conditions. 

As the prolonged axis meets the sky in the same point at all 
seasons of the year, the attitude of the axis must always be parallel to 
it< initial position. ( larry the earth around its orbit, holding the axis 
properly on the way. and observe the relative attitude of the day-and- 
night circle at different times of year. All the peculiar variations of 
the sun's midday altitude, of the times and directions of sun rise and 
Bet, and of the length of day and night can he explained by this little 

working model ; hence it may he fairly said to present the conditions 
o: nature. It i- well that the scholar should know that it is entirely 
on the basis of Buch agreements between hypothesis and fact that 
text-books make statements about the inclination of tin: earth's axis, 
the duration of its annual revolution, and so on. There is no other 
d<»or by which one can really enter the domain of knowledge, where 
the motto is written : " Truth for authority, not authority for truth." 
When beginning to prepare this article it was my intention to cover 
other branches of the subject as well a- those here treated, hut on 
advancing into the manuscript it ha- seemed better to expand general 
recommendations into somewhat specific explanations in order to 
aid in carrying them into practice. Tim- the article has grown un- 
duly long. Something about practical exercises on the oceans and 
the land- may lie presented at another time. 



PROFESSOR HENRY ALLEN HAZEN 

By a sad accident on the evening of Monday, January 22, L900, the U. S. 
Weather Bureau l"-t one of it- most prominent officials and the National Geo- 
graphic Society one of it- active members. Professor Hazen, while riding on 
his bicycle, hastening to his night work at the Weather Bureau, collided with a 
pedestrian ami was 'la-Wed to the ground. He received injuries from which he 
died twenty-four hours later. 

Professor Hazen was born January 12, 1849, in Sirur, India, about 100 miles 
east of Bombay, and was the Bon of Rev. alien Hazen ami Martha Chapin, his 
wife, missionaries of the ( !ongregational Church, lie came to this country when 
ten years old, and was educated at Si Johnsbury, Vermont, and at Dartmouth 
< lollege, \\ here he was graduated in 1871. For some years he was instructor in 






GEOGRAPHIC MISCELLANEA , 79 

drawing in the Sheffield Scientific School, New Haven, and later was assistant in 
meteorology and physics under Professor Elias Loom is. He received an appoint- 
ment in the Weather Bureau in May, 1881, being assigned to special duty on such 
problems as the investigation of the psychrometer and the proper exposures of 
thermometers, the study of thunderstorms, and other important questions. 
At a later period Professor Hazen was assigned to duties of a broader aspect, 
including weather forecasting and occasional editorial work on the Monthly 
Weatlier Review. In addition to his official work in the Weather Bureau, Pro- 
fessor Hazen was a frequent contributor to meteorological and other scientific 
journals. He was one of the supporters of Science during the years 1882-1889 
and of the American Meteorological Journal, 1884-1886. Among his larger pub- 
lications are the " Reduction of Air Pressure to Sea Level " and the " Climate 
of Chicago." 



GEOGRAPHIC MISCELLANEA 

The Peary Arctic Club (Brooklyn, N. Y.) in recording its admiration for Mr 
Peary's activity and persistence has pledged its unfaltering support to the re- 
maining work of the expedition. 

Notwithstanding the greatly increased cost, both of materials and labor, 
the shipbuilding output of Great Britain in 1899 was the largest on record, 
having reached the enormous total of 1,713,000 tons. Preliminary returns place 
the year's output in Germany at 257,927 tons, in the United States at 178,636 
tons, and in France (the only other country exceeding 50,000 tons) at 60,586 
tons. 

A recent number of Science announces that an expedition organized by Baron 
Toll for the exploration of the New Siberia Islands and Saunikoff Land, into 
which no man has yet penetrated, will set out in June next from some Nor- 
wegian port. The party will pass the winter at a point on the banks of the 
Lena, above the town of Yokutsk, and in the summer of 1901 will begin their 
explorations toward the north. 

Mr E. H. Harriman, the patron of the expedition to Alaska which bears his 
name, will publish the results of the expedition in a series of several volumes 
prepared under the general editorial management of Dr C. Hart Merriam. The 
first volume is to be a narrative of the expedition by John Burroughs, with a 
chapter on glaciers by John Muir, and other chapters by well-known writers. 
The scientific results, comprising several separate volumes, are being prepared 
by the specialists who had charge of the different branches of work: 

Some months since the French Government, according to the Le Tour Du 
Mom/,, instructed I'. Froc, director of the meteorological observatory neat 
Shanghai, to choose some site in the French I ndo-< 'hina colony and there estab- 
lish a meteorological observatory. The director has chosen for the purposes 
Blight elevation near Tonkin called Kalan, which is only 400 feel high. The 
hill is near the sea, and the neighboring lulls which encircle it form a sort of 



80 ( • i:< "■ /.'.l l'HK M />' EL L A .v/;. I 

enclosure, which is peculiarly sensitive to all the phenomena of the surround- 
ing country, and also to the slightest disturbance from the sea. The observa- 
tory will thus have a maritime as well as a meteorological value. 

Tin-: project of maintaining the level of Lake Erie near its high-water stage 
during the navigation season by constructing a dam across Niagara River be- 
low Buffalo harbor is reported by the Deep Water Ways Commission as practi- 
cable and desirable. Thus the water lost by evaporation in summer could he 
partially replaced by accumulating the surplus water during the closed season 
and releasing it when most necessary in the open season. The besl location for 
a dam is. according to the board, at the fool of the lake, just In 'low Buffalo harbor. 
A canal with a lock is provided on the American side around the end of the 
dam and the rapids at the head of the river. The cost of the regulating works 
i- estimated at $796,923, and of the luck and canal at (2,325,967. The changes 
would raise the low-water stage about three feet in hake Erie, two feet in hake 
St Clair, and one foot in hake Huron. 

Tin: I". S. Commercial Agent at Vladivostock, Mr Richard T. < Ireener, reports 
that it is proposed to turn the military port of Vladivostock into a commercial 
port, making it the principal terminus of the Trans-Siberian Railroad. Port 
Arthur will then become the chief military port of eastern Siberia. Talienwan, 
w 1 1 id i has heen rename. 1 " I lalny." w ill he the commercial port, and an "'open" 
one. of the I'echili Gulf. Every effort will be made to make it an important 
trade center. The plans of -tieet-. government buildings, etc., are already form- 
ulated and will be put in execution, while the construction of the various lines 
of railroad is also being pushed to completion. The plan of the Russian gov- 
ernment to form an eastern Asiatic steamship company to open communication 
between Port Arthur, the Manchurian Railroad, Vladivostock, and other ports 
of the Far hast is now arranged. The service between Vladivostock and Port 

Arthur will soon he begun. 

Tin: Manual of Tides now being prepared in the ('oast and Geodetic Survey 
< Mlice by I >r R. A. 1 (arris will discuss, among other subjects, the tidal theory. So 
far as the study of the tidal oscillations in the great oceanic basins has progressed, 
it tends to show that the dominating tides of most localities owe their origin to 
one of two methods of generation. The first is that implied in the corrected 
equilibrium theory, and pertains to rather small and well enclosed bodies <>f 
water: tie-second, and far more important, method is that implied in stationary 
oscillations whose \'r^->' periods approximately coincide with the periods of the 
tidal forces. As an example of these oscillating areas may be cited the region 
lying south of the .Maine coast, from Nantucket to the southern end of Nova 
Scotia, l-dllow in- a line, somewhat convex, toward the south, joining these 
two points, there appears to he a small tidal disturbance, probably not more 
than two feet, whereas along the entire New England coast, north of Nantucket, 

the tides are in the neighbor! 1 of from eight to ten feet. Moreover, on this 

nodal line just mentioned, running from Nantucket to Nova Scotia, the currents 
are well pronounced, so that it appear- that we have here an area which oscil- 
late- about the nodal line as an axis, thus producing high water at practically 
tie- same time along the New England coast. 



Nu 1 TI ONA L GEO GRA PJIIC MA GA ZINE 



NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 



President 
Alexander Graham Bell 

Vice-President 
W J McGEE 



1897-igoo 
Marcus Bakhr 
Henry F. Blount 
F. V. Coyille 
S. H. Kauffmann 
Willis L. Moore 
W. B. Powell 



Board of Managers 
1898-1901 
A. Graham Bell 
Henry Gannett 
A. W. Greely 
John Hyde 
W J McGEE 

F. H. Newell 



1 899- 1 90 2 
Charles J. Bell 
G. K. Gilbert 
A. J. Henry 
David J. Hill 
C. Hart Merriam 
H. S. Pritchett 



Treasurer 
Henry Gannett 

Recording Secretary 
A. J. Henry 



Corresponding Secretary 
Willis L. Moore 

Foreign Secretary 
Eliza Ruhamah Scidmore 



OFFICES OF THE SOCIETY 

Rooms 107, 108, Corcoran Building, Fifteenth and F Streets N. W., Washington, D. C. 
Office Hours: 8.30 A. M. to 5.00 P. M. Telephone No. 471. 

The National Geographic Magazine is sent free of charge to all members of the 
National Geographic Society 

Recommendation for Membership in the National Geographic Society. 

The following form is enclosed for use in the nomination of persons for member- 
ship. Please detach <tn<l till in blanks and send to the Secretary. 

Dies: Resident, $5 ; Non-resident, $2 ; Life membership, $50. If check be en- 
closed, please make it payable to order of the National Geographic Society, and, if at a 
distance from Wasbington, remit by New York draft or P. 0. money-order. 

1900 



To the Secretary, National Geographic Society, 

Washington, I). C. : 

Please propose 

occupation "ml address : 



for 



membership in ilu Society. 



NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



O 
O 





CHESAPEAKE &. OHIO RY. 

TTHR F. F. V. LIMITED is one of the finest trains hauled over any railway track in America. It runs 
solid between Cincinnati and New York, the route from Washington being over the Pennsylvania 
i It has every modern convenience and appliance, and the dining-car service has no superior if 
it has an equal. The road-bed is literally hewed out of the eternal rocks; it is ballasted with stone 
from one end to the other ; the greater portion is laid with one-hundred-pound steel rails, atid although 
curves are numerous in the mountain section, the ride is as smooth as over a Western prairie. 

One of the most delightful rides in all the route is that through the New River valley. The 
mountains are just low enough to be clad with verdure to the very top, and in the early spring every 
variety of green known to the mixer of colors can be seen, while the tones in autumn take on all the 
range from brown to scarlet. 

These facts should be borne in mind by the traveler between the Kast and the West. 

H. W. FULLER, Gen/. Pass. Agent, Washington. D. C. 

The Fastest and Finest Train in the West .... 




The Overland Limited 



TO. 



UTAH and CALIFORNIA. 



°'sSdTO^ V 



FROM 16 TO 20 HOURS 
SAVED BY USING 



4 <THE OVERLAND ROUTE," 

Double Drawing-Room Pullman Sleepers. 

Free Reclining Chair Cars. 

Pullman Dining Cars. 

Buffet Smoking and Library Cars. 



Send for Descriptive Pamphlet " 49-96,'' 
Folders and other Advertising Matter. 
(Mention thin publication.) 



E. L. LOMAX, 

General Passenger and Ticket Agent, 

OMAHA, NEB 






Please mention this Magazine when writing to advertisers. 



NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



THE CHICAGO, MILWAUKEE AND ST. PAUL RAILWAY 

- . H.XJ3«-S - - 

Electric Lighted and Steam Heated Vestibuled Trains between Chicago, Mil- 
waukee, St. Paul and Minneapolis daily. 

Through Parlor Cars on day trains between Chicago, St. Paul and Minneapolis. 

Electric Lighted and Steam Heated Vestibuled Trains between Chicago and 
Omaha and Sioux City daily. 

Through Sleeping Cars, Free Reclining Chair Cars and Coaches between Chicago 
and Kansas City, Mo. 

Only two hours from Chicago to Milwaukee. Seven fast trains each way, daily, 
with Parlor Car Service. 

Solid trains between Chicago and principal points in Northern Wisconsin and 
the Peninsula of Michigan. 

Through Trains with Palace Sleeping Cars, Free Reclining Chair Cars and Coaches 
between Chicago and points in Iowa, Minnesota, Southern and Central Dakota. 

The finest Dining Cars in the World. 

The best Sleeping Cars. Electric Reading Lamps in Berths. 

The best and latest type of private Compartment Cars, Free Reclining Chair 
Cars, and buffet Library Smoking Cars. 

Everything First=class. First-class People patronize First-class Lines. 

Ticket Agents everywhere sell tickets over the Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul Ry. 

GEO. H. HEAFFORD, 

General Passenger Agent, Chicago, III. 



CALIFORNIA.. 

C"")F course you expect to go there this Spring. Let 
^"^ me whisper something in your ear. Be sure that 
the return portion of your ticket reads via the . 

Northern Pacific-Shasta Route* 

Then you will see the grandest mountain scenery in 
the United States, including Ht. Hood and fit. Rainier, 
each more than 14,000 feet high, Ht. St. Helens, 
fit. Adams, and others. You will also be privileged 
to make side trips into the Kootenai Country, where 
such wonderful new gold discoveries have been made, 
and to Yellowstone Park, the wonderland not only of 
the United States, but of the World. Close railroad 
connections made in Union Station, Portland, for Puget 
Sound cities and the east, via Northern Pacific. 

CHAS. S. FEE, 

General Passenger Agent, St. Paui, Minn. 



Please mention tins Magazine when writing to advertisers. 



NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



■J3HOPLE like to read about the great 
■*■ and wonderful country of the 
Southwest ; of its quaint and curious 
towns, its ancient civilizations, its 
natural marvels. They like to get ac- 
curate information about California 
and the Pacific Coast. This is because 
\ most people want to some day see these 

N things for themselves 

\ 
Y 

< 



v 

\ 



«£<<& 



A charming book covering these 
facts is is>ued by the 

PASSENGER DEPARTMENT 

OF Till. 

Southern Pacific Railway, 

and will be sent to anyone, postpaid, 
on receipt of TEN CENTS. 



<c£«^* 



THE BOOK 15 ENTITLED 



I "Through Storyland ! 
to Sunset Seas/' 



<c£fc§» 



You can get a copy by writing to 

S. F. B. MORSE, 

(ieneral Passenger Agent, 
Southern Pacific, 

New Orleans, 

and sending 10 cts. to defray postage. 



t^*«cS* 



AND IS A WONDERFULLY HAND- 
SOME VOLUME OF 205 PAGES, 
WITH 160 ILLUSTRATIONS. . . . 
The paper used is FINE PLATE 
PAPER, and every typographical de- 






< 
N 
^ 
N 



1 

1 

i 

i 
i 
< 
i 

i 

i 

* 



tail is artistic. It is a story of what ^ 

y 

four people saw on just such a trip as ^ 

Is 
you would like to make y 

i 

1 



Please mention this Magazine when writing to advertisers. 



NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



Burlington 




Leave BOSTON every Tuesday 
Leave CHICAGO every Wednesday 
Leave ST. LOUIS every Wednesday 



PERSONALLY CONDUCTED 
TOURIST PARTIES TO 

California 

Comfortable and Inexpensive 




C ELECT PARTIES leave Boston every Tuesday via Niagara Falls 
and Chicago, joining at Denver a similar party, which leaves St. 
Louis every Wednesday. From Denver the route is over the Scenic 
Denver and Rio Grande Railway, and through Salt Lake City. 

Pullman Tourist Sleeping Cars of a new pattern are used. They are thoroughly com- 
fortable and exquisitely clean, fitted with double windows, high-back seats, carpets, 
spacious toilet-rooms, and the same character of bedding found in Palace Cars. They 
are well heated and brilliantly lighted with Pintsch gas. Outside they are of the regu- 
lation Pullman color, with wide vestibules of steel and beveled plate glass. Beautifully 
illustrated books on California and Colorado, with maps, train schedules and com- 
plete information can be had from any of the following Burlington Route agents: 



J. SWORDS 

I$7!) Broadway 

NEW YORK CITY 
E. BELL 

21 1 Clark Street 

CHICAGO, ILL 



W. J. O'MEARA 

:{<)<> Washington Street 
BOSTON, MASS. 

. D. HAGERMAN 

7().'5 Park Building 

PITTSBURG, PA. 



H. E. HELLER 

*;.'{'_» Chestnut Street 

PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

J. G. DELAPLAINE 

Broadway and Olive Streets 
ST. LOUIS, MO. 



Please mention this Magazine when writing to advertisers. 



NATIONAL GEOGRAPHU MAGAZINE 



r ( 



a 

in 

4 



! 

pi 



Shortest Line 

TO 

St. Paul and Minneapolis 



and the Northwest 



Chicago 
Great 



Maple 
Leaf 
Route" 



Western 



RAILWAY 



For tickets, rates or any detailed information apply 
to your home agent or write to 

F. H. LORD, 

Gen'l Pass'r and Ticket Agent, 
CH1CAQO. 



f?L — +. +■ - * - * — i> -A — ■*- — ^ — -*--»- — ^ -^ — -*- ■ ---*- -*- —--*■—--»■ - -»- — ^ -■ — -£■ ---«■ — --^ — -.^~--g---^- 




ji ij ij ifc »fr \K ij ij * j> j * * j ifc * j j ij ij ij j jj \fe ij j ij ij ij ij it jj <e 



A VITAL POINT 



IMPROVEMENT THE CIDER OF THE AS .• 




A TYPEWRITER'S 
PRINTING MECHANISM 

MUST BE SCIENTIFICALLY CON- 
STRUCTED. THIS POINT IS OF 
UTMOST IMPORT FOR 

EASY OPERATION AND 

PERFECT EXECUTION. 



Cbe Smith.. 
Premier 
typewriters 



Superior on This Point as Well as on All Others. 

The Smith Premier Typewriter Co., 



ONLY CORRECT 
PRINCIPLES EMPLOYED 



SYRACUSE, N. Y. , U. S. A. 



3^ 



% '4\ '4\ '4\ '*\ '4\ '$ <4\ '4\ '4\ '4\ '4\ '4\ '4\ '4\ '4\ <4\ q\ '4\ '4* '4\ '4\ q\ '4\ '4* '4} '4} W4H'WV*^ 

Catalogues and Information at Washington Offce, No. 519 Eleventh Street. 



Please mention this Magazine when writing to advertisers. 



NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE. 



THE AMERICAN FORESTRY ASSOCIATION. 

ORGANIZED APRIL, 1882. INCORPORATED JANUARY, 1897. 

OFFICERS FOR 1899. 

President: Hon. James Wilson, Secretary of Agriculture. 
First Vice-Pres.: Dr B. E. Fernow. Vice-Pres. for District of Columbia: George W. McLanahan. 

Corresponding Sec 'y: F. H. Newell. Recording Secretary and Treasurer; George P. Whittlesey. 

The object of this Association is to promote : 

i. A more rational and conservative treatment of the forest resources of this continent. 

2. The advancement of educational, legislative, and other measures tending to promote this object. 

3. The diffusion of knowledge regarding the conservation, management, and renewal of forests, 

the methods of reforestation of waste lands, the proper utilization of forest products, the plant- 
ing of trees for ornament, and cognate subjects of arboriculture. 
Owners of timber and woodlands are particularly invited to join the Association, as well as are all 
persons who are in sympathy with the objects herein set forth. 

Life Membership, $50. Annual Membership, $2.00. 

TMr C"r\DC"QTirD THK OFFICIAL ORGAN OF 

lnL rUnLoILn! the American forestry association. 

A monthly magazine devoted to Arboriculture and Forestry, the care and use of 
forests and forest trees, and related subjects. 

Subscriptions, $1.00 a Year. (Furnished gratis to members of the Association.) 

Address all communications to 

Corcoran Building, Washington, D. C. 

HENRY ROMEIKE'S BUREAU OF PRESS CUTTINGS, 

no Fifth Avenue, New York, 

Reads every paper of importance published in the United States, and through its 
European agencies in London, Paris, Berlin, and Vienna every paper of importance 
published in Europe and the British Colonies. One subscription on any given sub- 
ject will bring notices from the United States, and if desired also from the European 
papers. Write for terms. 



WOODWARD & LOTHROP 

invite attention to their selections and importations in desirable 

merchandise for the present season, 

comprising in part 

Paris and London Millinery, Silks, Velvets, 
High-class Dress Goods, Ready-to- Wear 
Outer Garments for Women, Girls and Boys, 
Hand-made Paris Lingerie, Corsets, Infants' 
Outfittings, Hosiery, Laces, Ribbons, Em- 
broideries, Linens, Upholstery Goods, Books, 
Stationery, Card Engraving; also Paris, 
Vienna, and Berlin Novelties in Leather and 
Fancy Goods, Sterling Silver Articles, Lamps, 
Clocks, Bronzes, etc., for Wedding Gifts .... 

10th, 11th and F Streets, Washington, D. C. 

Please mention tlii- Magazine when writing to advertisers. 



NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



NEW GEOGRAPHICAL BOOKS 
Carpenter's Geographical Reader — South America . • $0.60 

A personally conducted tour through the most characteristic parts of the Continent. 

Children visit the different countries and observe the people in their homes and at their 

work. They learn much of the natural wealth of the countries, of the curious animals o' 

the different zones, and of the wonder fid flowers and trees of the tropics. Written in familiar 

itional style. Colored maps and beautiful illustrations. 

( Hher Hooks of the Series. 

Carpenter's Geographical Reader — North America . $0.60 

Carpenter's Geographical Reader — Asia .... .60 

THE NATURAL GEOGRAPHIES 

Natural Elementary Geography .... .60 

Natural Advanced Geography ..... 1.25 

Tli. met with the most astonishing success of any geographies ever 

published anil are now used in Dearly all the leading schools throughout the country. They 
are the only school geographies having corresponding maps drawn on the same scale and 
showing Correctly the relative size of countries. Other new features. 



Send price <i>nl receive, postpaid, copies of these valuable books 

AMERICAN BOOK COMPANY 

NEW YORK CINCINNATI CHICAGO BOSTON ATLANTA PORTI.A.XD, ORE 



SELIMD TO THE: 

MACMILLAN COMPANY 

For the LATEST TEXT-BOOKS and WORKS OF REFERENCE 

ON EVERY BRANCH OF SCIENCE BY 

LEADING AUTHORS. 



PROF. I. H. BAILEY (Cornell University), 

works on Agriculture and Botany 
PROF. THORP (Mass. Inst. Tech.), on Indus- 
trial Chemistry. $j.;o net. 

nn«»«m». n r,/. ,- ■ , r . i PRO F. I- AM BE RT ( Lehigh University), on Dif 

PROF. PACKARD (Brown I niv. >, on hntomology. . . 



PROF. NICHOLS and his Colleagues (De- 
partment of Physics, Cornell Univ.), in Physics, 
Electricity, etc. 



$4.50 net. 



ferential and Integral Calculus. $1.50 net. 



profs. BARENESS And MF.KLKY (Bryn pRQF LACHMAX ( Univ . of Oregon), The 

Mawr and Haverford). Theory of Analytic Spirit of Organic Chemistry. $1.50 net. 

Functions. $3.00 net. 

PROF. DAVENPORT (Harvard University). PROF. TARR (Cornell Univ.), Physical Geogra- 

Experimental Morphology. Vol. I, $260 ; Vol pi, ,._ Geology, etc. 

II, $2.00. 

PROF. HENRY F. OSBOKN (Columbia I'niv). PROF. COUREY (Tufts College), Dictionary ot 

Editor ol the Columbia Biological Series. Chemical Solubilities. 

These are a few only of the names represented in the Catalogue or the New 
Announcement List (sent fret . 

THE MACMILLAN COMPANY, Publishers, NEW YORK. 



Please mention this Magazine when writing to advertisers. 



NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



The Leading Scientific Journal of America 

SCIENCE 

A JOURNAL DEVOTED TO THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE. 

PUBLISHED EVERY FRIDAY. 

Annual Subscription, $5.00. Single Copies, 15 Cents. 



From its first appearance, in 1883, Science has maintained a repre- 
sentative position, and is regarded, both here and abroad, as the leading 
scientific journal of America. 

Its Editors and Contributors come from every institution in this country 
in which scientific work of importance is accomplished, including Harvard, 
Yale, Columbia, Pennsylvania, Johns Hopkins, Cornell, and California 
Universities, among others. 



EDITORIAL COMMITTEE. 

S. Newcomb, Mathematics ; R. S. Woodward, Mechanics; EC. Pickering, Astronomy; 
T. C. Mendenhall, Physics ; R. H.Thurston, Engineering ; Ira REMSEn, Chemis- 
try ; J. Le ConTE, Geology ; W. M. Davis, Physiography ; Henry F. Osborn, 
Paleontology; \V. K. Brooks, C. Hart MERRIAM, Zoology; S. II. 
Scudder, Entomology ; C. E. Bessey, N. L. Brittox, Botany ; C. S. 
MinoT, Embryology, Histology ; H. P. BowdiTCH, Physiology ; 
J. S. Biujngs, Hygiene ; J. McKEEN Catteu.,, Psychology ; 
J. W. PowEU,, Anthropology. 



NEW AND POPULAR SCIENTIFIC BOOKS. 



HARDIN 

The Liquefaction of Oases. Its Rise 
and Development. By Wli.LET L. 
Hardin, Ph D., University of Penn- 
sylvania. Cloth, i2mo, #1.50. 

A popular > - et complete account of the methods 
used in the liquefaction of air, among other 
gases. 

GANONG 

The Teaching Botanist. A Manual 
of information upon Botanical In- 
struction, together with Outlines and 
Directions fi r a Comprehensive Ele- 
mentary Course. By William P. 
Ganong, I'h. I)., Smith College. 

Cloth, 1 Jiuo, 5' • i" net. 

A manual of information upon botanical in- 
struction, with outlines and directions foi an 

elementary I i 



MACBRIDE 

The Slime Moulds. A Handbook of 
North American Myxomycetes. By 
Thomas H. MacBride, Professor of 
Botany, University of Iowa. 
Cloth, 121110. 

A list of all species described in North 
America, including Central America, with an- 
notations. 

SUTER 

Handbook of Optics. For Students 
of Ophthalmology. By William N. 
Sutkr, M. I)., National University, 
Washington, I). C. 

•.'loth, 1 21110, |i.»io net. 

Aims to give a clean 1 in sigh 1 into the phenom" 

.n.i oi refraction as applied io ophthalmology 

11 b obtained from the usual text-books on 

Refraction "i t he 



THE MACMILLAN COMPANY, Publishers, NEW YORK, 



Please mention thin Magazine when writing to advertisers. 



NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



APPLETON'S 

GEOGRAPHICAL SERIES. 



Edited by H. J. MACKINDER, M. A., Student of Christ Church, 

Reader in Geography in the University of Oxford, 

Principal of Reading College. 



The series will consist of twelve volumes, each being an essay descriptive 
<>f a great natural region, its marked physical features, and the life of its people. 
Together the volumes will give a complete account of the world, more especially 
as the field of human activity. 

The series is intended for reading rather than for reference, and will stand 
removed on the one hand from the monumental work of Reclus, and on the 
other from the ordinary text-hook, gazetteer, and compendium. 

Bach volume is to In- illustrated by many maps printed iu colors and by 
diagrams in the text, and it will he a distinguishing characteristic of the series 
that both maps and diagrams will be drawn so that each of them shall convey 
some salient idea, and that together they shall constitute a clear epitome of the 
writer's argument. With a like object, the pictures also will be chosen so as 
to illustrate the text and not merely to decorate it. A detailed announcement 
of this important series will be presented later. 

List of the Subjects and Authors. 

Britain and the North Atlantic. By the Editor. 

Scandinavia and the Arctic Ocean. By Sir Clements R. Markham, 

K. C B., P. R. S., President of the Royal Geographical Society. 
The Romance Lands and Barbary. By Elisee Reclus, author of the 

" Nouvelle Geographie I'niverselle." 
Central Europe. By Dr. JOSEPH 1'arTSCH, Professor of Geography in 

the University of Breslau. 
Africa. By Dr. J. Scott Kki.tie, Secretary of the Royal Geographical 

Society ; Editor of " The Statesman's Year-Book. " 
The Near East. By 1). G. Hogarth, M. A., Fellow of Magdalen Col- 

lege, Oxford ; Director of the British School at Athens; Author of "A 

Wandering Scholar in the Levant." 

7. The Russian Empire. By Prince Krapotkin, author of the articles 

"Russia " and " Siberia" in the Encyclopedia Brilannica. 

8. The Far East. By Archibald Little. 

9. India. By Sir T. HUNGKRFORD Holdich, K. C. I. E-, C. B., R. E., Su- 

perintendent of Indian Frontier Surveys. 

10. Australasia and Antarctica. By Dr. II. O. Forbes, Curator of the 

Liverpool Museum ; late Curator of the Christ Church Museum, N. Z. ; 
Author of "A Naturalist's Wanderings in the Eastern Archipelago." 

11. North America. By Prof. I. C. RrsSELL, University of Michigan. 

12. South America. By Prof. John C. Brounek, Vice-President Lelaud 

Stanford Junior University. 

Maps by J. G. Bartholomew. 

D. APPLETON & CO., Publishers, 

NEW YORK. 



Pleas( mtion this Magazine when writing to advertisers. 



NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



IMPORTANT ANNOUNCEHENT ! 

THE 

INTERNATIONAL 
GEOGRAPHY. 

The last few 3 r ears have proved so rich in geographical discov- 
eries that there has been a pressing need for a resume of recent ex- 
plorations and changes which should present in convenient and 
accurate form the latest results of geographical work. The addi- 
tions to our knowledge have not been limited to Africa, Asia, and 
the Arctic regions, but even on our own continent the gold of the 
Klondike has led to abetter knowledge of the region, while within 
a short time we shall have much more exact geographical informa- 
tion concerning the numerous islands which make up the Philippines. 
The want which is indicated will be met by The International Geog- 
raphy, a convenient volume for the intelligent general reader, and 
the library which presents expert summaries of the results of geo- 
graphical science throughout the world at the present time. 

Seventy authors, all experts, have collaborated in the production 
of The International Geography . The contributors include the lead- 
ing geographers and travelers of Europe and America. The work 
has been planned and edited by Dr. H. R. Mill, who also wrote 
the chapter on The United Kingdom. Among the authors are : 

Professor W. M. Davis (The United States), 

Dr. Fridtjof Nansen (Arctic Regions), 

Professor A. Kirchhoff (German Empire), 

Mr. F. C. Serous i Rhodesia), 

Professors DE LapparenT and RavENEAU (France), 

Sir Ci,ements R. Markham, F. R. S. (Ecuador, Bolivia, and Peru), 

Sir John Murray, F. R. S. (Antarctic Regions), 

Count PFEIL (German Colonies), - , , 

Mr. JAMES BRYCE, M. P. (The Boer Republics), 

Sir H. H. Johnston, the late Sir Lambert P^ayfair, 

Sir F. J. GoitDSMlD, Sir Martin Conway, 

sir George S. Robertson, Sir Wiixiam macGregor, 

Sir CHARGES Wii.son. V. R. S. ; the Hon. D. W. CARNEGIE, 

Mrs. Bishop, Dr. A. M. W. Downing, F. R. S. ; 

Dr. J. Scott Kki.tjK, and 

Mr. G. G. Chisholm, the editor of the Times Gazetteer. 

The book is illustrated by nearly five hundred maps and diagrams, which 
have been specially prepared. It is designed to present in the compact limits 
of a single volume an authoritative conspectus of the science of geography 
and the conditions of the countries at the end of the nineteenth century. 

D. APPLETON & CO., Publishers, 

72 Fifth Avenue, New York. 

Please mention this Magazine when writing to advertisers. 



NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



DOUBLEDAY & McCLURE CO., 

141-155 East 25th Street, New York. 



The United States of Europe. W. T. Stead. 

ON I II K EVE OF THE PARLIAMENT OF PEACE. 

Mr. Stead's recent talks with the Czar and with all the great European statesmen 
lend much value t<> this timely review of current politics, written with special reference 
to the Russian Peace Rescript and American "Expansion." It covers such pertinent 
matters as America's task in Cuba and the Philippines, the "Chinese Puzzle," South 
African Problems, the Fashoda Muddle, the Concert of Kurope and its work in Creteand 
Candia, and soon, with many suggestive forecasts. 

Size, 5 '.. \ ^', : pages, 46S; over 100 portraits, maps, and illustrations; binding, cloth. 
Price, $2.00. 

Sketches in Egypt. Charles Dana Gibson. 

" Egypt," says Mr. Gibson, " has sat for her likeness longer than any other coun- 
try." The recent important events that have turned all eyes toward the Upper Nile 
have not disturbed in the least the ancient composure and serenity of the Land of the 
Pharoahs, and few countries offer such a tempting field to the artistic pen. Mr. Gibson's 
forceful and suggestive drawings are well reinforced by his written impressions — more 
complete than he has ever before published— and the whole makes up a uniquely in- 
teresting record, from an artist who occupies a peculiar position among us. It is the real 
Egypt from a new standpoint. No pains have been spared to produce a true art work, 
giving really adequate presentations of Mr. Gibson's drawings. 

Size, 7-< + x io'^; cloth decorated; pages, 150; type, 12 point. Regular edition, $3.00 
net. Edition de Luxe, 250 signed and numbered copies, each accompanied by a portfolio 
containing art proofs of ten of the most important pictures, on Japan silk tissue and 
mounted on plate paper suitable for framing. Price per copy, $10.00 net. As SOON as 
ACTUALLY FUBUSHBD THK PRICK OX ALL DE I.UXK COPIES NOT SUBSCRIBED FOR WILL 
BE RAISED. 

From Sea to Sea. Rudyard Kipling. 

35th THOUSAND. 

This is an authorized edition of the collected letters of travel which Mr. Rudyard 
Kipling has written at various times between 1889 and 1898, and has just edited and 
revised. It includes hitherto unpublished matter, as well as an accurate text of the 
"American Notes." with " Letters of Marque," " The City of Dreadful Night," "The 
Smith Administration," etc., etc 

Even Mr. Kipling never wrote anything more entirely irresistible than are, for in- 
stance, his letters on Japan. The ludicrousness of the Japanese " heavy cavalry," the 
fascinating O-Toyo, the cherry blossoms, and the wonderful art which permeates the 
daily life of natural Japan — all these things become permanent in the reader's mind and 
can never be forgotten; and they show a side of the author which is not at all prominent 
in most of his other work. 

Size, 5x7',; two volumes in box; pages, 860; type, 10 point; binding, cloth. 
Price, $2 00. 



Please mention this Magazine when writing to advertisers. 



Nu 1 TION. 1 L CEO GR. J Pill C MAG J ZINE 



The American Anthropologist. 

The only American magazine devoted to the science of Anthropology ; 
published at the National Capital. No one interested in anthropology in any 
of its branches can afford to be without it. Stibscribe today. 



Handsomely Printed and Illustrated. Published Quarterly. Four Dollars a Year. 

Address: THE AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGIST, 

G. P. Putnam's Sons, 27 and 29 West 23d Street, New York City. 




f> RAS 



! 1. J'- 





1-p-A-N 



A practical journalist, long a member of the staff of the Washington Evening Star, resigned 
lii> position to go to Guatemala. Before he lefl Washington he had been a firm believer in the 
medicinal qualities of Ripans Tabules, and took :i lol of them with him to Guatemala, where he 

earned the friendship ol the captain of the stei r, h I • i ■ - 1 • sails from San Francisco and stops al 

port* in I antral America, by making known to him the marvelous virtues oi R t-P \ \ ■•: the 
medical wonder of the century. He often dilates upon the captain's enthusiasm aboul the Tabules 
that the people of the tropice suffer terribly from indigestion, and thai the Tabules 
are now known mosl favorablj throughoul Central America. Ripane Tabules quiel the nerves, 
< i|x>->- the mind, allay irritation, and invite repose. One gives relief. 

WANTED:— A ease of bad health thai R I P l-N-8 will noi benefit. Thej banish pain and 

iirolonglife. One gives relief. Note the word B I P l-N-S on the package and accept no substitute. 
t-I-P-A-N-8. in for 6 cents, or twelve packets for i* cents, maj be had al any drug store. Ten 
i one thousand testimonials will be mailed i" any address for fi cents, forwarded to the 
Ripans Chemical Co., No. 10 8pruce St., New fork. 



Please mention this Magazine when writing to advertisers. 



NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



LECTURE COURSES 



or THE 



NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY. 

The program of the lectures for each month and all other announcements 
by tlie Society will be published regularly in the National Geographic 
Magazine. 



THE POPULAR COURSE, 

delivered in the 
FIRST CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH, TENTH AND G STREETS N. W., 
on alternate Friday evenings at 8 o'clock. 

nary 9- — Explorations on Yangste Kiang . Mr Wm. Barclay Parsons, C. E. 

Surveyor of the railway route through the Yangste Kiang valley. 

February 16. — The History and Geographic Distribution of the Bubonic Plague, 

George m. Sternberg, 

Surgeon General, U. S. Army. 

February 23.— From the Andes through Bolivia ami Back . Hon. Wm. ElEROY Curtis, 

Ex-Director of the Bureau of American Republics. 

1 9. — Manchuria ...... Mr M. SERGEY FRIEDE, C. E. 

March 23.— The Venezuelan Boundary .... Mr Marcus Baker. 

•The International Geographic Congress . Gen. A. W. GREELY, U. S. A. 

*The Missions of California . . . Mr J. Stanley-Brown. 

*Cuba Mr GEORGE Kennan. 

Presidential Address . . . Dr Alexander Graham Bell. 



THE TECHNICAL COURSE, 

delivered in the 

ASSEMBLY HALL OF COLUMBIAN UNIVERSITY. FIFTEENTH AND H STREETS N. W„ 

on Friday evenings at 8.15 o'clock. 

February 2. — Explorations around the Arctic Circle . . Dr Frank RrssET.r,, 

Harvard University. 

March 2. — The Geographic Distribution of Seed Plants . Prof. John M. Coulter, 

Chicago University. 
March 16. — The Roman Forum Prof. MITCHELL Carroll, 

Columbian University. 

March 30. — Subject not yet announced .... Prof. Wm. M. Davis, 

Harvard University. 

v The Dykes of Holland Gerard H. MaTTheS, 

U. S. Geological Survey. 

• The Floods of the Ohio and Mississippi Valleys . H. C. Frankkneield, 

U. S. Weather Bureau. 
* The date to be announced later. 



NA TIONA L GEOGRA PHK ' MAG A ZIXE 



THE LENTEN COURSE. 

The subject of this course is The Growth ok Nations, as illustrated by the geo- 
graphic and social development of leading European nations. This course of six 
lectures has been projected with the view of bringing out the elements of national 
power, and emphasizing the importance of individual character and of natural con- 
ditions in shaping national growth. The course will be complementary to that of last 
season on " The Growth of the United States." The lectures will be delivered in 

COLUMBIA THEATER, F STREET NEAR TWELFTH, 
4.20 to 5.30 p. m., on Tuesday afternoons, during March and April. 

March 6. — The Netherlands ..... Professor J. Howard Gore, 

Columbian University. 
(With a General Introduction by the President.) 

March 13. — France Professor Jean C. Braco, 

Vassar College. 
March 21.* — Austria-Hungary ..... Professor Wiixiam Z. Ripley, 

Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 

March 27.— Germany Professor John L. Eweli,, 

Howard University. 

April 3. — England Dr. Edwin D. Mead, 

Editor of the New England Magazine. 
April 10. — Russia . . . . . . Professor Edwin A. Grosvenor, 

Amherst College. 

*Prof. Ripley's lecture on Austria-Hungary will be delivered on Wednesday, March 21, at the usual 
hour. 

SUBSCRIBE AT ONCE 

AND TAKE .... 
ADVANTAGE OF THIS 

UNPRECEDENTED OFFER 

The CRITIC. ... ) The 

Monthly. Illustrated. 12 Numbers for the Year, . . $ 2.00 

The N. Y. TIMES SATURDAY REVIEW 

Weekly. 52 Numbers for the Year, .... 1.00 



$ 3.00 

/■, , oris residing in Greater Ne.m York, who accept this offer, will pleasi send •<> 
additional to cover cost of postage. 



Two 
for 

$2.00 



...TiieCritic, now entering on its 20th year, "main- 
tains," says Zion's Herald, "its exalted reputation 
as an illustrated literary monthly, presenting the 
best in current literary life and events." It is also a 
record of the best in music, art, and the drama. 
Its portraits and other illustrations are selected 

with taste and care, and are handsomely printed. ...To all new subscribers who remit to us direct »>■ 

will, lor a limited period, send 'I'm. Critic and The 

NKW York jTlMBS Saturday Review ol Books and 
Art for $2 00, the price of The Critic alone I, .am 
reader of The NewYork Times Saturday Review nol 
already acquainted with The critic, a. sample copj 

will lie sell 1 . ,11 appljl ation, A I Id I ess Tin Cr] 1 [I (', , 

G. P. PUTNAM'S SONS, Publishers, 

27 and 29 W. TWENTY -THIRD STREET, .... NEW YORK. 



Please mention this Magazine when writing to advertisers. 



NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



4fc- SODTHERN RAILWAY 

^ GREATEST SOUTHERN SYSTEM. 

TO ALL POINTS SOUTH, SOUTHEAST, AND SOUTHWEST. 

Through Pullman Drawing Room Sleeping Cars from New 
York and Washington to New Orleans, Memphis, I*ort 
Tampa, Jacksonville, Augusta, and Intermediate Points — 
First-Class Daj Coaches— Dining Car Service, 

Fast Trains for the SOUTH leave "Washington Daily at 11.15 A. M.. 6.35 
P M .. 9 50 P. M.. and 10.45 P. M. 

Through Tourist car on the 10.45 P. M. Train every Monday, "Wednesday, 
and Fiiday for Texas. Arizona, and California points, without change. 

Diiect line to the Summer Resorts in Virginia and the Carolinas and the 
Wintei Resorts of Flonda Gulf Coast. Texas. Mexico, and California. 

Diiect Thiough Car Line to and from Asheville. Hot Springs, and other 
Western North Carolina points — 'THE LAND OF THE SKY.' 

The " New York and Florida Limited," the finest train in the world, leaves Washington 
at 6.35 P. M. daily except Sunday. Solid train to Florida. Dining Car Service. 

For Map Foldeis. Winter Homes Guide Book and Book on "ASHEVILLE 
AND THEREABOUTS write to— 

A. S. THWHATT, Kastern Passenger Agent, 271 Broailway, New York. N\ V. 
J. C. HORTON, Passenger Agent, 201 K. Baltimore Street, Baltimore, Ml 
I.. S. BROWN, General Agent, 705, Fifteenth St. N. W., Washington, 1). C. 
\\ . H. DOLL, Passenger Agent, Norfolk, Va. 

s. n. HARDWICK, Assistant General Passenger Agent, Atlanta, Ga. 

C. A. BKNSCOTBR, Assistant General Passenger Agent, Chattanooga, Tenn. 

W H TAYLOB, Assistant General Passenger Agent, Louisville, Ky. 

J. M. CUI.P, Traffic Manage"-. W. A. TURK, General Passenger Agent, 

Washiwctotc, I) C 

The Mutual Life Insurance Co. 

OF NEW YORK, 

RICHARD A. McCURDY, President, 

Is the Largest Insurance Company in the World. 



The Records of the Insurance Department of the State of New 

York SHOW THAT The Mutual Life 

Has a Larger Premium Income - - - ($39,000,000) 

More Insurance in Force ($918,000,000) 

A Greater Amount of Assets - - - ($235,000,000) 

A Larger Annual Interest Income - - - ($9,000,000) 

Writes More New Business - - - - ($136,000,000) 

And Pays More to Policy-holders - - ($25,000,000 in 1896) 

THAN ANY OTHER COMPANY. 

It has paid to Policy-holders since \ MQ7Anuoi;oQ 

its organization, in 1843, j " ' **<*7,UUD,iyD.<jy 

ROBERT A. GRANNISS, Vice-President. 

WALTER R. GILLETTE. General Manager. FREDERIC CROMWELL, Treasurer. 

ISAAC F. LLOYD, Second Vice-President. EMORY McCLINTOCK, Actuary. 

WILLIAM J. EASTON. Secretary. 



Please mention this Magazine when writing to advertisers. 



SPECIAL ANNOUNCEMENT. 



The National Geographic Magazine has a few unbound volumes for 
the years 1896, 1897, and 1898. Each volume contains numerous maps and 
illustrations and much valuable geographic matter. It is impossible to give 
the contents of each volume, but the following subjects show their wide 
range and scope : 

Vol. VII, 189(5: Russia in Europe, by the late Hon. Gardiner G. Hubbard; 
The Scope and Value of Arctic Exploration, by Gen. A. W. Greely, U.S.A. ; Venezuela, 
Her Government, People, and Boundary, by William E. Curtis; The So-called 
Jeanette Kelics, by Wm. H. Dall ; Nansen's Polar Expedition, by Gen. A. AV. Greely, 
U.S.A.; Tbe Submarine Cables of the World (with chart 49x30 inches); Seriland, 
by W J McGee and Willard D. Johnson; The Discovery of Glacier Bay, Alaska, by 
E. R. Seidmore; Hydrography in the United States, by F. H. Newell; Africa since 
1S88, by the late Hon. Gardiner G. Hubbard; The Seine, The Meuse, and The Moselle, 
by Prof. Wm. M. Davis; The Work of the U.S. Board on Geographic Names, by Henry 
Gannett ; A Journey in Ecuador, by W. B. Kerr; Geographic History of the Piedmont 
Plateau, by \V J McGee; The Recent Earthquake Wave on the Coast of Japan, by E. R. 
Seidmore; California, by Senator Geo. C. Perkins; The Witwatersrand and the Revolt 
of the Uitlanders, by George F. Becker; The Sage Plains of Oregon, by F. V. Coville. 

Vol. VI If, 1897: The Gold Coast, Ashanti and Kumassi, by Geo. K. French ; 
Crater Lake, Oregon, by J. S. Diller ; Storms and Weather Forecasts, by Willis L. Moore ; 
Rubber Forests of Nicaragua and Sierra Leone, by Gen. A. W. Greely, U.S.A. ; A Sum- 
mer Voyage to the Arctic, by G. R. Putnam ; A Winter Voyage through the Straits of 
Magellan, by the late Admiral R. W. Meade, U.S.N. ; Costa Rica, by Senor Ricardo 
Villafranca; The National Forest Reserve, by F. H. Newell; The Forests and Deserts of 
A rizona, by B. E. Fernow ; Modification of the Great Lakes by Earth Movement, by G. K. 
Gilbert; The Enchanted Mesa, by F. W. Hodge; Patagonia, by J. B. Hatcher; The 
Washington Aqueduct and Cabin John Bridge, by Capt. D. D. Gaillard, U.S.A. 

Vol. IX, 1898: Three Weeks in Hubbard Bay, West Greenland, by Robert 
Stein; The Modern Mississippi Problem, by W J McGee; Dwellings of the Saga-Time 
in Iceland, Greenland, and Vineland, by Cornelia Horsford ; Articles on Alaska, by Gen. 
A. W. Greely, U.S.A., Hamlin Garland, E. R. Seidmore, Prof. Wm. H. Dall, and others; 
on Cuba, by Robert T. Hill, Frank M. Chapman, John Hyde, and Henry Gannett; on 
the Philippines, by Dean C. Worcester, Col. F. F. Hilder, John Hyde, and Charles E. 
Howe; American Geographic Education, by W J McGee; Origin of the Physical 
Features of tbe United States, by G. K. Gilbert; Geographic Work of tbe General 
Government, by Henry Gannett; Papagueria, by W J McGee; The Bitter Root Forest 
Reserve, by R. U. Goode; Lake Chelan, by Henry Gannett; The Geospheres, by W J 
Mc( ice; Sumatra's West Coast, by D. G. Fairchild; The Five Civilized Tribes in the 
Survey of Indian Territory, by C. II. Fitch; Cloud Scenery of the High Plains, by 
Willard I). Johnson; Atlantic Coast Tides, by M. S. W. Jefferson. 



Each volume may be had for $2.00. To obtain any of the 
above mentioned articles, send 25 cents in stamps, indicating 
merely the title of the article desired. 



107-108 Corcoran Building, Washington, D. C. 



For an excellent description of the 
TRANSVAAL, of the BOERS and the 
UITLANDERS, send for number n of 
volume 7, National Geographic Magazine. 
By mail for 25 cents each. 



For the most complete, authoritative, and attractive 
publications on the PHILIPPINES, send for the June, 
1898, and February, 1899, numbers of the National 
Geographic Magazine, containing numerous maps 
and illustrations. By mail for 25 cents each. 



For a chart of the world, 48 by 30 inches, 
showing all CABLE AND OVERLAND 
TELEGRAPH LINES, and also COAL- 
ING, DOCKING, AND REPAIRING 
STATIONS, with explanatory article, send 
for number 3 of volume 7, National Geographic 
Magazine. By mail for 25 cents. 



JUDD & DETWEILER PRINTERS, WASHINGTON, D. C. 



Vol. XI , MARCH, 1900 No. 3 



THE 

NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC 



MAGAZINE 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 
BRITISH SOUTH AFRICA AND THE TRANSVAAL 

With illustrations F. F. HILDER 81 

Bureau of American Ethnology 

THE HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF BUBONIC 

PLAGUE GEORGE M. STERNBERG, LL. D. 97 

Surgeon-Genera/, U. S. Army 

ICE-CLIFFS ON WHITE RIVER, YUKON TERRITORY 

MARTIN W. GORMAN 113 

A HUNTING TRIP TO NORTHERN GREENLAND 

FULLERTON MERRILL 118 

A CANAL FROM THE ATLANTIC TO THE MEDITERRANEAN 122 

DISEASES OF THE PHILIPPINES 123 

GEOGRAPHIC MISCELLANEA 124 



WASHINGTON 

PUBLISHED BY THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 

Fur Sale at Brentano's: 

31 Union Square, New York; 101") Pennsylvania Avenue, Washington; 

218 Wabash Avenue, Chicago; 37 Avenue de l'Oi'eua, Paris 



Price 25 Cents $2.50 a Year 



Iftational <3eoguapbic /Ifoagasine 

AN ILLUSTRATED MONTHLY 



Editor: JOHN HYDE, 
Statistician of the U. S. Department of Agriculture 

Associate Editors 

General A. W. Greei.v, Marcus Baker, 

Chief Signal Officer, U. S. Army C. S. Geological Survey 

W J McGek, Wilms L. Moore, 

Ethnologist in Charge, Bureau of Chief of the Weather Bureau, U. S. 

American Ethnology Department of Agriculture 

Henry Gannett, H. S. Pritchett, 

Chief Geographer, U. S. Geological Superintendent of the U. S. Coast 

Survey and Geodetic Survey 

C. Hart MERRIAM, O. P. Austin, 

Chief of the Biological Survey, U.S. Chief of the Bureau of Statistics, 

Department of Agriculture U. S. Treasury Department 

David J. Hill, Chaju.ES II. Allen, 

. / i tistani Secretary of State Assistant Secretary of the Navy 

Eliza Ruhamah Scidmore, Carl Louise Garrison, 

Author of " Java, the Garden of Principal of Phelps School, Wash- 

the East," etc. ington, D. C. 



Assistant Editor: GILBERT H. GROSVENOR, 'Washington, D. C. 



The list of contributors to the National Geographic Magazine 
includes nearly every United States citizen whose name has become iden- 
tified with Arctic exploration, the Bering Sea controversy, the Alaska and 
Venezuela boundary disputes, or the new commercial and political questions 
arising from the acquisition of the Philippines. 

The following articles will appear in the Magazine within the next few 
months : 

" Russia," by Professor Edwin A. Grosvenor of Amherst College, Massachusetts. 
" The Venezuelan Boundary," by Mr Marcus Baker of the Venezuelan Commission. 
"The Samoau Islands," by Mr Edwin Morgan, Secretary of the Samoau Commission. 
"The Native Tribes of Patagonia," by Mr J. B. Hatcher of Princeton University. 

"The Characteristics of the Filipinos," by Hon. Dean C. Worcester of the Philippine 
Commission. 

" Discoveries in the Fossil Fields of Wyoming in 1899," by Prof. Wilbur C. Knight 
of the University of Wyoming. 

"Explorations on the Yangtse-Kiang, China," by Mr Win. Barclay Parsons, C. E., 
surveyor of the railway route through the Yangtse-Kiang Valley. 

Entered at the Post-office in Washington, D. C, as Secoud-class Mail Matter. 



NAT. GEOG. MAG. 



VOL. XI, 1900, PL. 3 




IN THE DRAKENBURG RANGE 



THE 



NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 

Vol. XI MARCH, 1900 No. 



BRITISH SOUTH AFRICA AND THE TRANSVAAL 

By F. F. Hilder, 

Bureau of American Ethnology 

To one approaching the coast of South Africa in the neighborhood 
of Table Bay from the west, the first object which strikes the eye is 
the great mass of Table Mountain looming up above the lower foot- 
hills of the coast. Passing Robben Island, the ship enters Table Bay, 
a magnificent harbor, protected by nature from all but northwest 
winds. A splendid system of breakwater and docks now affords safety 
to shipping at all seasons. 

Round the base of the mountain lie the suburbs Rondebosch, 
Claremont, Wynberg, and Constantia, which are surrounded with 
luxuriant vegetation, including oaks, firs, shrubs of many 1 ? kinds, 
flowers, and vineyards which produce excellent wine. Cape "Town 
lies between the foot of Table Mountain and the bay ; it is the capital 
of the colony, the residence of the governor, and the seat of the legis- 
lature. The population, numbering about 70,000, is composed of 
many races, those of Dutch and English descent being most numer- 
ous ; but there are also Americans and representatives of nearly every 
country in Europe. The laboring population comprises the descend- 
ants of negro slaves, Hottentots, Kafirs, and Malays. 

The Cape of Good Hope from the time of its discover}'' by Bartholo- 
meu Dias, the Portuguese navigator, in 1486, until 1652 was a place of 
call for ships of all nations. In that year the Dutch East India Com- 
pany sent Jan Van Riebeck with a small force and a party of col- 
onists to form a settlement there and hold it as a Dutch colony. The 
home authority, however, was not the government of Holland, but 
the directors of the Dutch East India Company at Amsterdam. The 
Dutch found the country inhabited by a native tribe who called 



82 BRITISH SOUTH AFRICA AND THE TRANSVAAL 

themselves Khoikhoin (men of men), but had been named Hotten- 
tots by the Portuguese, and Caepmans by the early Dutch settlers. 
The Dutch had difficulty in subduing these natives or making them 
labor, so that in 1658 they determined to institute negro slavery, and 
imported the first cargo of slaves from the Guinea Coast. 

In L687 the Dutch en]. mists were joined by a number of Hugue- 
nots, refugees who fled from France during the reign of Louis XIV, 
alter the revocation of the Edict <>f Nantes, large numbers of whom 
sought an asylum in Holland and her colonies. For more than a 
century these colonists pursued a quiet existence as agriculturists 
and traders, disturbed only by occasional strife with the natives, until 
1794, when Holland was overrun by the troops of the French Repub- 
lic. To prevent the colony from falling into the hands of the French, 
it was captured by the English in 17 ( -)-">, but was restored to Holland 
in 1 v >2 by the tre.uy of Amiens. As this peace prove. 1 to be illusory, 
war was renewed the following year, ami Cape Colony was again cap- 
tured by the English in 1806 ami has since been in their possession. 

In 181 I. after the abdication of Napoleon, it was ceded to England 
by the treaty of Paris, which action was confirmed by the Congre8S 
of Vienna in 181.5, and England paid to Holland a large sum of 
money a- indemnity for the cession of I 'ape ( lolony and the territory 
in S >nt!i America now known as British Guiana. 

Leaving Table Bay and steaming eastward along the coast, moun- 
tains are in sight nearly all the way. To reach the interior of South 
Africa from any of the landing places on the east coast, a short ex- 
tent of lowland must lie crossed and steep mountains ascended to 
the level of the great plateau beyond. The east coast presents a 
fringe of subtropical c lUtttry, where the magnolia and rose bloom 
and the orange, pineapple, lemon, grape, banana, cotton, and tea- 
plant flourish. A- the elevation increases come the mountain ranges, 
in the valleys of which are growing crops of wheat and corn. Finally 
the high veldt is reached. This consists of vast level plains sparsely 
covered with short grass, 'lotted here and there by the karoo bush, a 
stunted shrub from a foot to eighteen inches in height, which gives 
pasturage to thousands of sheep and cattle. 

There are four lines f railroad by which the South African Re- 
public can lie reached from the sea. The first extends from Cape 
Town and Fort Elizabeth, with a branch from East London, to Johan- 
nesburg, and thence to Pretoria, traversing the Orange Free State from 
south to north. The second line lies more to the west and is wholly 



BRITISH SOUTH AFRICA AND THE TRANSVAAL S3 

in English territory. It starts from Cape Town, passes through Cape 
Colony, and follows closely the western frontier of the Orange Free 
State and the Transvaal. It passes through Kimberley and Mafeking, 
from whence a wagon road runs to Krugersdorp and Johannesburg. 
This road runs as far north as Bulawayo, about 1,300 miles north of 
Cape Town. The third road starts from Durban, in the colon}*- of 
Natal, passes through Pietermaritzburg, the capital of the colony, and 
reaches Ladysmith, where it separates into two sections, one section 
extending westward into the Orange Free State and the other north- 
ward to Heidelberg and Johannesburg, in the Transvaal. This road 
enters the Transvaal territory through a tunnel under Laings Nek, 
a pass in the Drakensberg Mountains near Majuba Hill, where the 
English met such a crushing defeat in 1881. 

The fourth line starts from Lourenco Marques on Delagoa Bay, 
traverses the Portuguese territory, enters the Transvaal at Komati- 
poort, and terminates at Pretoria. This is the only road by which 
the Transvaal government has been able to obtain supplies since the 
outbreak of the war. 

The South African Republic was until a few years ago little known 
to the outside world. It was merely a pastoral and agricultural 
region, and such notoriety as it had achieved was due principally to 
the frequent wars and bloody contests between its Boer inhabitants 
and the British local and imperial authorities and the native tribes. 
Twenty years ago it was seldom visited except by traders and hunters 
in quest of big game, but the discovery of the marvelous gold deposits 
of the Witwatersrand in 1885 brought a rush of adventurers in search 
of wealth. It is true that gold had been discovered in the Lydenburg 
district as early as 1867, but not in sufficient quantities to attract 
great attention. Immediately a multitude of French, Portuguese, 
Germans, English, and Americans streamed into the country and the 
city of Johannesburg sprang up, like Aladdin's palace, in a day. 

The Transvaal lies immediately north of her sister Boer republic, 
the Orange Free State, between the Limpopo or Crocodile River on 
the north and the Vaal River on the south. The country on the north 
and west is British. The republic has no seaport, as the Portuguese 
possessions and the colony of Natal shut it off from the Indian Ocean 
on the east. The Vaal River is the chief tributary of the great Orange 
River, which rises in the Drakensberg and flows across the continent 
into the Atlantic. The Limpopo empties into the Indian Ocean. The 
gold-bearing region, the Witwatersrand, or " White Water Range," 
forms the watershed between the two rivers. 



84 BRITISH SOUTH AFRICA AND THE TRANSVAAL 

The Transvaal is a lofty plateau lying within the outer rim of the 
va.-t South African table-land, between 4,000 and 6,000 feet above 
the Bea-level. In consequence of this great elevation, although it is 
intercepted by the tropic of Capricorn at a point between 60 and 7" 
miles to the south of its northern frontier, it enjoys a healthful and 
invigorating climate, except in some of the low-lying country on the 
Limpopo and other fluvial tracts near the eastern frontier. The 
winter half of the year, from March to September, is dry and cool, 
especially during the nights, but the days are often as warm as in 
summer. During these months cold, sharp winds blow from the 
south, and the mountain ranges are often covered for several days 
with snow, and hail storms are frequent. 

In addition to its treasures of gold, the country is rich in other min- 
erals, particularly iron. The Yzerberg, near Marabastad, is almost 
a solid mass of iron ore of the richest quality ; coal of excellent quality 
is abundant, and supplies the mining industry with good and cheap 
fuel; copper, lead, quicksilver, etc., have also been found. The for- 
mations containing diamonds have also been found to extend into 
both the Orange Free State and the Transvaal. 

Kimberley, the headquarters of the diamond industry, is in British 
territory, only lour miles from the boundary of the Orange Free State 
and 617 miles from Cape Town. There are no natural features that 
can assist in its defense, but the great mounds of earth and debris from 
the mine- have been utilized by the garrison for that purpose. 

The dry diggings in t lie mines of the Kimberley district afford the 
only locality in which the diamond has thus far been found in its 
original home, and all our knowledge of the genesis of the diamond 
has been derived from the study of the conditions there existing. The 
mines are located in '' pans " or depressions in which the blue ground 
is found that is now recognized as the matrix of the diamond. These 
pans formed the vents of ancient volcanoes which have been worn 
down by the forces of the atmosphere, and are the pipes or tubes 
through which the lava reached the surface; they are partly sur- 
rounded by black shale containing a large percentage of carbon, from 
which material the diamonds have been formed by crystallization. 

As a proof of the wonderful progress which has been made in a 
place which only a few years hack was a bare prairie, I will mention 
that a school of mines has lately been erected and opened at Kim- 
berley. The courses of instruction are intended to prepare students 
for a diploma of mining engineer or for the degree of Bachelor of 
Science and Master of Science in mining en»ineerin£. 



BRITISH SOUTH AFRICA AND THE TRANSVAAL 87 

The South African Republic has an area of 119,139 square miles, 
and in 1898 the population was estimated to be 1,094,156, of which 
345,397 were whites and 748,759 colored natives. The white popula- 
tion, however, had been largely increased by the rush to the gold 
fields, and the number of Boers included in the enumeration of white 
inhabitants is probably less than 100,000. 

In the whole of South Africa, in the same year, the white inhab- 
itants, excluding the Dutch, numbered 385,500; of Dutch descent there 
were 431,000, making a total of 816,500 whites, while the native races 
numbered fully 15,000,000; so that there were about eighteen natives 
to every white inhabitant. 

This sketch of the physical character and resources of the Trans- 
vaal is the stage setting of the theater, where a mighty human drama 
is now being enacted. A just estimate of the actors cannot be formed 
without considering the influences which have made the Boers what 
they are, nor can any conclusion be reached as to the future, not only 
of the Transvaal, but of the whole of South Africa, without consider- 
ing the character and condition of the native population, a factor in 
the problem which has been seldom touched upon by writers of po- 
litical and military essays on South African affairs. 

The Boers are the descendants of the original Dutch and Huguenot 
colonists. Severed from the civilization of Europe two hundred years 
ago, they have not kept pace with the progress that has been made 
there and are intolerant and backward in their ideas, but they have de- 
veloped into a sturdy, self-reliant people, well fitted to cope with the 
savage animals and savage men with whom they have had to contend 
in their colonization of the wilderness. They have been for the most 
part stock-raisers ; the thinness of the pasture has caused them to 
scatter over a wide area, and they have thus led a solitary and some- 
what nomadic life. Like all frontiersmen, they have developed re- 
markable courage and an indomitable spirit of independence; they 
have also become imbued with a passion for solitude and isolation, 
out of which has grown not only their impatience of control, but a 
certain degree of neglect of the graces, amenities, and even the decen- 
cies of civilized life, showing few traces of their descent from the cleanest 
and neatest people of Europe. Living in the open air, and mostly in 
the saddle, they are strangely ignorant. They have no literature and 
very lew newspapers. Their reading is confined almost entirely to 
the Bible. Their religion is the somber and stem Calvinism of the 
seventeenth century, hostile to all new Light, thoroughly imbued with 



88 BRITISH SOUTH AFRICA AND THE TRANSVAAL 

the spirit of the Hebrew records of the Old Testament, and with but 
little of the Christian spirit of kindness and mercy taught in the New. 

In this characterization of the Boers I do not include the Burghers 
or more civilized Afrikanders of the cities, many of whom are as cul- 
tivated, well educated, and charming people as can be found in any 
part of the world. 

The Boer skill with the rifle is due to long practice; with them 
hunting has been a matter both of dollars and cents and of self-pro- 
tection. When they migrated from Cape Colony to the Transvaal 
they were compelled to clear the way by killing thousands of lions. 
Their creditable work of freeing the Transvaal from wild animals, that 
rendered life unsafe in the country, has been offset by their destruc- 
tion of the giraffe, which has been almost exterminated by them from 
Cape Colony to their northern frontier. In the early days of South 
African history the}' were the most abundant wild animals in the 
Transvaal, Matabeleland, and the Orange Free State, but they have 
been exterminated like the American buffalo, and the few remaining 
representatives of the species have been gradually driven north. Like 
the buffalo, they were hunted because the skins had a commercial 
value, and even the bones and sinews were also turned to profitable 
account. In British territory they are now protected by law, but it is 
almost too late to save them from extinction. 

For man}'' years the Dutch and English lived together in amity, 
but in 1834 a law was passed in England abolishing negro slavery in 
all its colonies, much to the disgust of the Dutch, who held the old 
biblical notions on the subject of slavery. They fiercely resented what 
they believed to be an outrage on their property rights. It is true 
that the British government paid a compensation, but the amount 
being less than the current value of slaves in the colony, the Boer 
farmers considered that they had been robbed, and when the law was 
put in operation in 1835 the}' determined to leave the colony, and 
made what is still referred to among them as the " Great Trek." 

They settled in what is now known as the colony of Natal, where 
they attempted to establish an independent government, a proceeding 
which was objected to by the British government on the ground that 
people who were still considered to be British subjects had no right 
to attempt to form an independent state in territory which, while it 
had not been formally declared to be a colony, was classed as a British 
protectorate. It was therefore formally proclaimed to be a British 
colony, and the Boers again migrated. Some settled in the Orange 



BRITISH SOUTH AFRICA AND THE TRANSVAAL 91 

River country, and others crossing the Vaal River founded the South 
African Republic. The history of the troubles that have arisen be- 
tween the Boers and the native tribes on the one hand, and the Boers 
and the British government on the other is too long and complicated 
for treatment in this paper, while the controversy which has unhappily 
terminated in the present war has been so thoroughly discussed in 
magazines and newspapers all over the world that I consider comment 
on that subject unnecessary. There have been faults on both sides, 
but so far as the British government is concerned the main cause of 
trouble has arisen from its vacillation and the want of a settled policy 
and course of action. With all the blessings of a government by pop- 
ular representation, it has its weaknesses, and this is not the least of 
them. To this cause may be traced in great measure the uncertain 
and unstable policy which, so far as Great Britain is concerned, forms 
the head and front of her offending in South Africa. 

Whichever way the present contest ma) 7 terminate, it must lead to 
a better condition than that which has existed for many years past. 
If by any combination of circumstances the Boer Republics should 
be successful and the whole of South Africa were to be united under 
Dutch- Afrikander rule, even that would be better than the continual 
atmosphere of strife and unrest that has prevailed. It appears, bow- 
ever, hardly possible that the power of England when full) 7 put forth 
can be successfully resisted by the Boers. Then the logical result 
would be the formation of a Dominion of South Africa, something on 
the plan of the Canadian confederation, in which men of all races 
could enjoy the benefits of a strong, united government, and all classes 
and nationalities would be equal before the law. With universal suf- 
frage and self-government, confidence would be restored, capital would 
flow into the country, railroads and public improvements would be 
constructed, and the boundless resources of the country would be still 
further developed and utilized. 

Smith Africa has the advantage of being a country where the white 
man can live and thrive as well as in Australia, New Zealand, or 
< lanada. When the passions which have been aroused by the struggle 
have subsided, there is little doubt that not only the Dutch, but all 
other elements of the population will recognize the benefits of peace 
and progress and become peaceful citizens of a free state. 

When peace -hall be restored, the great question that will arise will 
be the relation of the white man to the native races ; bul before en- 
tering upon that phase of the subject I will briefly describe the people 



92 BRITISH SOUTH AFRICA AXD THE TRANSVAAL 

with whom the white man lias to deal. When the Dutch settlement 
was first formed at the Cape, southern and southwestern Africa was 
occupied by Hottentots and Bushmen. The latter were the aboriginal 
inhabitants of the country, hut had been driven into the less fertile 
and desert regions of the southwest by the Hottentots, who were in 
turn being pressed from the north and east by the Bantu tribes. 

The Bushmen are a race of pygmies, seldom much over four feet in 
height. They are brown in color, with tufted wool on the scalp, 
sparkling eves, high cheek hones, and small feet and hands. They 
are of the same race as those met with by Stanley on his Central 
African journey, and there is no doubt that they belong to the same 
race as the pygmies described by Herodotus, the Greek historian, as 
being "found beyond the Libyan deserts." The Bushmen can be 
classed with the Australian aborigines as the lowest race in the human 
scale, even the negritos of the Philippine Islands being of a slightly 
higher grade. 

The Hottentots are of larger stature than the Bushmen, brown in 
color, with faces thinner than those of the Bantu tribes, high cheek- 
hones, and projecting lips, with tufted, wooly hair. Many of them in 
( ape ( Jolony are the descendants of slaves, and the race there has been 
so long associated with the Dutch farmers that their language has 
practically died out, and most of them have adopted European dress. 

The most important race ot South Africa, however, is the Bantu, 
which is the generic name given to all the Kafir and Zulu tribes of 
South and Central Africa. These Bantu tribes are believed to be the 
result of an intermingling of a Libyan or Arab race with the typical 
negroes of western Africa. In them the nose is more prominent and 
the cast of the face higher than in the pure negro. The principal 
divisions of this people in the country treated of in this paper are the 
Kafirs, Zulus. Swazis, Basutos, and Matabeles; but as the Kafirs are 
the people most in evidence in Natal, the Boer Republics, and eastern 
South Africa. T will discuss them chiefly. 

The name Kafir is of Persian origin, and is that applied by Moham- 
medans to all who reject the faith of Islam. It was in use along the 
coast of the Indian Ocean when the Portuguese explorers arrived on 
the east coast of Africa, and has passed from them to the English and 
Hutch, among whom the word Kafir is generally used to signify any 
colored native who is not the descendant of an imported negro slave. 
The}' are really the people of the Amacosa tribe of the great Bantu 
nation. Most of these tribes derive their name- from that of their 







k \ ii i: m \ ii;h\- 



BRITISH SOUTH AFRICA AND THE TRANSVAAL 95 

first great chief and founder. The prefix "Ama" signifies " those 
of," v. e., Amacosa, '" those of Cosa/' It is a curious fact that, although 
Europeans have given them the name of Kafirs, they themselves can- 
not pronounce the word, as the English sound of?' is wanting in their 
language. In fact, they have no word to signify the whole race, and 
each tribe is known by its particular title. The women do not always 
use the same language as the men, owing to the custom which pro- 
hibits females from pronouncing the names of their husband's male 
relations or any words in the principal syllables of which such names 
occur. In this manner almost a distinct dialect has come into use 
among them. 

As before the advent of white men the Kafirs knew nothing of let- 
ters or signs by which ideas can be expressed, their histoiy is entirely 
traditional and at most does not reach back more than three or four 
generations. 

Ornaments of shells, teeth, and beads strung on strips of skin are 
worn in the hair and on the body by both sexes, and copper and 
other rings on the arms and ankles. They protect their bodies from 
the effect of the sun by rubbing themselves with fat and red clay, 
which makes them look like polished bronze. This is necessary, as 
their clothing is infinitesimal in quantity ; in warm weather men and 
children go entirely nude; in cold weather they use a square mantle 
of skins of animals, called "kaross," which they wrap round them as 
our Indians use their blankets. For the chiefs the skin of the leopard 
is reserved, but the skins of all other animals are used by the people. 
In consequence of the influx of Europeans and European manu- 
factures, these skin mantles are largely replaced by blankets. Women 
wear a small leather apron at all times. Since the advent of white men 
clothing has been introduced among them, but they still show a pro- 
pensity tn get rid of as much of it as possible during warm weather. 

Horned cattle constitute the wealth of the Kafir, and tending them 
and fighting he considers to be the only occupation fit for a man. 
The women do all the heavy work, not only the cooking, carrying 
water, etc., but the labor of raising such crops as they cultivate. 

When the first railroad was built through their country they were 
filled with awe at the sight of a Locomotive. As they had no con- 
ception of locomotive power other than that of oxen, they concluded 
that some of them must be shut up inside the machine ; hence when 

the engine stopped they gathered in curious crowds waiting to see the 



96 BRITISH SOUTH AFRICA AND THE TRANSVAAL 

door open and the oxen come out. They also thought it an act of 
cruelty to make so small an engine draw such a huge train of cars. 

The conditions I have described, however, are rapidly changing 
before the march of civilization. But beyond the present outlook 
there is a cloud on the horizon, very small now. but which may at no 
distant day increase until it overshadows South Africa and sweeps 
it with the destructive force of a tornado. There has existed 1'or some 
time in South Africa an uneasy consciousness of danger, from the fact 
that many of the natives are restless and dissatisfied to a consider- 
able extent. When it is considered that they so enormously outnum- 
ber the white inhabitants, this is no imaginary danger. The Kafirs. 
Zulus, Basutos, Swazis, Matabeles, and other tribes of the Bantu race 
are not now as a whole untutored savages or weaklings, but a brave, 
virile race. Many of them, particularly among the Kafirs and Basutosi 
are well on the road to civilization, professing the Christian religion, 
having school-houses and churches ; many of them also are tolerably 
well educated, speaking both Dutch and English, and are no longer 
willing to quietly endure the lordly superiority claimed by the white 
man ov<-r dark-skinned races ; they have begun to realize their griev- 
ances and to long for the rights of free men. The Boers have always 
been harsh and tyrannical in their treatment of the natives, a sur- 
vival, perhaps, of the consequence of their long connection with negro 
slavery and the struggles they have had, first with the Hottentots, 
and later with the Kafirs and other Bantu tribes. The English have 
treated the natives with greater humanity and justice than the Dutch 
have done, and the government regulations for their management are 
excellent, but the danger is that private cupidity and the struggle for 
wealth may induce the white man to override or evade these regulations. 

The supreme question in the development of Africa is not the in- 
crease of the power and prestige of England, Germany. Erance, or any 
other European nation. All the nations that have been reconstruct- 
ing the map of Africa must recognize the great responsibility they 
have incurred toward the native races. After the present war-clouds 
shall have been dissipated the future of South Africa will rest largely 
on the question of equity and integrity in the treatment of the natives. 
If those principles are strictly observed, there will lie a bright prospect 
before the country and its people, both white and colored ; but if the 
white man closes his eyes and does not recognize the handwriting on 
the wall, he may receive a very rude awakening. 



THE HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF 
BUBONIC PLAGUE 

By George M. Sternberg, LL. D., 
Surgeon-General, V. S. Arm;! 

Although bubonic plague has never prevailed within the limits of 
the United States, its recent appearance in our island possessions in 
the Pacific has aroused great interest in the disease and considerable 
apprehension as to its epidemic extension in the future. It has effected 
a lodgment in Portugal and in Brazil during the past year, and at 
least one vessel has arrived at the port of New York with cases of the 
disease on board from the last-mentioned country. The question is 
therefore a very practical one as to whether there is any real danger 
of the introduction and extension of this pestilential malady of east- 
ern countries in our own territory. 

In view of the interest attached to this question, I have been invited 
to prepare a paper for the National Geographic Magazine upon the 
history and geographic distribution of the bubonic plague, and after 
considerable hesitation I have consented to do so. My hesitation was 
due to the fact that I fear it will be difficult for me to present the subject 
in a popular manner, and the historical details relating to the ravages 
of tins pestilential disease in the past may prove fatiguing to some and 
repulsive to others. However, while I shall have to present a dark 
picture with reference to the past history of the disease, and some dis- 
agreeable facts as to its recent extension from its endemic foci in the 
Far East, I shall have the satisfaction of stating that preventive med- 
icine lias made such progress during the past fifty years that there is 
v<:\-y little danger that bubonic plague will ever again commit serious 
ravages in the more enlightened countries of Europe, or that it is a 
serious menace to the lives and prosperity of citizens of the United 
States. 

The history of bubonic plague extends back to a remote antiquity. 
Greek physicians of the second and third centuries before the < Ihristian 
era have left a record of a pestilential malady characterized by the 
formation of buboes, which prevailed in Libya,in Egypt,and in Syria, 
and two Alexandrian physicians, Dioscorides and Poseidonios, who 
were cotemporaries of Christ, have given a description of the disease 



98 GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF BUBONIC PLAGUE 

which leaves no doubt as to its identity with the plague of more re- 
cent times. It may be well to explain at this point that the buboes 
characteristic of the disease are enlarged and inflamed glands in the 
groins, in the armpits, and elsewhere, which in chronic cases may 
suppurate and discharge a virulent pus. by which the disease is 
propagated. We now know that the germ of tin- disease is found 
not only in these suppurating buboes, but also in the blood of an 
infected individual. 

Three forms of the disease are recognized by modern authors. A 
mild or abortive form, in which there is little pain or fever, and in 
which the buboes rarely suppurate. In this form the enlarged glands 
in the groin, armpit, and neck usually disappear in about two weeks. 
In its usual form the disease is ushered in with chilly sensations, fever, 
lassitude, and pain in the back and limbs. The buboes are quickly 
developed and the general symptoms soon assume a grave character. 
If the patient lives for a week or more the buboes usually suppurate 
and carbuncles and boils are often developed. In the third or ful- 
minant form of the disease death may occur within a few hours from 
the outset of the attack and in advance of the development of the 
characteristic buboes. These cases could scarcely be recognized were 
it not for the fact that they occur during the epidemic prevalence of 
the disease among persons who have been exposed to infection. 

From the first to the sixth centuries of the Christian era we have 
no authentic accounts of the prevalence of bubonic plague, but there 
is no reason to believe that it had entirely disappeared from those 
countries in which it had previously prevailed. During the sixth 
century, however, its ravages were greatly extended, and it prevailed 
a- a devastating epidemic in many parts of the Roman Empire, both 
of the East and of the West. Indeed, in the time of Justinian it ex- 
tended far beyond the limits of the Roman Empire. The origin of 
this extensive epidemic, which raged for more than half a century, 
appears to have been in lower Egypt in the year 542 ; thence it ex- 
tended in one direction along the north coast of Africa and in the 
other into Palestine and Syria. The following year it invaded Europe, 
which at the time was in a state of political disturbance and warfare, 
and during this and subsequent years devastated many section- of 
the country, depopulating towns and leaving the country in some 
instances nothing more than a desert inhabited by wild beasts. The 
accounts given of this widespread epidemic indicate that other infec- 
tious maladies, which at that time had not been clearly recognized as 



GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF BUBONIC PLAGUE 99 

specific diseases, were associated with the plague and contributed to 
the general mortality. 

During the middle ages epidemics continued to occur, but the ac- 
counts of the nature of the prevailing " pest " are usually confused 
and unsatisfactory, and it was not until nearly the middle of the 
fourteenth century that the horrible epidemic known as the " black 
death " devastated Europe and caused the death of more than 
25,000.000 of its inhabitants. There has been considerable difference 
of opinion among the best authorities as to whether the "black death " 
of the fourteenth century was identical with bubonic plague. It pre- 
sented some features which seem to distinguish it from subsequent 
epidemics, and it had its origin from a different quarter of the globe. 
While bubonic plague has usually invaded Europe from Egypt, the 
"black death" is believed to have originated in Northern China. It is 
not known exactly when or where this epidemic had its origin, but it 
is known to have reached the Crimea in 1346 and Constantinople the 
following year. The same year it was conveyed by ships to several 
seaports of Italy, both on tbe Mediterranean and the Adriatic, and 
also to Marseilles, on the French coast. In 1348 it extended to the 
interior of these countries and to Spain; also to England, Holland, 
and the Scandinavian Peninsula. The following year it completed 
the invasion of Europe. 

The disease first appeared in London in November, 1348, and it 
continued to prevail in various parts of England for a period of eight 
or nine years. In 1352 the epidemic prevailed in the city of Oxford 
to such an extent that this city lost two-thirds of its academical pop- 
ulation. The plague again invaded England in 1361 and 1368. As 
a result of these devastating epidemics in England, as well as in other 
parts of Europe, large parts of the country remained for a time un- 
cultivated, and owing to the lack of laborers there was a great increase 
in wages. 

The following graphic account of the ravages of this pestilence is 
by a writer of the period : 

" Wild places were sought for shelter; some went into ships and anchored 
themselves afar off on the waters, but the angel that was pouring the vial had a 
foot on the Bea as well us on the dry land. No place was so wild that the 
plague did not visit, none so secret that the quick-sighted pestilence did not 
discover, none could fly thai it did not overtake. For a time all commerce was 

in collins and shrouds, but even that ended. Shrift there was none ; churches 

and chapels were ip pen, hut neither priests nor penitents entered all went to the 
charnel-house. The sexton and tin- physician were cast into the same deep 



100 GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF BUBONIC PLAGUE 

and wide grave"; the testator and his heirs and executors weir- burled from the 
same carl into the same ln>le together. Fire became extinguished, as if its ele- 
ment had expired, and the seams of the eailorless ships yawned to the sun. 
Though doors were open and coffers unwatched, there was no theft ; all off 
ceased, and no cry bat the universal woe of the pestilence was heard among 
men." 

That the "black death " of the fourteenth century was in fact the 
same disease which subsequently prevailed in Europe under the name 
of" tin; plague," and more recently known as "bubonic plague,' 1 can 
scarcely he doubted. But the epidemic was characterized by an un- 
usually large number of cases of the pulmonary form of the disi 
in which it seems probable that the lungs are the primary seat of in- 
fection, while- in the bubonic form the bacillus effects a lodgment 
through some superficial wound or abrasion or possibly through the 
bites of insects, and first invade- the lymphatics, producing inflam- 
mation of the nearest lymphatic glands. General invasion of the 
blood appears, from recent investigations, to be a secondary phenom- 
enon which only occurs in very severe and usually fatal cas< 

The pulmonic form of the disease, which was bo prominent in the 
epidemic known as "black death.'' is extremely fatal and is known 
to occur at the present day. Dr Calmette, a French physician, who 
was Bent by his government to study the recent outbreak in the city 
of Oporto. Portugal, reports that the pulmonary form of the dis< 
was observed at that place as well as the usual or bubonic form, and 
that in pulmonary plague there are no buboes, but the cases are 
marked at the outset by a profound depression of the vital power-, by 
violent vomiting, cadaveric paleness, a rapidly failing pulse, and death 
within a few hours. 

In the fifteenth century plague was again rampant in various parts 
of Europe, and London suffered severely from the prevailing epidemic 
in 1 mo. Mm;. ] 128, 1 17^. and 14«)'.t. In .southern Europe the die 
prevailed extensively during the first quarter of the century, and in 
Germany it was especially severe in 1438-'39. Italy. France, and 
Spain were again ravaged by the pestilence in 1448 to 1450, appar- 
ently as a result of a fresh importation from Asia. In 1 )»',(', over 
40,000 persons died from plague in the city of Paris. These frequent 
epidemics and the greater care with which they were studied resulted 
about the end of the century, in differentiating bubonic plague from 
typhus fever, with which it was no douht frequently associated and 
which was an important but unrecognized factor in the mortality 



GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF BUBONIC PLAGUE 101 

statistics of the epidemics which occurred during this and previous 
centuries. Typhoid fever is another disease which no doubt con- 
tributed largely to the general mortality, but which was not recog- 
nized as a distinct and specific infectious malady until the first quarter 
of the present century. We now know that this disease is endemic 
in all parts of Europe and America, and that under certain circum- 
stances it may prevail as a fatal epidemic. While modern methods 
of diagnosis have enabled us to recognize typhoid fever, typhus fever, 
relapsing fever, and bubonic plague as distinct diseases, it must be 
remembered that up to the end of the fifteenth century no such dif- 
ferentiation had been made, and the term " pest " was applied to any 
fatal malady which prevailed as an epidemic, and no doubt included 
in some instances smallpox, which prior to the discovery of Jenner 
contributed largely to the general mortality of the population of 
Europe. 

Bubonic plague continued to prevail in Europe in the sixteenth 
century, and we have authentic accounts of a devastating pestilence 
in China during this century, which was probably due to this disease. 
The disease prevailed in London in 1563- '64, and for a time the mor- 
tality exceeded 1,000 per week; later it prevailed in Edinburgh 
(1568-74 ) and in other parts of the British Islands. On the conti- 
nent the greatest mortality occurred at Moscow in 1570. Over 200,000 
people are said to have succumbed to the epidemic in this city and 
its environs. The disease prevailed in different parts of France dur- 
ing the century, and in 1572 caused a mortality of 50,000 in the city 
of Lyons. A little later than this (1575) Europe again suffered from 
a widespread epidemic, which appears to have been started by the 
introduction of cases from Constantinople to seaports in Italy and by 
extension from the same city through Austria and Germany. The 
city of Venice ia said to have lost 70,000 of its inhabitants during this 
epidemic, and in Germany the city of Breslau suffered a most destruct- 
ive epidemic. 

Bubonic plague still prevailed in various parts of Europe at the end 
of the sixteenth century,and early in tin- seventeenth century (1603) 
an epidemic occurred in London which caused the death of 08, ()()() of 
the inhabitants. It continued to prevail in this city and in various 
parts of England, and six years later caused a mortality of 11,785 in 
the city of London. At the same time it prevailed to some extent in 
Holland and in Germany. During the year L603 a most disastrous 
epidemic occurred in Egypt which is said to have caused a mortality 



102 GEOGRAPHIi DISTRIBUTION OF BUBONIC PLAGUE 

of at least a million. After an interval of 10 or 15 years, during which 
there was a marked diminution in the number of eases and the ex- 
tent of its distribution in European countries, it again obtained wide 
prevalence during the year 1620 and subsequently, especially in Ger- 
many, Holland, and England. The epidemic in the city of London 
in 1625 caused a mortality of more than 35,000. In 1630 a severe 
epidemic occurred in Milan, and in 1636 London again suffered a 
mortality of over 10,000, while the disease continued to claim nu- 
merous victims in other parts of England and on the continent. 
Later in the century 1 1656) some of the Italian cities suffered devas- 
tating epidemics. The mortality in the city of Naples was in the 
neighborhood of 300,000, in Genoa 60,000, in Rome 14,000. The 
smaller mortality in the last-named city has been ascribed to the 
sanitary measures instituted by Cardinal Gastaldi. Up to his time 
prayers, processionals, the firing of cannons, etc., had been the chief 
reliance for the arrest of pestilence, with what success is shown by 
the brief historical review thus far presented. But this enlightened 
{trelate inaugurated a method of comhating the plague and other 
infectious maladies which, with increasing knowledge and experience 
in the use of scientific preventive measures, has uiven us the mastery 
of these pestilential diseases, and has been the principal factor in the 
extinction of bubonic plague from the civilized countries of Europe. 

I>nt it was long after the time of Cardinal Gastaldi before sanitary 
science was established upon a scientific basis and had acquired the 
confidence of the educated classes. Indeed, the golden age of pre- 
ventive medicine has hut recently had its dawn, and sanitarians at 
the present day often encounter great difficulty in convincing legis- 
lators and the public generally of the importance of the measures 
which have been proved to be adequate, when properly carried out, 
for the prevention of this and other infectious maladies. 

We have now arrived in our historical review at the period of the 
" great plague of London." For some years this city had been almost 
if not entirely free from the scourge, but in the spring of 1665 it again 
appeared and within a few months caused a mortality of 68,596 in a 
population estimated at 460,000. This, however, does not fairly repre- 
sent the percentage of mortality among those exposed, for a large 
proportion of the population fled from the city to escape infection. 

Upon the continent the disease prevailed extensively, especially in 
Austria, Hungaiy, and Germany. The epidemic in Vienna in 1679 
caused a mortality of 76,000. In 1681 the city of Prague lost 83,000 



GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF BUBONIC PLAGUE 103 

of its inhabitants, But during the last quarter of this century the 
disease disappeared from some of the principal countries of Europe. 
According to Hirsch it disappeared from England in 1(579, from France 
in 1668, from Holland about the same time, from Germany in 1683, 
and from Spain in 1681. In Italy it continued to prevail to some 
extent until the end of the century. 

At the beginning of the eighteenth century the bubonic plague pre- 
vailed in Constantinople and at various points along the Danube; 
from here it extended in 1704 to Poland, and soon after to Silesia, 
Lithuania, Germany, and the Scandinavian countries. The mortal- 
it} 7 in Stockholm was about 40,000. The disease also extended west- 
ward from Constantinople through Austria and Bohemia. 

In 1720 Marseilles suffered a severe epidemic, probably as a result 
of the introduction of cases on a ship from Leghorn. The mortality 
was estimated as being between 40,000 and 60,000. From Marseilles 
as a center it spread through the province of Provence, but did not 
invade other parts of France. In 1743 a severe outbreak, undoubt- 
edly due to importation, occurred on the island of Sicily. A de- 
structive but brief epidemic, which is estimated to have caused a 
mortality of 300,000, occurred during the years 1770 and 1771 in 
Moldavia. Wallachia, Transylvania, Hungary, and Poland. At the 
same time the disease prevailed in Russia, and in 1771 caused the 
death of about one-fourth of the population of the city of Moscow. 

It would be tedious if I should attempt to give a full account of all 
the minor epidemics during this and preceding centuries, and I must 
now briefly review the history of the disease during the nineteenth 
century, which happily has witnessed its complete extinction in 
European countries. Early in the century (1802) bubonic plague ap- 
peared at Constantinople and in Armenia. It had previously pre- 
vailed in the Caucasus, from which province it extended into Russia. 
In 1808 to 1813 it extended from Constantinople to Odessa, to Smyrna, 
and to various localities in Transylvania. It also prevailed about 
the same time in Bosnia and Dalmatia. In 1812 to 1814 it prevailed 
in Egypt, and, as usual, was conveyed from there to European coun- 
tries. Its lust appearance in Italy was at the seaport Noja, on the 
eastern const of that country, in 1815. A limited epidemic occurred 
in Greece in 1828 ;is a, result of importation from Egypt. During the 
Bame year it prevailed extensively in Moldavia, Wallachia, and 
Bessarabia. In 1831 it again prevailed as an epidemic in Constanti- 
nople and in various parts of Roumelia, and again it appeared in Dal- 



104 GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIB I TKkX OF J! UBONIC PL. 1 G UE 

matia in 1840 and in Constantinople in 1841. Egypt, which for 
centuries had been the principal focus from which plague had been 
introduced into Europe, continued to .sutler from the disease until 
1845, when it disappeared from that country. 

The last appearance of oriental plague in Europe, until its recent 
introduction into Portugal, was the outbreak on the banks of the 
Volga in 1878-'79. The disease had previously prevailed in a mild 
form in the vicinity of Astrakhan and was probably introduced from 
that locality. An interesting fart in connection with this epidemic 
is that in Astrakhan the disease was so mild that no deaths occurred, 
and that the earlier cases on the right hank of the Volga were of the 
same mild form, hut that the disease there increased rapidly, in 
severity and soon became so malignant that scarcely any of those 
attacked recovered. This is to some extent the history of epidemics 
elsewhere, and not only of plague, but of other infections diseases, 
such as typhus fever, cholera, and yellow fever, in all of these dis- 
3 the outset of an epidemic maybe characterized by cases so mild 
in character that they are not recognized, and during the progress of 
the epidemic many such cases may continue to occur. These cases 
are evidently especially dangerous as regards the propagation of the 
disease, for when they are not recognized no restrictions are placed 
upon the infected individuals, although they may be sowing the 
germs broadcast. 

The termination of an epidemic in the presanitary period depended 
to a considerable extent upon the fact that those who suffered a mild 
attack acquired thereby an immunity, and that when the more sus- 
ceptible individuals in a community had succumbed to the prevail- 
ing epidemic, there was a necessary termination of the epidemic for 
want of material. This is illustrated in such cities as Havana and 
Rio de Janeiro, where yellow fever is an endemic disease. The 
natives of these cities have an immunity which probably results from 
their having suffered a mild attack during childhood, and the epidemic 
prevalence of the disease depends on the presence of " unacelimated '" 
strangers. 

Another factor which no doubt has an important bearing upon the 
termination of epidemics is a change in the virulence of the germ as 
a result of various natural agencies. Time will not permit me to 
discuss this subject in its scientific and practical aspects, but the gen- 
eral tact may be stated that all known disease germs may vary greatly 
in their pathogenic virulence, and that in every infectious disease 



GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIB UTIOX OF B UBONIC PLA G UE 105 

mild cases ma}- occur, not only because of the slight susceptibility of 
the individual, but also because of the " attenuated " virulence of 
the specific germ. In the eighteenth century, the beginning of sani- 
tary science, isolation of the sick and seaboard quarantines came to 
the aid of these natural agencies, and did much in the way of arrest- 
ing the progress of this pestilential disease. At the present day these 
measures, together with disinfection by heat or chemical agents, are 
relied upon by sanitarians with great confidence as being entirely 
adequate for the exclusion of this disease or for stamping it out if it 
should effect a lodgment in localities where an enlightened public 
sentiment permits the thorough execution of these preventive meas- 
ures : but when the disease prevails among an ignorant population 
which strenuously objects to the carrying out of these measures, the 
contest between the sanitary officer and the deadly germ is an un- 
equal one, and the stamping out of an epidemic becomes a task of 
great magnitude, if not entirely hopeless. This is illustrated by the 
experience of the English in their encounter with bubonic plague in 
their Indian Empire. 

I shall not attempt to trace the history of plague in Asia, and, in- 
deed, reliable data for such an attempt are wanting, but we know 
that bubonic plague has frequently prevailed in various parts of Asia 
Minor, in India, and in China. According to Hirsch,the first trust- 
worthy information of the occurrence of plague in India dates from the 
year 1815, when it appeared in the low country of Hindostan, where 
it has prevailed to a greater or less extent up to the present day. 

Tropical Africa has never suffered from the plague, and in general 
it may be stated that a tropical climate is less favorable to its epi- 
demic extension than a semi-tropical or temperate one. This is 
shown by the records relating to mortality from the disease in Alex- 
andria, Egypt, During the epidemic period extending from 1834 to 
1843, the mortality invariably fell off during the months of June, 
July, and August, and a recrudescence of the disease occurred in De- 
cember and January, the acme of mortality being reached in March. 

All authorities agree that filth, famine, and overcrowding of dwell- 
ings are potent factors in the propagation of the plague, and it is for 
thifi reason that it is to a large extent a disease of the poor, and that 
epidemics are especially liable to occur during times of distress from 
insufficient harvests or the ravages of war. The idea that the plague 
may originate de novo as a result of the causes mentioned as favor- 
able to its propagation is nol supported by satisfactory historical 



106 GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF BUBONIC PLAGUE 

evidence or by what is known of other specific infectious diseased. 
Whatever may have been the original home of the disease or the cir- 
cumstances to which it owes its birth, there is no reason to believe 
that during the [period covered by our historical data it has occurred 
in any other way than by the introduction of infected individuals 
or animals or articles of clothing and merchandise from infected 
localities. 

I must now refer briefly to the history of plague during the past 
decade. The disease seemed to be almost a thing of the past and no 
Longer gave any uneasiness in the countries of Europe which had 
formerly suffered from its ravages, when, in February, 1894, it made 
its appearance in the city of Canton, China, and three months later 
in Hongkong. The disease is known to have been epidemic in the 
province of Yunnan, which is about 900 miles distant from Canton, 
since the year 1873, but it attracted little attention until the live- oi 
Europeans living in the city of Hongkong were threatened by the 
outbreak of an epidemic among the Chinese residents of that place- 
Many thousands of deaths occurred in Canton during the three months 
which elapsed after its introduction into that city before it effected a 
lodgment in Hongkong. 

Fortunately this outbreak gave the opportunity for competent bacte- 
riologists to make scientific investigation- relating to the specific cause 
of this scourge of the human race and to the demonstration that it is 
due to a minute bacillus. This discovery was first made by the Japa- 
nese bacteriologist, Kitasato, who had received his training in the 
laboratory of the famous Professor Robert Koch, of Berlin. This dis- 
covery was made in the month of June. 1894, in one of the hospitals 
established by the English officials in Hongkong. About the same 
time the discovery was made, independently, by the French bacte- 
riologist, Yer-in. From this time the study of plague has been estab- 
lished upon a scientific basis, and very material additions have been 
made to our knowledge with reference to the prevention and treat- 
ment of the disease. We have learned that certain of the lower ani- 
mals, ineluding rats and mice, are very susceptible to infection, and 
that they play an important part in the propagation of the disease; 
also that the germs are found not only in the blood and in pus from 
suppurating buboes, but also in the discharges from the bowels of in- 
fected individuals. This being the case it can readily be seen how 
important a strict sanitary police is in arresting the spread of an epi- 
demic. As in other filth diseases in which the germ is present in the 



GEOGRAPHIC ' DISTRIBUTION OF B UBONIC PLAG I ~E 107 

excreta of the sick, insects, and especially fleas and house flies, prob- 
ably play an important part in the spread of the disease. 

Dr James A. Lowson, who has written an excellent account of the 
epidemic in Hongkong, says: ''Filth and overcrowding must he re- 
corded as two of the most important factors. The district of Tor- 
pingshan supplied these factors in a marked degree at the beginning 
of the outbreak, the majority of the houses being in a most filthy con- 
dition, as owing to the uncleanly habits of the people the amount of 
what is generally termed rubbish accumulates in a Chinese house in 
a crowded city to an extent beyond the imagination of civilized people. 
When to a mixture of dust, old rags, ashes, broken crockery, moist 
surface soil, etc., is added fecal matter and the decomposing urine of 
animals and human heings, a terribly insanitary condition of affairs 
prevails." 

The period of incubation in bubonic plague, i. e., the time which 
elapses between exposure to infection and the development of the 
disease, is comparatively short, usually from three to six days. 

From the report of Dr Lowson of cases treated in the various hos- 
pitals of Hongkong under the control of English physicians, it ap- 
pears that the mortality was much greater among natives of Hong- 
kong than among the foreign residents of that city. The mortality 
among Europeans (11 cases only) was 18.2 per cent ; among Japanese 
(10 cases), 60 per cent; among Portuguese (18 cases), 66 percent; 
among Chinese (2,619 cases), 93.4 per cent. To a considerable ex- 
tent, no doubt, this difference in mortality was due to the unfavorable 
surroundings of the natives and their lack of proper nursing ami 
medical attendance, man}' of them being brought to the hospital in a 
dying condition. 

Dr Lowson pays the following tribute to the trained female nurses 
who assisted in nursing in the plague hospitals : 

•' If ever this colony had reason to congratulate itself it was when we were 
able to procure well trained British nurses. I think the greatest compliment 
that 1 can pay these ladies is tn say that laul it not been fur their presence there 
omld have been no well run epidemic hospital during lasi summer. Amateur 
nurses at the beginning of an epidemic, or indeed at any stage where there 
i- a rush, are worse than useless, and multiply the worries of a medical officer 
ad infinitum ; not only this, bul all outsiders took care to give our hospitals a 
wide berth. When in the hospitals il was often a matter of difficulty for the 
medical officers employed to keep t heir meals on their stomachs. It would have 

been much harder if they had had to remain in constant attendance all the 

time, as our sisters had to do. Smallpox is bad, but t here is something specially 



108 GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF BUBONIC PLAGUE 

awe-inspiring in plague which Beema to appall the onlooker. Choleraand small- 
pox show external evidences which make a spectator aware of the existence "f 
a severe 'lisease, but to witness rows of plague patients dying off in a hospital 
has, I am sure, a much more depressing effecl on bystanders than the two diseases 
I have mentioned." 

Three attendants in the various hospitals contracted the disease 
and died, but that attendants in a well conducted hospital run hut 
Little danger of infection is shown by the following statement by Dr 
Lowson : " It is to me a source of keen gratification that none of the 
attendants in the government hospitals were attacked." In this re- 
sped bubonic plague resembles cholera, typhoid fever, and yellow 
fever. In none of these diseases are the attendants upon the sick apt 
ontract the disease when proper precautions are taken as regards 
cleanliness of the patient and disinfection of excreta. 

The plague bacillus is very easily destroyed by disinfectants. Dr 
how-, m reports that a one-per-cent solution of carbolic acid kills the 
bacilli within an hour, and a two-per-cent solution almost immedi- 
ately. Quicklime was almost as prompt in its action. Exposure to 
fresh air for three or four days usually destroyed the vitality of the 
bacillus, and exposure to direct sunlight destroyed it in three or four 
hour-. 

Kitasato and Yersin both arrived at the conclusion that the disease 
may be contracted by inoculation through a wound or abrasion, by 
way of the respiratory tract when the bacillus is present in dust car- 
ried by the inspired air, or by way of the stomach when food or drink 
taken contain- the bacillus. Experiments on rats and other animals 
show that they heroine infected when cultures of the plague bacillus 
arc deposited upon the mucous membrane of the nose. 

The Japanese physician. Aoyoma, who was associated with Kita- 
sato. and who contracted the disease, but recovered, is of the opinion 
that in a great majority of the cases, and perhaps in all. infection oc- 
cur- through an external wound. He calls attention to the fact that 
physicians and nurse- in attendance upon cases of the disease rarely 
become infected, and states that during the epidemic of 1894 in Hong- 
kong only three Japanese and one ( Ihinese physician became infected, 
while all the nurses escaped: also to the fact that of 30<> English sol- 
diers who volunteered to clean and disinfect the Chinese pest-houses 
during the prevalence of the epidemic, only ten contracted the disease. 
The greater liability of the lower class of natives to contract the dis- 
ease he ascribes not only to the insanitary surroundings in which 



GEOGRAPHIC DISTEIB UTION OF B UBONIC PLA G UE 1 09 

they live, but also to the feet that the} 7 seldom wear shoes and stock- 
ings, and thus are very liable to infection through insignificant wounds, 
scratches, or abrasions, both of the feet and hands. In this connec- 
tion it is well to call attention to the fact that in former epidemics 
physicians have suffered severely, and that whatever immunity they 
enjoy is due to the observance of sanitary precautions, the importance 
of which has become apparent as we have acquired a more exact 
knowledge of the etiology of the disease. It is said that more than 
half the French physicians in Cairo perished from plague during the 
Egyptian epidemic in 1843, and in the Russian epidemic, having its 
principal focus in the town of Vettianka, in the year 1879, three 
physicians and many of the nurses who cared for the sick succumbed 
to the plague. 

The appearance of plague in Bombay in 1896 is usually ascribed to 
importation from Hongkong. The first cases occurred in the month 
of August, but it was not until December that the death rate became 
alarming, the mortality for the last week in this month being 1,384. 
In January the mortality was nearly 5,000 and in February 4,600, 
although by this time the population of the city had been diminished 
by about one-half by the flight of its inhabitants. In March there 
was a notable reduction in the number of deaths, and this continued 
during April and May, and in August the disease had almost disap- 
peared ; but early in 1898 there was a recrudescence of the epidemic, 
and in November of that year the total mortality had reached 26,423. 
The disease extended throughout the Bombay Presidency, following, 
as a rule, the lines of railway. In this way it reached Surat and 
Baroda, on the northern line ; Poona, Karacl, and Miraj, on the south- 
ern ; Calcutta and Nasik, on the eastern, and Sholapur and Hydera- 
bad, on the southeastern. The total mortality in the Presidency of 
Bombay up to the latest reports (November 11, 1899) has been 
164,083. At the same date bubonic plague was prevalent to a greater 
<>r less extent in China, Egypt, Japan; Formosa, Madagascar, the Straits 
Settlements, Persia, Portugal, the Argentine Republic, and Brazil. 
Quite recently cases have occurred at Honolulu, in the Hawaiian 
islands, and at Manila, in the Philippines. The disease has also 
been introduced into New Caledonia, and from there to Sydney, 
Australia. What the future history of this disease may be in coun- 
tries where, owing to a, dense and ignorant papulation, modern san- 
itary measures are difficult to enforce, no one can say; but, as stated 
;it the outset of this paper, sanitarians have little apprehension with 



Hi) GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF BUBONIC PLAGUE 

reference to its extension in America and the more enlightened conn- 
tries of Europe. 

1 have already referred to the fact that rats are susceptible to in- 
fection by the plague bacillus. During the epidemic prevalence of 
the disease these animals die in large numbers, and there is good rea- 
son to believe that they play an important part in the propagation of 
the malady. It has been suggested that infection may be carried 
from rats to man through the agency of fleas, which swarm upon these 
rodents and desert them when they die. Plague bacilli have been 
found in the intestinal contents of the flea, and it is said that when 
an infected rat is freed from these parasites it cannot communicate 
the disease by association with healthy rats. There is nothing im- 
probable in the view that the flea may act as an intermediate host 
for the plague bacillus and play an important role in the propagation 
of the disease under consideration. In this connection it may be 
well to recall the fact that the mosquito has been demonstrated to 
serve as an intermediate host for the malarial parasite, and to play 
an important part in the communication of malarial diseases to man ; 
also that the tick is the intermediate host of the parasite which is the 
cause of ;in infectious disease of cattle known as Texas fever. 

In a recent paper Professor Galli-Valerio, of the University of Law- 
sanne, combats tin- idea that the flea which is parasitic upon the rat 
can lie instrumental in conveying the infection of bubonic plague to 
man. In experiments made upon himself he was unable to obtain 
any evidence that this Ilea | Typhlopsylla musculi) will remain upon 
the body of a man unless under compulsion, or that it will puncture 
the skin of a man. He admits, however, the possibility that plague 
might he transmitted from man to man by the well-known domestic 
Ilea i Palex irritai 

During the past two or three years a number of prominent bacte- 
riologists have been engaged in researches relating to the prevention 
and cure of bubonic plague by means of an antitoxic serum obtained 
by the same method and in accordance with the same fundamental 
scientific principle as in the case of the antitoxic serum which is now 
so successfully employed in the treatment of diphtheria. The ex- 
periments thus far made have apparently been attended with a con- 
siderable degree of success. Professor ( Jalmette reports that tin.' serum 
of Yersin prepared at the Pasteur Institute, in Paris, proved to lie 
curative in a considerable proportion of the cases treated during the 
recent outbreak at Oporto, and that protective inoculations conferred 



GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF BUBONIC PLAGUE 111 

a temporary immunity, which, however, did not last longer than 
twenty days. The mortality in cases not treated by Yersin's serum 
was 70 per cent ; in those treated with it, 13 per cent. 

The inoculations made by Haffkine in Bombay appear to have 
been quite successful. In his first experiment 8,142 persons were 
inoculated. Of these 18 subsequently contracted the disease and two 
died. Among 4,926 persons inoculated a single time at Dharwar, 45 
were subsequently attacked and 15 died, while among 3,387 persons 
in whom a second inoculation was made only two were attacked. 
Haffkine uses in his inoculations a sterilized culture of the plague 
bacillus. The inoculation is followed by slight fever and enlarge- 
ment of the nearest lymphatic glands. All symptoms disappear at 
the end of two or three days. 

The figures just given are from the report of Mr E. L. Cappel to the 
Plague Commission. In this report Mr Cappel sa}^s : 

"If this experiment had failed the results, judged by the actual mortality 
among the non-inoculated, would have heen appalling. All sanitary measures 
in the shape of disinfection, unrooting of houses, and segregation were applied 
concurrently with inoculation, as the government is already aware ; but the 
rate of mortality among those who held back from the inoculation rose at one 
time to a height which I believe has never been approached elsewhere, stand- 
ing in the third week in September at the figure of 657 per thousand per week." 

Another form of treatment used in Bombay hospitals is the " Heil- 
serum," also prepared under the patronage of the government, at the 
Parel government house, by the assistants of Professor Lustig, whose 
name it bears. The serum has not been extensively employed in 
India because of its scarcity, and also on account of the prejudices of 
the natives. It has, however, been used in some 500 cases, with 60 
per cent recoveries and 40 per cent mortality, while the death rate 
in untreated natives may run as higli as 80 per cent. Those who are 
engaged in making the serum maintain that much better results than 
those indicated in the above percentage can be obtained by increas- 
ing the number of healing units in the serum. In one of his articles 
Lustig states that he succeeded in curing completely 26 out of 30 
cases of plague with his serum. 

The appearance of a plague-stricken city at the present day is de- 
picted in a graphic way by Doctor L. F. Barker, of Johns Hopkins 
University, who recently visited India as a member of the Medical 
Commission scut out under the auspices of the University. Doctor 
Barker says : 



112 GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF BUBONIC PLAGl E 

"Twice before Poona has been ravaged by the plague, and each succeeding 

epidemic, unfortunately, has been worse than the preceding. In February of 
the present year (1899) the chief plague authority stated that the disease had 
been stamped out of the city. In March and April the death rate considerably 
increased, and in July the disease appeared in its worst form, carrying off from 
150 to lfiO people a day. Normally, the city has a population of 140,000. but in 
five months it has dwindled to 60,000. But as the population went down, the 
mortality went up, and even at the time of our visit still persisted at the rate 
of-150 deaths a day. Such a rate of mortality in New York would mean about 
10,000 deaths per day, 70,000 per week. Even in Poona enough people die in 
a month to populate a prosperous American city. During August there was an 
average of 100 hospital admissions per day and over SO deaths. 

"The exclusion to Poona was most impressive. Traveling upward for hours 
through the Western < rhats, the country was so beautiful and the air so much 
cooler than at the sea-level that one could scarcely believe that he was approach- 
ing, in the plain a little lower down on the other side, the pest-stricken city of 
Poona. On arrival at the railway station, however, the first signs of distress 
were noticed. Train-loads of people were fleeing from the place. A drive 
through the town to the office of the chief plague authority showed how rapidly 
it was being deserted. .Many of the streets were almost empty, shop doors and 
windows were closed and barricaded, plague notices were pasted on the wall, a 
preternatural stillness was everywhere noticeable, the few people encountered 
walking quietly along with heads bowed and faces sorrowful. A visit was made 
to some houses whence plague cases had just been reported, with the native 
editor of the principal Poona newspaper, this gentleman having volunteered 
his services as plague inspector. In a small hovel, scarcely larger than a ship'fl 
cabin, one might find a patient surrounded by several of his friends awaiting 
t he arrival of the inspector. The chances for contact contamination were mani- 
fold. 

"At the general plague hospital there were some eight hundred cases of the 
disease under the charge of Major YVindle. He was assisted by eight European 
nurses and a number of native helpers, lie complained that it was almost im- 
possible to retain natives as workmen. Even washermen and grave- diggers could 
not be employed in sufficient numbers, owing to the fears and prejudices of the 
people, ('art-loads of the newly attacked were being brought into the hospital 
at its entrance, while a body was carried out from the wards every ten minute- 
to the morgue at the rear. Those who live in the West can scarcely appreciate 
the enormous disadvantages under which medical men fight plague in India. 
The people are ignorant and superstitious, the rigid caste rules prevent any 
successful application of modern hygienic measures, and even the preventive 
inoculation cannot be utilized to any great extent, owing to the fact that thus 
far the bacilli have been grown in beef broth, and the natives will not counte- 
nance such a profanation of the sacred animal. Even in death, caste rules have 
to be observed, and it was found at the morgue that partitions had to he put up 
separating the low-caste Hindoos from those of high caste, from the Moham- 
medans, and from the I'arsees and Christians. The floor of the morgue pre- 
sented a, melancholy si^ht. In one of the rooms no less than thirty-two bodies 



ICE-CLIFFS ON WHITE RIVER, YUKON TERRITORY 113 

lay upon the ground as closely packed as was possible without actually piling 
the bodies upon one another. Mohammedans are buried and high-caste Hindoos 
are burned, but the bodies sometimes accumulate so fast that they cannot be 
disposed of by the usual methods. Major Windle stated that one day, a short 
time before, he had burned twenty-four bodies in one heap. It is absolutely 
impossible in Poona to employ occidental methods in the way of segregation or 
disinfection. The natives prefer to die rather than submit to rules which are 
obnoxious to them. It is no uncommon sight to see a widow, after uttering 
the death wail, beating her face and breasts and throwing herself violently 
upon the body.of her dead husband, kissing his face and lips. It is very strange 
that no more than do contract the disease. One left Poona and Bombay thank- 
ful that in America no such unfavorable religious and social conditions prevail." 



ICE-CLIFFS ON WHITE RIVER, YUKON TERRITORY 
By Martin W. Gorman 

Daring the season of 1899 it was my good fortune to make two trips 
across country from the Yukon to White River, the first a winter trip 
with dogs and toboggans, the second a summer trip in which we had 
to depend largely on back-packing, as we had only one horse for a 
party of four. On the first trip we left Fort Selkirk (lat. 62° 46' 42" 
N., long. 137° 20' 22" W.), 176 miles south of Dawson, March 24, travel- 
ing in a direction 20 degrees S. of W. and crossing White River about 
200 miles above the mouth three weeks later. 

In the course of this trip, while traversing the headwaters of the 
Klotassin River (the chief eastern tributary of the White), I observed 
some tracts which, while composed of a fairly rich soil, were overgrown 
with a small growth of alders, willows, and scrub birch (Belula glan- 
dulom) and a decidedly sparse and dwarfed growth of black spruce 
(Picea mariana), ranging in diameter from three to eight inches and 
in height from 15 to 40 feet, and the only tree found growing thereon. 
Many of these trees were dying, or in a very unthrifty condition, while 
others, already dead, showed great masses of their small persistent 
cones still clinging to the tops, and thus gave the landscape a rather 
weird and uncanny appearance, as there was no apparent canst.' for 
tln-ir death. 

rn close proximity to these tracts the same tree, fully 80 feet high, 
and its near congener, the white spruce I Picea canadensis), more than 

100 feet high, could be found growing on a much less fertile soil. Ill 



114 ICE-CLIFFS ON WHITE RIVER, YUKON TERRITORY 

trying to account for this anomaly, I, at the time, attributed it to the 
possibility of these tracts being the beds of ancient lakes; that the 
water of the spring freshets lay too long thereon, and that the cold 
from this source caused the dwarfing of the trees. 

On the second trip we left Fort Selkirk July 22. reaching White 
River at a point a few miles south of our former crossing on August 6. 
in again traversing the same region I found that the vegetation on 
these tracts gave no evidence of any protracted submergence during 
the spring freshets ; that the amount of water resulting from the melt- 
in- -now- in spring was much less than expected, and that the de- 
pauperate condition of the trees must be attributed to some other 
cause. 

While camped on the river bank awaiting the return of my com- 
panions. 1 frequently heard large masses of earth and trees tumble 
into the river with a loud report from the face of a bluff on the east 
bank about one and a half miles below camp, and finally decided to 
go down and examine it, as the water was then low, and there was 
no apparent cause for any serious or continuous undermining of the 
river banks at that season. 

This bluff was situated about 210 miles above the mouth, and proved 
tobea truncated hill with strong evidence that a slough from the river 
at one time divided it from the mainland, and that it then formed an 
island. On climbing to a spot on the face of the bluff, from which it 
could be more closely examined. 1 found that the supposed hill was 
simply a mass of ice about 60 feet high, surmounted by a capping of 
earth from live to -even feet deep, composed of a superimposed layer 
of sand and gravel either alluvial or morainal. and above this a de- 
posit of decomposed vegetable matter about ten or twelve inches in 
depth, the whole overgrown by a stunted growth of trees such as 1 
had previously seen on the supposed old lake bed-. 

About two weeks later, while drifting down the main stream on a 
raft, at a point on the east bank about 25 miles below the bluff above 
mentioned. 1 observed another of these ice-masses, this time situated 
in low ground and only 20 feet high, and surmounted by some six 
feet of earth, and. as before, covered with a stunted growth of trees. 
Three days later, on August 31, at a point on the west bank about 16 
miles above the confluence of the main stream with the west branch 
I Katrina River of re-cent maps; — in other words. 113 miles above the 
month oft lie river — I observed the third of these ice-cliffs, this one being 
about 30 feet in depth from the present water-level to the top and sur- 



ICE-CLIFFS OX WHITE RIVER, YUKON TERRITORY 115 

mounted b} r about six feet of earth, with the usual superimposed layer 
of decomposed vegetable matter. On seeing the first two I at once 
recalled to mind an article by Lieut. J. C. Cantwell on " Ice-cliffs on 
the Kowak River."* The diminutive magnitude, almost pigmy in 
size, of these cliffs as compared with those seen on tbe Kowak by 
Lieut. Cantwell, may to a great extent be accounted for by the differ- 
ence in latitude and amount of winter precipitation. Lieut. Cant- 
well does not state the depth of the winter's snow, but says " the 
banks of the stream in the region where the ice-cliffs are found are 
not all filled with ice,' 1 which is sufficiently suggestive. The greatest 
depth of snow in midwinter on the White River (except about the ex- 
treme headwaters near the Coast Range) is only about four and one-half 
feet, and it is dry and powdery, disappearing rapidly in spring with- 
out causing nearly as much of a freshet as I had anticipated. No 
loose ice whatever remains along the banks of tbe river through the 
summer, though it is to be found in the V-shaped gulches and valleys 
of the smaller affluents. 

It was only on seeing the third cliff that the true nature of these 
ice-masses suggested .itself to me, viz.. that they are the remnants of 
buried glaciers through which the stream has recently cut its way. 
There is ample evidence of recent and vigorous erosion, the water at 
present being so surcharged with a mixture of fine blue clay and 
granitic sand that a bucket of it on being allowed to settle will reveal 
a deposit of about one-fourth inch in depth, while small boulders and 
pebbles are being forced along over the bars and riffles by all tbe vigor 
of a seven to ten-mile current. On the other band, tbe evidence of 
glacial action, at least of recent date, is lacking, so far as my observa- 
tion went, though a more thorough examination, particularly among 
the harder rocks of the divides and crest lines, will, I think, reveal 
former activity. Such glacial action as did occur will probably prove 
to be due to local glaciers, as there is no evidence of either a large con- 
tinental ice-sheet or of the amount of precipitation necessary for its 
formation. 

The third cliff occupied the bottom of ;i small valley, and its ap- 
pearance, together with the stunted growth of black spruce on its sur- 
face, -o atrongly resembled the tracts 1 had seen on the headwaters 
of the Klotassin in March, and then supposed were old lake beds, that 
1 was ;it once forced to the conviction that the cause was the same in 

• National Gboobaphu Magazine, vol. VII, p 14 i h i 1898. 



116 ICE-CLIFFS ON WHITE RIVER, YUKON TERRITORY 

both cases, and that the latter as well as the former are underlain by 
masses of ice. 

When the face of the cliffs, as in the first two instances, was toward 
the south, the powerful action of the sun's rays during the long sub- 
arctic summer days of the region had made its effects very apparent 
on the upper portion of the cliffs, both of which were to a great ex- 
tent hidden by talus, slopes of earth, muck, uprooted trees, and brush, 
this latter a factor that made their detection from midstream much 
less likely. The face of the third cliff, being toward the north, was 
perpendicular, its base washed by the stream, and was without any 
talus whatever. All of them under present conditions are undoubt- 
edly undergoing a process of rapid diminution. 

I think it more than likely that both the Kuskokwim and Tanana 
rivers will, on examination, reveal ice-masses of a similar nature to 
those on the Kowak and White, though no mention of such being 
observed is made either by Hallock * or Allen. t When such are found, 
if any, they may enable the geologist to determine .the real nature and 
cause of these bodies of ice, if the above theory of their being the 
remnants of buried glaciers is not accepted. 

The main stream of White River and the Katrina or west branch 
both take their rise among the glaciers of a range of snow peaks lying 
east of and approximately parallel to the Coast Range, in Alaska, not 
far from the sources of the Tanana and Copper rivers, while the east 
branch (Klotassin River of the maps) is non-glacial and has its source 
in a number of small affluents in Yukon Territory. The water of the 
Klotassin is as clear as crystal, whereas the water of the main stream 
and the Katrina is almost milky white, thus giving rise to the name 
White River (first applied by Robert Campbell, of the Hudson's Bay 
Company, in 1850, and called Milk River by the early miners). Ladue 
Creek, on the other hand, which enters from the west some 36 miles 
above the mouth and takes its rise in the tundra and sphagnous 
marshes near the headwaters of Sixtymile River, is of a decided 
brown, being about the color of fairly strong tea. The main river is 
rather more than 300 miles long, following the course of the stream, 
and has no rapids worthy of the name, but there are a canon and rapids 
five miles long on the west branch about 60 miles above the conflu- 
ence. The country is dotted with lakes and lakelets in the vicinity 

* National Geographic Magazine, vol. IX, p. 85 : "Two hundred miles up the Kuskokwim, '* 
Charles Hallock, March, 1898. 
t Keoonnaissance in Alaska, Lieut. H. T. Allen. Washington, 1887. 



ICE-CLIFFS ON WHITE RIVER, YUKON TERRITORY 117 

of the confluence of the White and Katrina, scores of them being vis- 
ible from the summit of a small table-topped mountain immediately 
west of the mouth of the latter stream. There is no reliable map of 
the White and its tributaries in existence, since nearty all of them 
show Ladue Creek as about equal, if not superior, to the Katrina in 
size, whereas it discharges less than one-tenth as much water as the 
latter, which almost equals the main stream in size. The Nisling 
River of the maps I was unable to find unless it is represented by a 
comparatively small creek which does occur in the vicinit} 7, indicated. 

There is considerable evidence of recent volcanic activity in the 
valley of White River, and this evidence is much more pronounced 
in the region between the White and Yukon. It is in this section 
that we must look for the mountain or caldera responsible for the 
immense deposit of volcanic pumiceous ash which forms so notice- 
able a feature of the banks of the Yukon from Caribou crossing to 
Dawson, a distance of 520 miles by the course of the stream. There 
is not a trace of it to be seen along the banks of the White except 
near the mouth, while it is very noticeable along the banks of some 
of the creeks between the latter and the Yukon. This would pre- 
clude the possibility of this deposit being caused b}^an outburst from 
Mt Wrangell, as suggested by Dawson,* as an outburst from any 
mountain in the vicinity of Wrangell would undoubtedly deposit 
even a greater layer of the ash on the White than it would on the 
Yukon. 

Another theory regarding this deposit, t viz., that it is not of recent 
date and that deposition took place in water while the upper Yukon 
was yet a great inland lake and before the present river channel had 
been cut, is also untenable, as the ash in many places may be found 
overlying old drift-piles of perfectly sound wood, notably at the mouth 
of Stewart River and again above the mouth of the Pelly. It there- 
fore still remains for some energetic member of the next Dominion 
Geological Survey party that traverses this region to locate the caldera 
from which such an extensive and remarkable deposit lias been 
ejected. The solution of the question is certainly worthy of an effort. 

* Report "M :,n exploration of the 5 ukon district, X. \V. 'I'., 1887, George M, Dawson, p, 46. 
1;. I '..\\ -.,ii Bros., L888. 
t Alaska and the Klondike, Ingeio Heilprin. D. Apple! ^ Co., L899. 



A HUNTING TRIP TO NORTHERN GREENLAND 
By Fullerton Merrill 

On July 21, 1899, the steam sealer Diana left Sydney, (ape Breton 
Island, bound for northwestern Greenland. She was commanded 
by Mr H. E. Bridgman, secretary of the Peary Arctic ('lull, and was 
to take supplies for Lieutenant Pearyand his party ,*and to bring back 
news of what they had accomplished during the previous year. Be- 
sides the Peary relief expedition, then' was on hoard a North Green- 
land hunting party, eight in number, led by Mr Russell W. Porter, of 
Boston, of which company I was a member. 

The Diana steamed through the Gulf of St Lawrence and Belle Isle 
Strait, and on July 24 entered Domino Run. from whence her course 
was laid lor Disko Island. 'Unit same night we encountered an ice- 
pack- of small Hoes, and it was fifteen hours before we were again in 
open water. On July 30 we touched at Godhavn, next at Qper- 
nivik, and soon afterward we readied Melville Bay. We expected 
to have a tussle with the Melville Bay pack, but found, much to our 
surprise, that it was nowhere to be seen, having probably been blown 
to the westward, so that we crossed the hay in twenty-two hours, thus 
heating all previous records. At the Eskimo settlement at (ape York 
we met the first of the Whale Sound natives — the Arctic Highlanders. 
At Dalrymple Island we killed many eider ducks, and at Saunders 
bland obtained three Eskimo guides for the hunting party. On 
August 4 the Diana dropped anchor between Hakluyt and North- 
umberland Islands, in the mouth of Inglefield Gulf, this being the 
region chosen for walrus hunting. With tents and equipments we of 
the hunting party landed on Northumberland, in a little cove almost 
surrounded by mighty rock masses surmounted by a crowning ice- 
cap. The ship steamed away to the north. 

As we had not learned the art of harpooning — a walrus if shot he- 
fore being harpooned usually sinks at once — the beginning of the work 
was left to the natives. When a walrus was discovered in the open 
water, an Eskimo started off in a skin kayak, we following at a little 
distance in a large boat, ready to do our part with the rifle when the 
animal had been harpooned. After the harpooning we would make 
for the inflated seal-skin float, which was attached to the harpoon 
line, and make it fast, and then as soon as possible draw it into the 



A HUNTING TRIP TO NORTHERN GREENLAND 119 

boat, and in another second would be tearing along through the water 
in the wake of an angry walrus. As the huge beast came to the sur- 
face the man whose turn it was to shoot would try to put an end to 
the animal's struggles by a well-placed bulletin the back of the neck. 

It often happened that walrus would be seen on an ice-floe, some- 
times from six to a dozen being on a single pan. In such cases one 
or even two of the natives would come into our boat and stand up in 
the bow while we headed directly for the walrus. Silently we would 
creep up until the floe was reached or even struck by us before the 
walrus would take to the water. Then the harpoon would flash, the 
sea would be alive with angry tusks, and it would look as though the 
destruction of the boat was inevitable ; but after firing a few shots 
here and there at the more furious of the animals peace would again 
reign, with only the absurd-looking floats to tell of the tumult. 

Early one morning, while we were still on the sea after a night of 
it, we came upon so many walrus that the natives hesitated to attack 
them. Everywhere could be seen herds of a dozen or more, now 
rising high above the water, now disappearing below its surface, and 
as we drew near their furious grunts and bellowings rent the air. The 
shore was miles away. At this point there was nothing but glacier 
front and steep gray cliffs, while but a single ice-pan floated between 
us and the land. Nearer and nearer drew the lines of battle, our white 
boat a conspicuous object against the green of the water, and still the 
walrus kept closing in about us. Suddenly a herd of six or eight 
rose out of the water but a few yards away and bore down upon us 
as we lav with our broadside turned toward them. Each man 
grasped his rifle, while one stood up and, imitating the grunts of the 
animals, called them on. Then, when but a few feet of water sepa- 
rated them from us. he raised his rifle and fired at the leading bull 
in the herd. The shot struck the animal fairly in the face, and quick 
as a Hash the whole herd disappeared. They must have gone right 
under the boat, so great had been their impetus. As the early morn- 
ing mists faded away the walrus became quieter, and in a short time 
only a few dozen of them were seen sporting among the ice-cakes in 
the mouth of [nglefield Gulf. Needless to say, there were several 
walrus heads in our boat when, after a long, hard row, we landed be- 
fore tlir camp. 

The next day the Diana appeared. Those on the ship had had 
walrus hunting ;i- well as we, having received a message from Lieu- 
tenant Peary to the effect that he needed fresh food for his dogs. 



120 A HUNTIAG TRIP TO NORTHERN GREENLAND 

Brave "Matt" Henson, Peary's colored companion, was also on 
board, having been picked up at Etah, and on the ship's deck were 
lo or 15 Eskimo. For a few days we took part in tlie hunting, 
and during that time reached our farthest north, the entrance to 
Smith Sound, a little above 78° north and something more than one 
degree south of the ship's farthest north (79° 10'); then one glori- 
ous summer day we left the ship and pitched our tents on the rolling 
shores of Olriks Bay. We knew that there reindeer wandered over 
the moss-covered uplands, and we had come to hunt them. 

We stayed four day- at this place, hunting over the country for 
some 10 miles to the southeast. We got five deer, but we thought 
there might he better hunting farther up the fiord, so on August 15 
we moved camp. Twelve hours later. after a hard fight against wind 
and tide, we landed beside the ped-brown cliffs and black lava masses 
of Mt Gyrfalco. 

For eight days we scoured the shore and the mountain plateau 
above for deer. The country was everywhere open, low ridges and 
occasional large stones being the only protection afforded us. The 
Stalking was of the most arduous description : when game was seen 
the hunter must " drop " at once and crawl along over marshy places 
and sharp stones until near enough to risk a shot. The chances were 
that in spite of all precautions the deer would note his approach and 
be off like a flash. .Many wen- the hunts and many the disappoint- 
ments. We -own felt, moreover, that the deer were not nearly as 
numerous as we had supposed, considering the extensive area over 
which they wandered : nevertheless, by August '!'■'> nine had been 
killed, making a total of 14. As the Greenland reindeer makes very 
good eating, we lived well. On one occasion one of our party while 
hunting alone discovered a herd of five deer and by skillful ma- 
nceuvering succeeded in killing every one of them. 

In the intervals between our hunts after Larger game we killed birds 
and small animals. Specimens were obtained of almost every kind 
of bird known to frequent those parts of Greenland. Amongthese 
were the burgomaster gull, turnstone, black turnstone, parasitic 
jager, various shore birds (including snipe), and the hawk-like ger- 
falcon. Eider ducks, both male and female, were seen Hying in 
Mocks, and once a flock of geese was discovered sitting on a mud flat. 
Little auks and guillem >ts were also plentiful. Arctic hares and rab- 
bits, the latter the smaller of the two and with fur of a bluish tin^e 
often graced our table and were considered by us excellent eating. 



A HUNTING TRIP TO NORTHERN GREENLAND 121 

Almost everywhere along the Greenland coast we had caught 
glimpses of the Great Inland Glacier, or mighty Ice-Cap, which 
covers the interior of the country. From the North Water a vast 
stretch of the great ice-sheet had heen seen, flowing over the peaks 
which bordered Inglefiekl Gulf. 

On August 23 we started with dogs, sledges, and Eskimo dog drivers 
for a trip upon this mighty table-land of ice. Three Eskimo with 
their families had come over with us from Inglefield Gulf, and we 
had two sledges and eight dogs. In the afternoon we rode across 
Olriks Bay, each man shouldered his pack, the Eskimo took up the 
dog-traces, and we were fairly on our way. 

Our route lay up a steep glacier, to the west of Half Dome Moun- 
tain. To the right Olriks Bay ended abruptly in the white mass of 
the Marie Glacier ; opposite rose the high plateau we had scoured so 
often for deer, and be.yond, in the dim distance, stood out the purple 
mountains on the north shore of Inglefield Gulf, bearing on their 
summits the eternal ic} r covering of Greenland. We descended into 
a valley. Soon the soft, spong} r soil of the latter changed to a field 
of ice, and the dogs were harnessed again to the sledges. But the ice 
was exceedingly sharp and rough, and the poor dogs howled most 
piteously ; before long, indeed, their wounded feet were leaving blood- 
spots on the snow. .So we harnessed all but two — which ran away — 
to one sledge, and pulled the other ourselves, until, a rocky ridge ap- 
pearing, we halted and camped for the night. 

By the next afternoon we had skirted a river, made another passage 
over rough ice, and were standing, at a point some six miles inland, 
before the towering white wall of the Great Inland Glacier. The steep 
slope was many hundred feet in height, and it was something of a 
struggle to climb it, but it was done, and, the snow furnishing easy 
traveling, the dogs were once more divided between the two sledges. 
With sledges, snow-shoes, and ski we made good speed. Gradually 
the land behind us faded away, and the undulating surface of the 
ice-cap became more level : on every side stretched the snowy wastes 
of the Arctic continent. 

Three or four reddish-brown nunataks cropped up through the snow 
far to the left. A low ridge of ice was ascended, and at the same time 
a line of pale blue mountains, probably those about Wblstenholme 
Sound, came into view to the southwest. A sort of snow-fog settled 
upon us, covering us with hoar-frost. 

Here, some fifteen miles from tin' ice edge and at an elevation of 



1 22 CA NA L FROM A TLA NTIC TO ME D ITER R A NEA N 

more than 5,000 feet above sea-level, we scooped a hollow in the snow, 
pitched a shelter tent over it, using sledges and snow-shoes as supports, 
and hanked the whole with snow. Snow was melted and food cooked 
over a " Primus " oil stove, and soon afterward, with the midnight 
sun brightly shining, we lav down to rest — we just filled the little 
shelter — and the natives kept warm by stretching themselves out be- 
tween our sleeping-bags. 

The next afternoon, as we started on our return, the vast expanse 
of the ice-cap sparkled brilliantly. In due time the ice-edge was 
reached. Jumping on the sledges, all hands enjoyed a royal coast to 
the land-level. The part of the inland ice traversed by us had never 
before, I believe, been traveled over by human beings. The Eskimo 
told us that no natives ever went there. Early on the morning of 
August 26, a tired party, we broke our way in the large boat through 
a thin coating of ice in Olriks Bay, and later on walked into our 
camp on the shore. We were told by our steward that Lieutenant 
Peary, who had been cruising about on the Diana, had visited the 
camp during our absence. 

We were picked up by the Diana August 28, near the lower nar- 
rows of Olriks Pay. In Baffin Pay it was discovered that our coal 
was giving out. Fortunately, we were soon able to obtain enough 
from an outcropping seam on the shore of Disko Island to carry us 
to Pattle Harbor, Labrador. There more coal was purchased, and on 
September 12 we landed at Sydney, Cape Breton, after a voyage which 
had been most successful, and which demonstrated the possibility of 
a summer hunting trip to the Arctic regions. 



A CANAL FROM THE ATLANTIC TO THE MEDITERRANEAN 

For the past twenty years the construction of a canal across the 
Iberian Peninsula to connect the Atlantic Ocean with the Mediter- 
ranean Sea has been strongly advocated in France. A bill urging its 
construction and signed by 130 members was introduced last year into 
the Chamber of Deputies, and is at present being considered by the 
Naval Committee of the Chamber, with a prospect, says Le Tour de 
Monde, of a favorable report. The strategic importance to France of 
such a canal in case of war with England is apparent. England's 
presence at Gibraltar could no longer prevent France from uniting her 
Mediterranean and Atlantic squadrons. 



DISEASES OF THE PHILIPPINES 123 

The canal as proposed starts from Bassin d'Arcachon, on the 
Atlantic Ocean; thence, with a branch to Bordeaux, passes through 
Marmande, Agen, Castelsarrasin, Toulouse, Carcassonne, Narbonne, 
and finall}' terminates in the Etang de Sijean, on the Mediterranean 
Sen. The entire length of the canal will be about 280 miles. The plans 
that have been prepared provide for a width of 37 meters, increased 
at intervals to 61 meters to allow vessels to pass each other, and for a 
depth of eight and one-half meters, and nine meters in the locks. 
The highest point of the canal, about 655 feet above sea-level, it is 
estimated would be on the hill of Naurouse, which is the lowest point 
in the watershed of the Garonne and of the river flowing into the 
Mediterranean. To reach this elevation 22, or perhaps only 18, locks 
will be necessaiy. 

According to careful estimates prepared by some of the most expe- 
rienced engineers of France, the total cost would be about $160,000,000. 
The annual receipts, on the other hand, based at 75 cents per ton, will 
easily reach $13,000,000 a year. The expense of maintenance, repairs, 
etc., is estimated at $2,000,000 annually, and the interest at four per 
cent on the investment at $6,400,000, making a total annual expense 
of about $8,500,000 a year. There would thus be a net profit of about 
$4,500,000 a year. It is stated that the canal could be completed 
within five years, allowing one year for the preparation of the neces- 
sary plans, charts, etc., and four years for their actual construction. 

By the construction of this canal the water route from Isle d'Oues- 
sant, on the northwest coast of France, to the island of Malta, in the 
Mediterranean Sea, would be shortened by 1,090 miles. Vessels mov- 
ing at the rate of six and one-half miles an hour could, including time 
lost in the locks, easily accomplish the passage in 58 hours. 



DISEASES OF THE PHILIPPINES 

The expedition sent out by the Johns Hopkins University to investigate the 
prevalent diseases in the Philippines has submittedits report to the University 
Medical School. Notices of the plans of the expedition have previously appeared 
in tin; National Geographic Magazine. (See vol. X, pp. 280, 421.) Two 
months, May and June, were spent in the study of disease among the natives 
and American troops in Manila and at Oavite. Owing to the military situation, 
it was found impracticable to visit other ports iii the Archipelago or to penetrate 

into the interior of the island of Luzon. 

Of the diseases affecting the natives, smallpox is tlie most prevalent. This 



124 GEOGRAPHIC MISCELLANEA 

disease, the commission states, has been so common in Luzon that the natives 
have to a large extent lost fear of it. All evidence points to the greatest care- 
lessness in preventing its spread during Spanish times. Isolation of the sick and 
disinfection of the habitations seem not to have been attempted, and vaccina- 
tion, even among the Spanish garrison, had not been carried out. Under these 
circumstances it could be no surprise that after the American occupation the 
disease should appear and even become epidemic ; but the prompt action of Dr 
Bournes, chief health officer of Manila, who caused the Spanish garrison still 
in Manila and the natives and Chinese within the city to be vaccinated on the 
appearance of the disease early last year (1899), has afforded most satisfactory 
results. Other diseases especially affecting the natives are: leprosy, of which 
there were a hundred cases in the San Lazaro Hospital, all coming from Manila 
and the country surrounding that city ; tuberculosis, of the extent of which ac- 
curate .statistics arc impossible to obtain, but the facts would indicate that it is 
a very common disease; beriberi, well known among the natives and appar- 
ently epidemic and endemic in its nature. Skin diseases, as might be expected, 
are also prevalent. 

Of the diseases affecting Americans, dysentery is responsible for the greatest 
amount of invalidation and the highest mortality. Typhoid fever, while less 
prevalent than dysentery, is, however, a frequent affection among Americans. 
Malarial fevers would seem not to be very common. Other diseases which 
while not prevalent affect foreigners to a considerable extent are tuberculosis, 
dengue, and tropical ulcers. 

While outfitting at Hongkong, an I later on their return to Hongkong en route 
to America, the commission improved the opportunity to study the bubonic 
plague, which was still prevailing at that port. Two members of the party, Dr 
Barker and Mr Flint, also passed three weeks in India, where the great epi- 
demic of plague was then raying. This is a brief summary of the results 
achieved by the expedition. Naturally the commissioners have not yet been able 
to complete the scientific portion of the work. They are now making careful 
studies of the material relating to beriberi, dysentery, malarial and typhoid 
fevers, leprosy, ami the bubonic plague, and later will publish their results in 
complete form. 



GEOGRAPHIC MISCELLANEA 

The United States steamer Nero in its survey for a Transpacific cable re- 
corded one sounding near Guam Island of 5,269 fathoms — the deepest sea- 
sounding ever recorded. 

Reports from Valparaiso, Chile, describe a fossil of the whale species dis- 
covered on the north beach at Caldera. It is stated that the fossil measures 
about 32 feet and is almost perfectly preserved. 

With the completion of the triangulation between Chatham and Sumner 
Straits the work of triangulation in southeastern Alaska is ended, and the nec- 
essary geodetic data for the preparation of maps have been obtained. 



GEOGRAPHIC MISCELLANEA 125 

The present membership of the National Geographic Society is 1,300 resi- 
dent and 1,300 non-resident members. This is an increase of 1,000 since June 
1, 1899, when the systematic effort to enlarge the work of the Society was begun. 

The Constantinople correspondent of the London Times states that, as com- 
pensation for the Bagdad railway concession to Germany, Russia has demanded 
of Ihe Ottoman Empire prior railway concessions in Asia Minor north of the 
German line. 

Announcement is made of the resignation of Mr John B. Hatcher from the 
chair of assistant professor of geology in Princeton University, to accept the 
curatorship of vertebrate paleontology at the Carnegie Museum in Pittsburg, 
Pennsylvania. 

From the fourth report of the International Commission on Glaciers it would 
appear that out of 70 glaciers measured in the Swiss Alps, 12 are advancing, 
while 55 are receding. In the eastern Alps the retreat of the glaciers is notice- 
able, though not with the same rapidity as in the period from 1870 to 1890. 

The longitude of Maricopa, Arizona, has recently been determined by a U. S. 
Coast and Geodetic Survey party. The initial station was El Paso, Texas. 
Signals were exchanged on three successive nights, after which the observers 
changed places and three more nights' observations were obtained, thus elim- 
inating the effect of personal equation. 

Capt. George Owen Squier, of the Signal Office, War Department, contrib- 
utes to a recent number of The Independent a summary of the arguments in favor 
of a United States Pacific cable. A map accompanying the article shows the 
routes of the proposed United States Pacific cable, the route of the proposed 
English Pacific cable, and also the proposed international cable spans. 

In a recent number of the Pathfinder is a description of a set of five relief- 
maps of the continent, prepared for the Paris Exposition by E. E. Howell, the 
well-known relief-map expert. They are all on the same horizontal scale, one 
inch to 120 miles, and average five feet square. The vertical scale is 1 to 500,000, 
the deepest ocean depths being depressed about three-quarters of an inch. 

It is expected that the committee of judges appointed by the National <ieo- 
graphic Society to award the prizes of $150.00 and $75.00 offered by the Society 
for the best and second best essays submitted during 1899 relating to pre Colum- 
bian discoveries and settlements of the Norsemen on the mainland of North 
America will reach a decision in the near future, and the announcement of the 
successful contestants will then be made. 

William Hknky GlLDEH, an Arctic explorer of the seventies and early eighties, 
died in February at Morristown, New Jersey. In 1878 he joined the Franklin 
search expedition, commanded by the late Lieutenant Frederick Schwatka, 
U. S. A. While serving with this expedition from 1878 to 1880 he made a sledge 
journey of over 3,250 miles in King William Land, probably the longest sledge 
journey ever made in the Arctic regions. Il<' lias written the narrative of the 
expedition in "Schwatka's Search." 

[n McClure's Magazine for February is an interesting article by Mr Walter 
Well man, entitled " The Race for the North Pole," a narration of his Arctic ex- 



126 GEOGRAPHIi MIS( 'ELLANEA 

plorationa daring 1898-'99. A detailed account of the geographic results of the 
expedition was given by Mr Welhnan in the National Geographic Magazink 
for December. The same number of McClare'it contains an article by Cleveland 
Moti'ett, "The Inside of the Earth," giving Professor Milne's observations and 
conclusions as to the interior of our planet. 

"The Bubonic Plague" is the title of a report recently submitted to the Sec- 
retary of the Treasury by Walter Wyman, Surgeon-Ceneral Marine Hospital 
Service, and issued by the department in pamphlet form. This valuable bro- 
chure is a revision of a paper prepared by l)r Wyman and published in the 
annual report for 1897. The many facts that have become known within the 
past tew years with regard to the epidemic have been incorporated into the re- 
vision, with the result that the bulletin embodies in available form the latest 
information which may be of value to quarantine officers, health officers, ami 
all interested in the study of the disease. 

RiopoKTs from the three field parties of the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey 
at work on the south coast of Puerto Rico state that satisfactory progress is 
being made, and that triangulation, topography, and signal-building are going 
on simultaneously. Signals are located to within a few miles of Guanica, and 
the topography is finished to Guayanilla Bay. A large lagoon, to which little 
attention has heretofore been given, though a prominent feature on the coast, 
has been surveyed near Point ( 'uchara. The entire country west of Ponce and 
as far as ( labo Rojo is covered with a thick growth of brush and trees, which 
requires lines to he cut at every station, thus considerably retarding the work. 

Tim-: following is the present condition of railway construction in the Chinese 
Empire: Lines constructed, 365 miles; lines in process of construction, 2,615 
miles; lines for which concessions have been granted, 4.125 miles. Of this 
total of 7,105 miles constructed, in process of construction, and conceded, 495 
miles are under German control, 810 miles under American, 1,380 miles under 
English. 805 miles under Belgian, (570 miles under Chinese, 490 miles under 
French, 690 miles under Anglo-German, 1,765 miles under Russo-Chinese. To 
this total of 7.105 miles must he added 1,970 miles of railroad proposed and 
2,885 miles of railroad for which surveys have been made but no concessions 
granted. 

The following report is interesting as the latest rumor concerning Andree : 
"A letter received in London from Bishop Newnham, dated October 1. Fort 
Churchill, Hudson Pay. says: 'Two Eskimo came here tins summer, traveling 
from the far north, to tell that two white men had comedown from the sky in 
a balloon, the remains of which they had seen, and had heen murdered by 
some Eskimo there. I believe this is authentic, hut have not had time to in- 
quire. Sad, if this he the last of poor Andree and his companion.' " The fact 
that a letter from Bishop Newnham dated September 8, 1899, has been received 
in Toronto, wherein no mention is made of the supposed murder of Andree. 
discredits this latest report from London. 

A very instructive article on the geography of Abyssinia and the manners 
ami customs of its inhabitants is the main feature of the Geographical Journal 
for February. The author, Herbert Weld Blundell, in March, 1898, accoin- 



GEOGRAPHIC MISCELLANEA 127 

panied the first English diplomatic representative to the capital of Abyssinia, 
Ail is Abeba. Later, in November of the same year, he organized a party of 
several naturalists and passed the next six months in journeying up and down 
Abyssinia, finally reaching Khartum June 1, 1899. The party collected, in ad- 
dition to eighteen different kinds of antelopes, 10 elephants and two lions, 520 
specimens of birds, representing 299 species, of which 11 are new. The whole 
collection has been presented to the British Museum. 

As a result of the South African war, the supply and, in consequence, the 
price of coal in Italy have been seriously affected. This is due partly to the 
increase of price in England and partly to the fact that the means of transport 
arc becoming insufficient, inasmuch as the English government has hired a large 
number of transports belonging to companies and to private individuals. From 
an article which appeared in L'ltalie, Rome, and a translation of which Ambas- 
sador Draper has transmitted to the State Department, it appears that in Jan- 
uary the price of coal reached $9.65 per ton in Genoa and $11. 58 in Milan. 
Owing to the scarcity, it was feared that many industrial establishments would 
be obliged to shut down and thousands of workmen thrown out of work. 

Preliminary work is well underway on the railway from Tsing-chau via 
Wei lisien to Isi nan fu, the provincial metropolis of Shantung, with a branch 
line to Po-shan, the concession for which was granted to a German company by 
the Chancellor of the Chinese Empire in June, 1899. The first delivery of tires, 
sleepers, rails, and small iron tools was shipped during December, 1899, and 
the foundation work for a double track is already provided for. The company 
has pledged itself to complete the road within five years and the extension 
within three years. By the construction of these 280 miles of railway, the great 
coal districts in the north of the province of Shantung will be brought into 
practical communication with the important districts between Tsing-chau and 
Isi nan fu and with Kiao-chau. 

Tin: series of articles descriptive of the different forest reserves of the United 
States that were embodied for the Division of Forest Reserves in the Nineteenth 
Annual Report of the U. 8. Geological Survey have recently been published as 
separate brochures. The series, which were prepared under the general direc- 
tion of Henry Gannett, Chief of the Division of Geography and Forestry, in- 
clude: The Forests of the United Stairs, by Henry Gannett ; The Black Hills Forest 
Reserve, by Henry S. Graves; The Eastern Partofthe Washington Forest Reserve, 
by Martin W. Gorman; The Washington Forest Reserve, by H. B. Ayres; The 
'1,1m, mill Yellowstone Park Forest Reserves, by '1'. S. Brandegee; The Priest River 
Forest Reserve and The Bitter Ro<>i Forest Reserve, by John B. Leiberg; and The 
Big II" in Forest Reserve, by F. E. Town. Each paper is handsomely illustrated 
and accompanied by maps showing wooded areas, distribution of timber species. 
burned and restocked areas, and other practical facts. The series may be ob- 
tained by applying directly to the Q. S. Geological Survey, Washington, !>.<'. 

Material for the revision of the coast charts of New Jersey has reached the 
V . s. Coast and Geodetic 8urvey Office, in order to keep these maps up to 
date at a comparatively small expense, a party was put into the field during 
the latter half of L899. Sufficient data were collected in this short time to prac- 



128 GEOGRAPHIC MISCELLANEA 

tically revise the entire edition of coast charts, making them now about equal 
in value to those which would have resulted from a new survey. South of Bay 
Head the material changes are not great ; but north of this point, where the 
details are too intricate for the methods pursued, a plane-table survey is recom- 
mended for areas beyond the local maps. Many changes were noticed in the 
inlets, ami they take place so rapidly that a good channel one year may become 
a mud flat, bare at low tide, the next. These conditions are particularly notice- 
able at Absecon and Egg Harbor inlets. Where regular lines of steamers trav- 
erse the water- just inside the entrance, the steamboat companies find it << 
sarv to locate the channel after nearly every heavy storm. The bars at the 
mouths of the inlets are all very shoal, few having more than three or four feet 
of water at low tide. 

At the Sixth International Geographical Congress in 181)5 the Geographical 
Society of Finland exhibited a number of charts ami maps planned to repre- 
sent the country and general condition of the people, many of the charts having 
been especially prepared for the occasion. Encouraged by the favorable recep- 
tion accorded the maps, the society decided to add to the series ami to publish 
the whole asan atlas of Finland. This atlas, which has recently been completed, 
contains a series of 32 large maps, from which an excellent comprehension of 
the present physical, economic, and social conditions of Finland may be ob- 
tained. The following charts are especially valuable: A series of six meteoro- 
logical charts showing the amount of rainfall and snowfall a year, the average 
temperature, the direction of winds, etc. ; a series of five charts showing the 
proportion of rural and city population, the population by professions, whether 
of native or foreign origin, etc., and charts giving statistics of farm products, of 
metals, of export- and imports, of telegraphs and telephones, railways, etc. 
Perhaps the most striking chart is that which shows that more than 70 per 
cent of the population is not represented in the Diet, the National Assembly. 

A recent number of Peter mann's MiUeUungen contains an interesting article, 
which by means of a two-colored map shows very clearly the proportions of the 
agricultural and industrial population of the German Empire. Green, which 
represents the agricultural sections, is the prevailing color in all parts of the 
empire except in Saxony and along the basin of the Rhine, where red, repre- 
senting the industrial sections, predominates: in other words, the eastern part 
of the empire is agricultural, while a considerable part of the western section is 
industrial and commercial in its interests. As a consequence of the insufficient 
means of communication between the two sections, the articles manufactured 
in the east liii'l abroad a more accessible market than in the western section ; 
but the agricultural interests of the west, being handicapped by lack of outlet 
to the rest of the empire on the east and prohibited by excessive foreign duties 
from sending their produce to Russia and Austria, are in danger of being de- 
stroyed; hence the scheme for a canal through the center of Germany, winch 
is at present before the Reichstag and which has been personally advocated by 
the Emperor. The map shows that, while German commerce has developed 
within the last few years to such an extent as to arouse the anxiety of England, 
it is yet far from equaling the agricultural interests of the empire. 



NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 



President 

Alexander Graham Bell 

Vice-President 
W J McGEE 

Board of Managers 

1S97-1900 1898-1901 1899-1902 

Marcus Bakkr A. Graham Bell Charles J. Bell 

Henry F. Blount Henry Gannett G. K. Gilbert 

F. V. Coyille A. W. Greely A. J. Henry 

S. H. Kauffmann John Hyde David J. Hill 

Willis L. Moore W J McGee C. Hart Merriam 

W. b. Powell F. h. Newell h. s. Pritchett 

Treasurer Corresponding Secretary 

Henry Gannett Willis L. Moore 

Recording Secretary Foreign Secretary 

A. J. Henry Eliza Ruhamah Scidmore 



OFFICES OF THE SOCIETY 

Rooms 107, 108, Corcoran Building, Fifteenth and F Streets N. W., Washington, D. C. 
Office Hours: 8.30 A. M. to 5.00 P. M. Telephone No. 471. 

The National Geographic Magazine is sent free of charge to all members of the 
National Geographic Society 

RecomeDdatii for MenMip in the National Geoppliic Society. 

The following form is enclosed for use in the nomination of persons for member- 
ship. I'h, is, detach and till in blanks and send to the Secretary. 

Dubs: Resident, $5; Non-resident, $2 ; Life membership, $50. If check be en- 
closed, please make it payable to order of the National Geographic Society, ami, if at a 
distance from Washington, remit by New York draft or P. O. money-order. 

1900 



To tin Secretary, National Geographic Society, 

Washington, D. C. : 

Please propose — . 

occupation and address: 



for membership in th Society. 



It is understood thai persons nominated on tln^ blank bave expressed a desire to 
join the Society. 



NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



O 

o 





CHESAPEAKE & OHIO RY. 

TTHE F. F. V. LIMITED is one of the finest trains hauled over any railway track in America. It runs 
solid between Cincinnati and New York, the route from Washington being over the Pennsylvania 
system. It has every modern convenience and appliance, and the dining-car service has no superior if 
it has a'n equal. The road-bed is literally hewed out of the eternal rocks; it is ballasted with stone 
from one end to the other ; the greater portion is laid with one-hundred-pound steel rails, and although 
curves are numerous in the mountain section, the ride is as smooth as over a Western prairie. 

One of the most delightful rides in all the route is that through the New River valley. The 
mountains are just low enough to be clad -with verdure to the very top, and in the early spring every 
variety of green known to the mixer of colors can be seen, while the tones in autumn take on all the 
range from brown to scarlet. 

These facts should be borne in mind by the traveler between the East and the West. 

H. W. FULLER, Genl. Pass. Agent, Washington, D. C. 

The Fastest and Finest Train in the West .... 



IS 




The Overland Limited 



TO. 



W UTAH and CALIFORNIA. 



°'«P^TO*^ V 



FROM 16 TO 20 HOURS 
SAVED BY USING 

"fig Qwwm%Aww mowT w." 

Double Drawing-Room Pullman Sleepers. 

Free Reclining Chair Cars. 

Pullman Dining Cars. 

Buffet Smoking and Library Cars. 



Send for Descriptive Pamphlet '• 49-96,'' 
Folders and other Advertising Matter. 
(Mention thin publication.) 



E. L. LOMAX, 

General Passenger and Ticket Agent, 

OMAHA, NEB 



Please mention this Magazine when writing to advertisers. 



National geographic magazine 



THE CHICAGO, MILWAUKEE AND ST. PAUL RAILWAY 

- . nxjiKrs - . 

Electric Lighted and Steam Heated Vestibuled Trains between Chicago, Mil- 
waukee, St. Paul and Minneapolis daily. 

Through Parlor Cars on day trains between Chicago, St. Paul and Minneapolis. 

Electric Lighted and Steam Heated Vestibuled Trains between Chicago and 
Omaha and Sioux City daily. 

Through Sleeping Cars, Free Reclining Chair Cars and Coaches between Chicago 
and Kansas City, Mo. 

Only two hours from Chicago to Milwaukee. Seven fast trains each way, daily, 
with Parlor Car Service. 

Solid trains between Chicago and principal points in Northern Wisconsin and 
the Peninsula of Michigan. 

Through Trains with Palace Sleeping Cars, Free Reclining Chair Cars and Coaches 
between Chicago and points in Iowa, Minnesota, Southern and Central Dakota. 

The finest Dining Cars in the World. 

The best Sleeping Cars. Electric Reading Lamps in Berths. 

The best and latest type of private Compartment Cars, Free Reclining Chair 
Cars, and buffet Library Smoking Cars. 

Everything First-class. First-class People patronize First-class Lines. 

Ticket Agents everywhere sell tickets over the Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul Ry. 

GEO. H. HEAFFORD, 

General Passenger Agent, Chicago, III. 



CALIFORNIA.. 

C\F course you expect to go there this Spring. Let 
^"^ me whisper something in your ear. Be sure that 
the return portion of your ticket reads via the . . . 

Northern Pacific-Shasta Route* 

Then you will see the grandest mountain scenery in 
the United States, including fit. Hood and Ht. Rainier, 
each more than 14,000 feet high, fit. St. Helens, 
fit. Adams, and others. You will also be privileged 
to make side trips into the Kootenai Country, where 
such wonderful new gold discoveries have been made, 
and to Yellowstone Park, the wonderland not only of 
the United States, but of the World. Close railroad 
connections made in Union Station, Portland, for Puget 
Sound cities and the east, via Northern Pacific. 

CHAS. S. FEE, 

General Passenger Agent. St. Pau,. Minn. 
Please mention this Magazine when writing to advertisers. 



NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



"PEOPLE |ik e to read about the great 

and wonderful country of the 

\ Southwest ; of its quaint and curious 



<£<£ 



1 
1 
I 
1 
I 
I 

1 
1 






N 

> 
N 



N 



towns, its ancient civilizations, its 
natural marvels. They like to get ac- 
curate information about California 
and the Pacific Coast. This is because 
most people want to some day see these 
things for themselves 



A charming book covering these 
Tacts is issued by ttie 

PASSENGER DEPARTMENT 

OF THE 

Southern Pacific Railway, 

and will be sent to anyone, postpaid, 
on receipt of TEN CENTS. 



^$C«^5 



t I 



(4 



THE BOOK IS ENTITLED 

Through Storyland 
to Sunset Seas/' 









< 



I 
I 

I 
I 

i 

i 
i 
i 

1 

1 

8 

I 
I 
I 



* f 



<j£<j£> 



You can get a copy by writing to 

S. F. B. MORSE, 

General Passenger Agent, 
Southern Pacific, 

New Orleans, 
and sending 1 cts. to defray postage. 



%£<£* 



AND IS A WONDERFULLY HAND- 
SOME VOLUME OF 205 PAGES, 
WITH 160 ILLUSTRATIONS. . . . 
The paper used is FINE PLATE 
PAPER, and every typographical de- 
tail is artistic. It is a story of what 
four people saw on just such a trip as 
you would like to make 



S 



Please mention this Magazine when, writing to advertisers. 



NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



Burlington 



Leave BOSTON every Tuesday 
Leave CHICAGO every Wednesday 
Leave ST. LOUIS every Wednesday 



PERSONALLY CONDUCTED 
TOURIST PARTIES TO 

California 

Comfortable and Inexpensive 




CELECT PARTIES leave Boston every Tuesday via Niagara Falls 
and Chicago, joining at Denver a similar party, which leaves St. 
Louis every Wednesday. From Denver the route is over the Scenic 
Denver and Rio Grande Railway, and through Salt Lake City. 

Pullman Tourist Sleeping Cars of a new pattern are used. They are thoroughly com- 
fortable and exquisitely clean, fitted with double windows, high-back scats, carpets, 
spacious toilet-rooms, and the same character of bedding found in Palace Cars. They 
are well heated and brilliantly lighted with Pintsch gas. Outside they are of the ri 
lation Pullman color, with wide vestibules of steel and beveled plate glass. Beautifully 
illustrated books on California and Colorado, with maps, train schedules and com- 
plete information can be had from any of the following Burlington Route agents: 



E. J. SWORDS 

:>7!> Broadway 

NEW YORK CITY 

F. E. BELL 

•J.I 1 Clark Street 

CHICAGO, ILL. 



W. J. O'MEARA 

308 Washington Street 
BOSTON, MASS. 

C. D. HAGERMAN , . 

7<>:S Park Building 

PITTSBURG, PA. 



H. E. HELLER 

<;.",!: Chestnut Street 

PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

J., G. DELAPLAINE . 

Broadway and Olive Streets 
ST. LOUIS, MO. 



Please mention this Magazine when writing to advertisers. 



NA TIONA L GEOGRA PHIC MA (J A ZINE 




Shortest Line 



TO 



St. Paul and Minneapolis 



and the Northwest 



Chicago 
Great 



44 Maple 
Leaf 
Route" 



Western 



RAILWAY 



For tickets, rates or any detailed information apply 
to your home agent or write to 

F. H. LORD, 

Gen'l Pass'r and Ticket Agent, 
CHICAGO. 



1 

< 

w 



H 

H 
M 

d 

i 

M 



H 
M 



-^_-a. a.- 



^ \fe \t \fe \t ^/ vt \f> »t \f> \f> »t »^ \t> »t »t ife ^ \^ \fe »fe ^ U» \t \fe \<!» %fe \t ife ^fe %fe ^fc><g 



^ 



A VITAL POINT 



MPROVEMENT THE CIDER OF THE AG .* 




A TYPEWRITER'S 
PRINTING MECHANISM 

MUST BE SCIENTIFICALLY CON- 
STRUCTED. THIS POINT IS OF 
UTMOST IMPORT FOR 

EASY OPERATION AND 

PERFECT EXECUTION. 

Cbe Smith. . 
Premier 
typewriters 



Superior on This Point as Well as on All Others. 



ONLY CORRECT 
PRINCIPLES EMPLOYED. 



The Smith Premier Typewriter Co., 

SYRACUSE, N. Y. , U. S. A. 






Catalogues and Information at Washington Office, No. 519 Eleventh Street. 



Please mention this Magazine when writing to advertisers. 



NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE. 



THE AMERICAN ™"^ 
FORESTRY ASSOCIATION. FORESTRY f 

Organized April, 1882. Incorporated January, 1897, 

OFFICERS FOR 1SOO: 

President : Hon. James Wilson, Secretary of Agriculture. 

First Vice-Pres.: Dr. B. E. Fernow. Vice-Pres. for District of Columbia: George W. McLanahan. 

Corresponding Sec'y: F. H. Newell. Recording Secretary and Treasurer ; George P. Whittlesey. 

The objects of this Association in conserving the forest wealth of the United States are detailed in 
a pamphlet which will be sent, together with a copy of The Forester, upon request. 

Patrons, $100. Life Membership, $50. Annual Membership, $2. 



To the c ::::^Z^tLa lim . applicatiok FOR MEMBERSHIP. 

WASHINGTON, D. C. 

Dear Sir : Please propose my name for membership in THE AMERICAN 
FORHSTRY ASSOCIATION. 



{Signed) Name 

P. O. Address 



ALL MEMBERS RECEIVE 



Tup FORFSTFR 

THE OFFICIAL MONTHLY MAGAZINE, int. r \J I l I-O I t_ It . 

Pertinent papers by forest experts, accurate descriptions of the forests by officials of 
the U. S. Government, scientific forestry at home and abroad, questions of lumbering, 
irrigation, water supply, sheep-grazing, and a keen summary of forest news. 

" ' The Forester'' is devoted to the preservation of A merican forests, which ought to enlist for it the atten- 
tion of every American patriot." — Chicago Advance. 

CORCORAN BUILDING, Washington, D. C. 

WOODWARD & LOTHROP 

invite attention to their selections and importations in desirable 

merchandise for the present season, 

comprising in part 

Paris and London Millinery, Silks, Velvets, 
High-class Dress Goods, Ready-to- Wear 
Outer Garments for Women, Girls and Boys, 
Hand-made Paris Lingerie, Corsets, Infants' 
Outfittings, Hosiery, Laces, Ribbons, Em- 
broideries, Linens, Upholstery Goods, Books, 
Stationery, Card Engraving; also Paris, 
Vienna, and Berlin Novelties in Leather and 
Fancy Goods, Sterling Silver Articles, Lamps, 
Clocks, Bronzes, etc., for Wedding Gifts .... 

loth, llth and F Streets, Washington, D. C. 

Pleaee mention this Magazine when writing to advertisers. 



NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



COMMENCED JANUARY, 1888. 



TWO VOLUMES PER YEAR. 



THE AMERICAN GEOLOGIST, 

1900. 

The Oldest Exclusively Geological Magazine Published in America 

TERMS. 

To Subscribers in the United States, Canada and Mexico $3.50 a year 

To other Subscribers in the Postal Union 400 a year 



The AMERICAN GEOLOGIST is issued monthly from the office of publication at Minne- 
apolis, Minnesota, United States of America. Twenty-four volumes are completed; the 
twenty-fifth began with tin; number fur January, L900. The magazine has received a 
cordial welcome and a onerous support from leading geologists everywhere and it is now 
recognized as the exponent of the rapid geological progress that is taking place on 
the continenl of North America, including Canada, the United States and Mexico. No- 
where else iii the world are geologic phenomena exhibited on a more extensive scale 
and nowhere else are results attained of greater economic and scientific imports 

The AMERICAN GEOLOGIST lays before its nailers from month to month the latest 
results of geological work. In addition to the longer papers it gives synopses of recent 
geological publications and brief notes on current geological events. 

THE GEOLOGICAL PUBLISHING CO., 

Minneapolis, Minn. 

se:ivjd to the: ■ 

MACMILLAN COMPANY 

For the LATEST TEXT-BOOKS and WORKS OF REFERENCE 

ON EVERY BRANCH OF SCIENCE BY 

LEADING AUTHORS. 



PROF. I.. H. BAILEY 'Cornell University), 

works on Agriculture and Botany 
PROF. THORP (Mass. Inst. Tech.), on Indus- 
trial Chemistry. $3.50 net. 
PROF. PACKARD (Brown Univ. on Entomology. 

$4.50 net. 
PROFS. HARKXKSS and MORLEY (Bryn 
Mawr and Haverford), Theory of Analytic 
/■'unctions. $j.c 

PROF. DAVENPORT (Harvard University). 

Experimental Morphology. Vol. I, $2.60 ; Vol 
II, J2.00. 
PROF. HENRY F. OSBOKX (Columbia Univ.). 
Editor of the Columbia Biological & 



PROF. NICHOLS and his Colleagues (De- 
partment of Physics, Cornell Univ. 1. in Physics, 
Electricity, etc. 

PROF. LAMBERT '(Lehigh University), on Dif 

ferential and Integral Calculus. $1.50 net. 

PROF. LACHMAN Univ. of Oregon!, The 
Spirit of Organic Chemistry. $1.50 net. 

PROF. TARR Cornell Univ.), Physical Geogra- 
phy. Geology, etc. 

PROF. COMEY (Tufts College), Dictionary ot 
Chemical Solubi' 



These are a few only of the names represented in the Catalogue or the New 
Announcement List; <sent fre 

THE MACMILLAN COMPANY, Publishers, NEW YORK, 



Please mention this Magazine when writing to advertisers. 



NA TIOXA L GEOGRA PHIC MA GA ZIXE 



The Leading Scientific Journal of America 

SCIENCE 



A JOURNAL DEVOTED TO THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE. 

PUBLISHED EVERY FRIDAY. 

Annual Subscription, $5.00. Single Copies, 15 Cents. 



From its first appearance, in 1S83, Science has maintained a repre- 
sentative position, and is regarded, both here and abroad, as the leading 
scientific journal of America. 

Its Editors and Contributors come from every institution in this country 
in which scientific work of importance is accomplished, including Harvard, 
Yale, Columbia, Pennsylvania, Johns Hopkins, Cornell, and California 
Universities, among others. 



EDITORIAL COMMITTEE. 

S. NEWCOMB, Mathematics ; R. S.Woodward, Mechanics ; EC. Pickering, Astronomy; 
T. C. Mendenhall, Physics ; R. H.Thurston, Engineering ; IraRemsen, Chemis- 
try ; J. LE ConTE, Geology ; W. M. Davis, Physiography ; Henry F. Osborn, 
Paleontology; W. K. BROOKS, C. Hart MeuRIAM, Zoology; S. II. 
Scudder, Entomology ; C. E. Bessey, N. L. Britton, Botany ; C. S. 
MlNOT, Embryology, Histology ; H. P. BOWDITCH, Physiology ; 
J. S. Billings, Hygiene ; J. McKeen Cattell, Psychology ; 
J. W. Powell, Anthropology. 



NEW AND POPULAR SCIENTIFIC BOOKS. 



MANUAL OF BACTERIOLOGY 

By Robert Muir, M.D.. f.r.c.p , 
Ed., Professor of Pathology, Univer- 
sity of Glasgow, and James Ritchie, 
M.D., Lecturer on Pathology, Uni- 
versity of Oxford* Second edition. 
With 126 illustrations. 

Cloth, Cr. Svo, $2 25 nr/. 

GANONG 

The Teaching Botanist. A Manual 
of information upon Botanical In- 
struction, t igether with Outlines and 
Direcl ion.-, f r ;t Com].: Ele- 

mentary Course. By William l'. 
roNG, I'h. I)., Smith 

il ,1. 1 -in... $1 • ■" "'I- 

A manual of iufi n mal i'>:> up 
■tmction, with outlines mid 

•■ 



MACBR1DE 

The Slime Moulds. A Handhook of 
North American M\ xomyceles. By 
Thomas H. MacBridk, Professor of 
Botany, University of Iowa. 
Cloth, 121110. 

A list of all species described in Xorth 
America, including Central America, with an- 



SUTER 

Handbook of Optics. For Students 
of Ophthalmology. By YVn r.i \m N. 
Si'TKK, M. I)., National University, 
Washington, I >. C. 

1 loth, 1 2mo, ft. 00 net. 

Aim- hfcnom" 

ena ol is applii <i to ophthalmology 

A from the usual text-books on 



THE MACMILLAN COMPANY, Publishers, NEW YORK. 



Please mention this Magazine when writing to advertisers. 



NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



APPLETON'S 

GEOGRAPHICAL SERIES. 



Edited by H. J. MACK1NDER, M. A., Student of Christ Church, 

Reader in Geography in the University of Oxford, 

Principal of Reading College. 



The series will consist of twelve volumes, each being an essay descriptive 
of a great natural region, its marked physical features, and the life of its people. 
Together the volumes will give a complete account of the world, more especially 
as the field of human activity. 

The series is intended for reading rather than for reference, and will stand 
removed on the one h;md from the monumental work of Reclus, and on the 
other from the ordinary text-book, gazetteer, and compendium. 

Bach volume is to be illustrated by many maps printed in colors and by 
diagrams in the text, and it will be a distinguishing characteristic of the series 
that both maps and diagrams will be drawn so that each of them shall convey 
some salient idea, and that together they shall constitute a clear epitome of the 
writer's argument. With a like object, the pictures also will be chosen so as 
to illustrate the text and not merely to decorate it. A detailed announcement 
of this important series will be presented later. 

List of the Subjects and Authors. 

i. Britain and the North Atlantic. By the Editor. 

2. Scandinavia and the Arctic Ocean. By Sir Clements R. Markham, 

K. C. B., F. R. S., President of the Royal Geographical Society. 

3. The Romance Lands and Barbary. By Elisee Reclus, author of the 

" Nouvelle Geographie Universelle." 

4. Central Europe. By Dr. Joseph ParTSCH, Professor of Geography in 

the University of Breslau. 

5. Africa. By I>r. J. ScoTT Keltie, Secretary of the Royal Geographical 

Society ; Editor of " The Statesman's Year-Book." 

6. The Near East. By D. G. Hogarth, M. A., Fellow of Magdalen Col- 

lege, Oxford; Director of the British School at Athens; Author of "A 
Wandering Scholar in the Levant." 

7. The Russian Empire. Bv Prince Krapotkin, author of the articles 

" Russia " and " Siberia " in the Encyclopedia Britannica. 

8. The Far East. By Archibald Little. 

9. India. By Sir T. Hungerford Holdich, K. C. I. E-, C. B., R. E., Su- 

perintendent of Indian Frontier Surveys. 

10. Australasia and Antarctica. By Dr. H. O. Forbes, Curator of the 

Liverpool Museum ; lute Curator of the Christ Church Museum, N. Z. ; 
Author of "A Naturalist's Wanderings in the Eastern Archipelago." 

11. North America. By Prof. I. C. RUSSELL, University of Michigan. 

12. South America. By Prof. John C Brouner, Vice-President Lelaud 

Stanford Junior University. 

Maps by J. G. Bartholomew. 

D. APPLETON & CO., Publishers, 

NEW YORK. 



Please mention this Magazine when writing to advertisers. 



NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



IMPORTANT ANNOUNCEriENT ! 

THE 

INTERNATIONAL 
GEOGRAPHY. 

The last few years have proved so rich in geographical discov- 
eries that there has been a pressing need for a resume of recent ex- 
plorations and changes which should present in convenient and 
accurate form the latest results of geographical work. The addi- 
tions to our knowledge have not been limited to Africa, Asia, and 
the Arctic regions, but even on our own continent the gold of the 
Klondike has led to abetter knowledge of the region, while within 
a short time we shall have much more exact geographical informa- 
tion concerning the numerous islands which make up the Philippines. 
The want which is indicated will be met by The International Geog- 
raphy, a convenient volume for the intelligent general reader, and 
the library which presents expert summaries of the results of geo- 
graphical science throughout the world at the present time. 

Seventy authors, all experts, have collaborated in the production 
of The International Geography . The contributors include the lead- 
ing geographers and travelers of Europe and America. The work 
has been planned and edited by Dr. H. R. Mill, who also wrote 
the chapter on The United Kingdom. Among the authors are : 

Professor W. M. Davis (The United States), 

Dr. KridTjof Nansen (Arctic Regions), 

Professor A. KlRCHHOFF (German Empire), 

Mr. F. C SELOUS i Rhodesia i, 

Professors DE Lapparent and Rayeneau (France), 

Sir CLEMENTS R. Makkham, F. R. S. (Ecuador, Bolivia, and Peru), 

Sir John Murray, F. R. S. (Antarctic Regions), 

Count Pfeie (German Colonies), 

Mr. James BRYCE, M. P. (The Boer Republics), 

Sir II. II. Johnston, the late Sir Lambert 1'eayfair, 

Sir F, J. Coi.dsmii), Sir MakTin Conway, 

Sir George s. Robertson, sir Wixjjam MacGregor, 

Sir CHARLES Wilson, P. R. S. ; the Hon. D. W. CARNEGIE, 
Mrs. Bishop, Dr. a. M. W. Downing, F. R. S. ; 

Dr. J. SCOTT Ki.l.TiE, and 

Mr. G. G. CHISHOLM, the editor of the Times Gazetteer. 

The book is illustrated by nearly five hundred maps and diagrams, which 
have been specially prepared. It is designed to present in the compact limits 
of a single volume an authoritative conspectus of the science of geography 
and the conditions of the countries at the end of the nineteenth century. 

D. APPLETON & CO., Publishers, 

72 Fifth Avenue, New York. 

Please mention this Magazine when writing to advertisers. 



NA TIONA L G EOGK I PII1C JL 1 Q A I ZISE 



DOUBLEDAY & McCLURE CO., 

141-155 East 25th Street, New York. 



The United States of Europe. W. T. Stead. 

ON THE EVE OF THE PARLIAMENT OF PEACE. 

Mr. Stead's recent talks with the Czar and with all the great European statesmen 
lend much value to this timely review of current politics, written with special reference 
to the Russian Peace Rescript and American "Expansion." It covers such pertinent 
matters as America's task in Cuba and the Philippines, the "Chinese Puzzle," South 
African Problems, the Fashoda Muddle, the Concert of Europe and its work in Crete and 
Candia, and so on, with many suggestive forecasts. • 

Size, $% x %%\ pages, 468; over 100 portraits, maps, and illustrations; binding, cloth. 
Price, $2.00. 

Sketches in Egypt. Charles Dana Gibson. 

" Egypt," says Mr. Gibson, " has sat for her likeness longer than any other coun- 
try." The recent important events that have turned all eyes toward the Upper Nile 
have not disturbed in the least the ancient composure and serenity of the Land of the 
Pharoahs, and few countries offer such a tempting field to the artistic pen. Mr. Gibson's 
forceful and suggestive drawings are well reinforced by his written impressions — more 
complete than he has ever before published— and the whole makes up a uniquely in- 
teresting record, from an artist who occupies a peculiar position among us. It is the real 
Egypt from a new standpoint. No pains have been spared to produce a true art work, 
giving really adequate presentations of Mr. Gibson's drawings. 

Size, 7^xio^; cloth decorated; pages, 150; type, 12 point. Regular edition, $3.00 
net. Edition de Luxe, 250 signed and numbered copies, each accompanied by a portfolio 
containing art proofs of ten of the most important pictures, on Japan silk tissue and 
mounted on plate paper suitable for framing. Price per copy, $10.00 net. As SOON AS 
ACTUALLY PUBLISHED THE PRICE ON ALL DE LUXE COPIES NOT SUBSCRIBED FOR WILL 
BE RAISED. 

From Sea to Sea. Rudyard Kipling. 

35th THOUSAND. 

This is an authorized edition of the collected letters of travel which Mr. Rudyard 
Kipling has written at various times between 1S89 and 1898, and has just edited and 
revised. It includes hitherto unpublished matter, as well as an accurate text of the 
"American Notes," with " Letters of Marque," " The City of Dreadful Night," "The 
Smith Administration," etc., etc. 

Even Mr. Kipling never wrote anything more entirely irresistible than are, for in- 
stance, his letters on Japan. The ludicrousness of the Japanese " heavy cavalry," the 
fascinating O-Toyo, the cherry blossoms, and the wonderful art which permeates the 
daily life of natural Japan — all these things become permanent in the reader's mind and 
can never be forgotten; and they show a side of the author which is not at all prominent 
in most of his other work. 

Size, 5x7^; two volumes in box; pages, 860; type, 10 point; binding, cloth. 
Price, $2 00. 



Please mention this Magazine when writing to advertisers. 



NA TIONA L GEOGRA PHIC MA GA ZINE 



The American Anthropologist. 

The only American magazine devoted to the science of Anthropology ; 
published at the National Capital. No one interested in anthropology in any 
of its branches can afford to be without it. Siibscribe today. 



Handsomely Printed and Illustrated. Published Quarterly. Four Dollars a Year. 

Address: THE AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGIST, 

G. P. Putnam's Sons, 27 and 29 West 23d Street, New York City. 




H U 






/ 



i H' r ' 




l-p-A'N 




A. practical journalist, long i imber of the staff of the Washington Evening 

hi- pi i lis Bi fore he lefl Washington hi h id ; Brm believer in the 

medii ies of Ripans rabuli md I i 1 f them with hin luatemala, where h 

-l the friends hip of th i I the stei r, which Bails from 3an I ranci co and stops at 

In Central America, by making known to him tl virtues of R-I-P-A-N-S the 

medical wonder of the centui ! , ,,. 's enthusiasm about the Tabules 

and uffer terribly from Indigestion, md thai thi ral 

now known m ■ i ■ ! ■ Cenl i I ca Ripan fabuli qulel i he ai i 

compose the mind, all i . ii i itation, and Invite repose. « gives relief. 

WANTED V case of bad health thai R-I-P-A-N-8 will not benefil |"h i pain and 

I R-I-P-A-N-8 on tl i i in,.. 

R-I-P-A-N-S. 10 fi 18 ie Im n 

thousand ti fill be mailed to any add nl rded to the 

tnical Co., No. 10 Bpi uce St., New ■> ork. 



Please mention thie Magazine when writing to advertisers. 



NA TIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



LECTURE COURSES 



OF THE 



NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY. 



The program of the lectures for each month and all other announcements 
by the Society will be published regularly in the National Geographic 
Magazine. 



THE POPULAR COURSE, 

delivered in the 

FIRST CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH, TENTH AND G STREETS N. W., 

on alternate Friday evenings at 8 o'clock. 

March 9. — Manchuria Mr M. Sergey Friede, C. E. 

March 23. — The Venezuelan Boundary .... Mr Marcus Baker. 

*The International Geographic Congress . Gen. A. W. Greely, U. S. A. 

* The Missions of California . . . Mr J. Stanley-Brown. 
*Cuba Mr George Kennan. 

* Presidential Address . . . Dr Alexander Graham Bell. 



THE TECHNICAL COURSE, 

delivered in the 

ASSEMBLY HALL OF COLUMBIAN UNIVERSITY, FIFTEENTH AND H STREETS N. W,, 
on Friday evenings at 8.15 o'clock. 

March 2. — The Geographic Distribution of Seed Plants . Prof. John M. Covlter, 

Chicago University. 

March 16.— The Roman Forum Prof. Mitchell Carroll, 

Columbian University. 
March 30.— The Waste of the Land on the Way to the Sea . Prof. Wm. M. Davis, 

Harvard University. 

* The Dykes of Holland Gerard H. MaTThes, 

U. S. Geological Survey. 

*The Floods of the Ohio and Mississippi Valleys . H. C. Frank i-.Mii-.i.n, 

U. S. Weather Bureau. 
* The date to be announced later. 



NA TIOXA L GEOGRA PIIIC MA GA ZIXE 



THE LENTEN COURSE. 

The subject of this course is The Growth of Nations, as illustrated by the geo- 
graphic and social development of leading European nations. This course of six 
lectures has been projected with the view of bringing out the elements of national 
power, and emphasizing the importance of individual character and of natural con- 
ditions in shaping national growth. The course will be complementary to that of last 
season on " The Growth of the United States." The lectures will be delivered in 

COLUMBIA THEATER, F STREET NEAR TWELFTH, 

4.20 to 5.30 p. m., 011 Tuesday afternoons, during March and April. 

March 6. — The Netherlands Professor J. Howard Gore, 

Columbian University. 
(With a General Introduction by the President.) 

March 13. — France Professor Jean C. Bracq, 

Vassar College. 

March 21.* — Austria-Hungary Professor WirxiAM Z. Ripley, 

Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 

March 27. — Germany . . . . . . . Professor John L. Ewell, 

Howard University. 

April 3. — England Dr. Edwin D. Mead, 

Editor of the New England Magazine. 

April 10. — Russia Professor Edwin A. Grosvenor, 

Amherst College. 

* Prof. Ripley's lecture on Austria-Hungary will be delivered on Wednesday, March 21, at the usual 
hour. 

HENRY ROMEIKE'S BUREAU OF PRESS CUTTINGS, 

no Fifth Avenue, New York, 

Reads every paper of importance published in the United States, and through its 
European agencies in London, Paris, Berlin, and Vienna every paper of importance 
published in Europe and the British Colonies. One subscription on any given sub 
ject will bring notices from the United States, and if desired also from the European 
papers. Write for terms. 

ESPECIALLY VALUABLE IN 1900. 



"THE MOVEMENTS OF OUR POPULATION," 

By HENRY GANNETT, Geographer of the U. S. Geological Survey, 

IN THE 
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE, Vol. V, No. 2. 



[n this article Mr. Gannetl shows the numerical increase of the population of the 
United States, itsgeographic distribution over the country, and its composition as regards 
sex, race, and nativity, not only at present but 111 past limes. Nineteen charts illustrate 

tin- text, showing the proportion of tirei'mans, French, British, Canadians, etc., 1 11 

tot ;i I 1 1<> 1 nihil ion, the centers of population during each decade since 1790, the proportions 

of urban and rural population since 17H0, ami other information valuable in this year of 

the twelfth census of the United States. 
l$.v mail for ."><> cent 9. 

NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE, 

Corcoran Building, Washington, D. C. 
Please mention this Magazine when writing to adverti 



NA TIONAL GEOGRu 1 PMIC M- 1 & I ZINE 




SOUTHERN RAILWAY 

GREATEST SOUTHERN SYSTEM. 

TO ALL POINTS SOUTH, SOUTHEAST, AND SOUTHWEST. 

Through Pullman Drawing- IJooin Sleeping- Cars from New 
York and Washington to New Orleans, Memphis, Port 
Tampa, Jacksonville, Augusta, and Intermediate Points — 
First-Class Day Coaches— Dining Car Service. 

Fast Trains for the SOUTH leave "Washington Daily at 11.15 A. M., 6.35 
P. M.. 9.50 P. M., and 10.45 P. M. 

Through Tourist car on the 10.45 P. M. Train every Monday, Wednesday, 
and Friday for Texas, Arizona, and California points, -without change. 

Direct line to the Summer Resorts in Virginia and the Carolinas and the 
Winter Resorts of Florida. Gulf Coast. Texas. Mexico, and California. 

Direct Through Car Line to and from Asheville, Hot Springs, and other 
Western North Carolina points— " THE LAND OF THE SKY." 

The " New Yoik and Florida Limited. ' the finest train in the -world, leaves 
"Washington at 6.35 P. M. daily except Sunday. Solid train to Florida. Dining 
Car Service. 

For Map Folders, Winter Homes Guide Book, and Book on "ASHEVILLE 
AND THEREABOUTS" write to— 

A. S. THWEATT, Eastern Passenger Agent, 271 Broadway, New York, N. Y. 
J. C. HORTON, Passenger Agent, 201 E. Baltimore Street, Baltimore, Md. 
L. S. BROWN. General Agent, 705 Fifteenth St. N. W., Washington, D. C. 
\\ . H. DOLL, Passenger Agent, Norfolk, Va. 

S. H. HARDWICK, Assistant General Passenger Agent. Atlanta, Ga. 

C. A. BKNSCOTEK, Assistant General Passenger Agent, Chattanooga, Tenn. 

W. H. TAYLOE, Assistant General Passenger Agent, Louisville, Ky. 

J. M. CUI.P, Traffic Manager. W. A. TURK, General Passenger Agent, 

Warhtwgtow, I). C. 

The Mutual Life Insurance Co. 

OF NEW YORK, 

RICHARD A. McCURDY, President, 

Is the Largest Insurance Company in the World. 



The Records of the Insurance Department of the State of New 

York SHOW THAT The Mutual Life 

Has a Larger Premium Income ... ($39,000,000) 

More Insurance in Force ($918,000,000) 

A Greater Amount of Assets - ($235,000,000) 

A Larger Annual Interest Income - - - ($9,000,000) 

Writes More New Business - ($136,000,000) 

And Pays More to Policy-holders - - ($25,000,000 in 1896) 

THAN ANY OTHER COMPANY. 

It has paid to Policy-holders since I m _ $437> oo5,195.29 
its organization, in 1843, j * ,vw,*»w.«» 

ROBERT A. GRANNISS, Vice-President. 

WALTER R. GILLETTE, General Manager. FREDERIC CROMWELL, Treasurer. 

ISAAC F. LLOYD, Second Vice-President. EMORY McCLINTOCK, Actuary. 

WILLIAM J. EASTON, Secretary. 



Please mention this Magazine when writing to advertisers. 



BACK NUMBERS OF THE 

NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



The National Geographic Magazine has a few unbound volumes for 
the years 1896, 1897, and 1898. Each volume contains numerous maps and 
illustrations and much valuable geographic matter. It is impossible to give 
the contents of each volume, but the following subjects show their wide 
range and scope : 

Vol. VII, 1896: Russia in Europe, by the late Hon. Gardiner G. Hubbard; 
The Scope and Value of Arctic Exploration, by Gen. A. W. Greely, U.S.A. ; Venezuela, 
Her Government, People, and Boundary, by William E. Curtis; The So-called 
Jeanette Relics, by Wm, H. Dall ; Nansen'a Polar. Expedition, by Gen. A. W. Greely, 
U.S.A.; The Submarine Cables of the World (with chart 49x30 inches); Seriland, 
by W J McGee and Willard D. Johnson; The Discovery of Glacier Bay, Alaska, by 
E. R. Scidmore; Hydrography in the United States, by F. H. Newell; Africa since 
1888, by the late Hon. Gardiner G. Hubbard; The Seine, The Meuse, and The Moselle, 
by Prof. Wm. M. Davis; The Work of the U.S. Board on Geographic Names, by Henry 
Gannett; A Journey in Ecuador, by W. B. Kerr; Geographic History of the Piedmont 
Plateau, by W J McGee; The Recent Earthquake Wave on the Coast of Japan, by E. R. 
Scidmore; California, by Senator Geo. C. Perkins; The Witwatersrand and the Revolt 
of the Uitlanders, by George F. Becker; The Sage Plains of Oregon, by F. V. Coville. 

Vol. VI! f, 1897: The Gold Coast, Ashanti and Kumassi, by Geo. K. French ; 
Crater Lake, Oregon, by J. S. Diller ; Storms and Weather Forecasts, by Willis L. Moore ; 
Rubber Forests of Nicaragua and Sierra Leone, by Gen. A. W. Greely, U.S.A. ; A Sum- 
mer Voyage to the Arctic, by G. R. Putnam; A Winter Voyage through the Straits of 
Magellan, by the late Admiral R. W. Meade, U.S.N. ; Costa Rica, by Senor Ricardo 
Villafranca; The National Forest Reserve, by F. H. Newell; The Forests and Deserts of 
Arizona, by B. E. Fernow ; Modification of the Great Lakes by Earth Movement, by G. K. 
Gilbert; The Enchanted Mesa, by F. W. Hodge; Patagonia, by J. B. Hatcher; The 
Washington Aqueduct and Cabin John Bridge, by Capt. D. D. Gaillard, U.S.A. 

Vol. IX, 1898: Three Weeks in Hubbard Bay, West Greenland, by Robert 
Stein; The Modern Mississippi Problem, by W J McGee ; Dwellings of the Saga-Time 
in Iceland, Greenland, and Vineland, by Cornelia Horsford ; Articles on Alaska, by Gen. 
A. W. Greely, U.S.A., Hamlin Garland, E. R. Scidmore, Prof. Wm. H. Dall, and others ; 
on Cuba, by Robert T. Hill, Frank M. Chapman, John Hyde, and Henry Gannett ; on 
the Philippines, by Dean C. Worcester, Col. F. F. Hilder, John Hyde, and Charles E. 
Howe; American Geographic Education, by W J McGee; Origin of the Physical 
Features of the United states, by G. K. Gilbert; Geographic Work of the General 
Government, by Henry Gannett ; Papagueria, by W.I McGee; The Bitter Root Forest 
Reserve, by \l. U. Goode; Lake Chelan, by Henry Gannett; The Geospherea, by W J 
McGee; Sumatra's West Coast, by I>. <i. Fairchild ; The Five Civilized Tribes in the 
Survey of Indian Territory, by ('. H. Fitch; Cloud Scenery of the High Plains, by 
Willard D. Johnson; Atlantic Coast Tides, by M. 8. W. Jefferson. 



Each volume may be had for $2.00. To obtain any of the 
above mentioned articles, send 25 cents in stamps, indicating 
merely the title of the article desired. 



107-108 Corcoran Building, Washington, D. C. 



CHART OF THE WORLD 

48x30 INCHES 

Showing all Submarine Cables and the principal 
Connecting Land Lines, and also Coaling, 
Docking, and Repairing Stations. 

No. 3, Vol. 7. By Mail for 25 Cents. 



THE PHILIPPINES 

The Economic Condition of the Philippines. By 
Max L. Tornow, of Berlin and Manila. 

Manila and the Philippines. By Major Von Son- 
nenberg, of the Imperial German Army, late 
military attache at Manila. 
No. 2, Vol. 10. By Mail for 25 Cents. 

The Philippine Islands (with maps). By F. F. Hilder. 
Notes on Some Primitive Philippine Tribes. By 
Dean C. Worcester. 

Commerce of the Philippine Islands. By the Editor. 
No. 6, Vol. 9. By Mail for 25 Cents. 



THE REDWOOD FOREST 

The Redwood Forest of the Pacific Coast. By 
Henry Gannett. In this article Mr. Gannett 
shows the geographic distribution, the average 
annual cut, and the estimated duration of the 
supply of redwood. 

Is Climatic Aridity Impending on the Pacific Coast? 
The Testimony of the Forest. By J. B. Leiberg. 
No. 5, Vol. 10 By Mail for 25 Cents. 



THE TRANSVAAL 

The Witwatersrand and the Revolt of the Uit- 
landers (1895-6.) By George F. Becker. 
No. 11, Vol. 7. By Mail for 25 Cents. 

NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE, Corcoran Bldg., Washington, D. C. 



JUDD <fc DETWEILER, PRINTERS, WASHIINGTON, D. C. 



Vol. XI APRIL, 1900 No. 4 



THE 

NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC 



MAGAZINE 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

THE ANGLO-VENEZUELAN BOUNDARY DISPUTE 

With map and illustrations MARCUS BAKER 129 

KOREA— THE HERMIT NATION 

With illustrations Commander H. WEBSTER, U. S. N. 145 

AN ASSUMED INCONSTANCY IN THE LEVEL OF LAKE NICARAGUA; 
A QUESTION OF THE PERMANENCY OF THE NICARAGUA 
CANAL C. WILL ARD HAYES 156 

THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION 161 

INTERNATIONAL ARBITRATION AND ITS POSSIBILITIES 162 

HELPING NAVIGATION 162 

RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION AND IMPROVEMENTS 163 

WHERE EXPLORATION IS NEEDED 163 

WORK IN THE ARCTIC AND ANTARCTIC 164 

Geographic Liteiature: Grosvenor's "Contemporary History of the Woild," p. 165 

Geographic Miscellanea, p. 167 ; Wheat Acreage of the United States in 1899; 
Effect of the Cuban Census; Storage Works on the Gila River, Arizona; 
Yale School of Forestry ; Dredging for Gold at Cape Nome ; The Bubonic 
Plague 



WASHINGTON 

PUBLISHED BY THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 

Fob Sale at Brbntano's: 

31 Union Squake, New York; 1015 Pennsylvania Avknue, Washington; 

218 WABASH Avicnik, Chicago; 37 Avknue dk l'Opkka, Pakib 

Price 25 Cents $2.50 a Year 



THE 



National Geographic Magazine 

AN ILLUSTRATED MONTHLY 



Editor: JOHN HYDE, 
Statistician of the U. S. Department of Agriculture 

Associate Editors 

General A. W. Greely, Marcus Baker, 

Chief Signal Officer, U. S. Army U. S. Geological Survey 

W J McGee, Willis L. Moore, 

Ethnologist in Charge, Bureau of Chief of the Weather Bureau, U.S. 

American Ethnology Department of Agricultute 

Henry Gannett, H. S. Pritchett, 

Chief Geographer, U. S. Geological Superintendent of the U. S. Coast 

Survey and Geodetic Survey 

C. Hart Merkiam, O. P. Austin, 

Chief of the Biological Survey, U. S. Chief of the Bureau of Statistics, 

Department of Agriculture U.S. Treasury Department 

David J. Hill, Charles H. Allen, 

Assistant Secretary of State Assistant Secretary of the Navy 

Eliza Rlhamah Scidmore, Carl Louise Garrison, 

Author of "fava, the Garden of Principal of Phelps School, Wash- 

the East," etc. i tig ton, D. C. 



Assistant Editor: GILBERT H. GROSVENOR, Washington, D. C. 



The list of contributors to the National Geographic Magazine 
includes nearly every United States citizen whose name has become iden- 
tified with Arctic exploration, the Bering Sea controversy, the Alaska and 
Venezuela boundary disputes, or the new commercial and political questions 
arising from the acquisition of the Philippines. 

The following articles will appear in the Magazine within the next few 
months : 

" Russia,'' by Professor Edwin A. Grosvenor of Amherst College, Massachusetts. 

"The Colonial Expansion of France," by Professor Jean C. Bracq of Vassar College, 
Poughkeepsie, New York. 

"The Samoau Islands," by Mr Edwin Morgan, Secretary of the Sanioan Commission. 

"The Native Tribes of Patagonia," by Mr J. B. Hatcher of the Carnegie Museum, 
Pittsburg, Pennsylvania. 

"The Characteristics of the Filipinos," by Hon. Dean C. Worcester of the Philippine 
Commission. 

"Discoveries in the Fossil Fields of Wyoming in 1899," by Prof. Wilbur C. Knight 
of the University of Wyoming. 

"Explorations on the Yangtse-Kiang, China," by Mr Win. Barclay Parsons, C. E., 
surveyor of the railway route through the Yangtse-Kiang Valley. 

Entered at the Post-office in Washington, D. C, as Second-class Mail Matter. 



NAT. GEOG MAG. 



VOL. XI, 1900, PL. 4 




MAP SHOWING BOUNDARIES AS CLAIMED BY GREAT BRITAIN AND VENEZUELA AND AS 

BY THE PARIS TRIBUNAL, 1899 



r _rnE 



NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 

Vol. XI APRIL, 1900 No. 4 



THE ANGLO-VENEZUELAN BOUNDARY DISPUTE 

By Marcus Baker, 
Cartographer, U. S. Geological Survey 

Introduction. — For nearly three score years Great Britain and Vene- 
zuela had wrangled over their boundary. No dividing line had ever 
been drawn by them, acting together. Venezuela always claimed to 
the Essequibo River. Great Britain, successor to the Dutch, claimed 
all the Dutch had had. The Dutch never established their limits on 
the Venezuelan side, and their indefinite western limit did not shrink 
in the hands of the British. In the course of a long diplomatic cor- 
respondence, proposals and counter-proposals were made and rejected. 
Thus for fifty-five years the squabble dragged on and on, from the 
days of Schomburgk, in 1841, to the day of Cleveland, in 1895. Cleve- 
land's now famous message has been called harsh, but, as has been 
well pointed out and as the sequel shows, it made for peace. Some- 
times a frank, blunt word, like the surgeon's lancet, hurts cruelly, but 
cures. 

Already the story of this dispute is ancient history. It requires 
some imagination to recall the tension which, only four years ago, 
strained, almost to the breaking point, the friendly relations of the 
two greatest world powers. War between Spain and America ; war be- 
tween Great Britain and the South African Dutch ; Venezuela torn 
and rent by civil war; and in the midst of it all a peace conference 
of the nations at the Hague striving, working, hoping for perpetual, 
universal peace. 

Boundary disputes, whether between individuals or nations, are 
wont to be long and bitter; and, oftener than otherwise, changes of 
boundary result from war. Sometimes the result is direct, sometimes 

in 



130 THE ANGLO-VENEZUELAN BOUNDARY DISPUTE 

indirect. The bitterness over the Alsace-Lorraine boundary is strik- 
ingly in evidence on the continent today. The boundary line be- 
tween Massachusetts and New Hampshire, surveyed and marked in 
1741, has, after a lapse of about 150 years, only recently heen ac- 
cepted. The Alaskan boundary, established in 1825. still drags on, un- 
surveyedand unmarked, a source of growing irritation and bitterness. 

The Disputed Tract. — The tract in dispute comprised an area of 
about 50,000 square miles. England, with an area of 51,000 square 
miles, and New York, with an area of 49.000 square miles, is about 
equal in extent to the territory in dispute. 

The tract is bounded on the east by the Essequibo, on the north 
by the Atlantic and lower Orinoco, on the west by a low, flat water- 
shed separating it from the Caroni, an affluent of the lower Orinoco, 
ami on the south by a mountainous district forming the watershed 
which separates the streams flowing northward to the Atlantic from 
those flowing southward to the Amazon. It is included between the 
4th and l<»th parallels of north latitude and between the 58th and 
04th degrees of west longitude. It may be broadly characterized as 
a low, bench country, buried for the most part beneath a tropical 
forest of marvelous density and beauty. Lying near the heart of 
the torrid zone, with the sun passing day after day forever through 
or near the zenith, and through two rainy seasons of each year fur- 
nished for weeks together with downpours of warm rain that suggest 
a deluge, we have the conditions of nature's own hot-house. From 
these two condition- of excessive heat and excessive moisture comes 
the forest covering, which in density, beauty, and variety travelers 
agree in describing by the word indescribable. Beyond the forest tracts 
there are, in the interior, unforested districts called savannas, which, 
according to character of soil and altitude, are either swam))}-, hard 
and grass-covered, or partially desert. The culminating point of the 
region is Mount Roraima, about 220 miles from Demerara, on the 
coast, near latitude 4° and longitude 01°. This mountain is a sand- 
stone mesa whose almost inaccessible flat top is 8,600 feet above the 
sea-level. Its walls are everywhere cliffs more than half a mile high. 
From this natural rock fortress the country gently slopes away and 
then drops in cliffs or Wenches, so far as we know. In this benched 
country are deep canyons, with numerous waterfalls — one the Kai- 
eteur fall, on the Potaro, being 900 feet high. Picture- of Mount 
Roraima and Kaieteur Fall may be ^cen on the current issue of 
British Guiana postage -tamp-. 



THE ANGLO-VENEZUELAN BOUNDARY DISPUTE 131 

Guiana is a name that was applied three centuries ago to an exten- 
sive and ill-defined tract along the coast between the Amazon and 
the Orinoco. This has come, in course of time, to be possessed by 
French, Dutch, and English. The easternmost is French Guiana or 
Cayenne, whose Devils Island Dreyfus has made famous or infamous. 
Next west is Dutch Guiana or Surinam, and west of it is British 
Guiana, formerly the united colon}^ of Essequibo and Demerara. 
Most of the part } T et farther west, which was sometimes called Spanish 
or Venezuelan Guiana, has been awarded to Great Britain. 

Great efforts were made b} r Spain three centuries ago to conquer 
and possess Guiana, a region reported and believed to be fabulously 
rich in gold. On the shores of a vast mythical sea rose a vast mythical 
town, El Dorado, presided over by a mythical, gilded king. Raleigh 
sought to conquer this country and its supposed wealth for his queen, 
Elizabeth ; but the Spaniards contested his advance. His son was 
killed in the assault upon Santo Thome. He returned to England, 
was accused by the Spanish minister of piracy, and b}' order of King 
James beheaded. But, though he wrote a book about Guiana which 
set the imagination of Europe on fire, little progress was made in 
penetrating or exploring it. And why ? The answer is easy. The 
dense forests offered to the white traveler an almost impenetrable 
barrier. These were traversed by savage animals and yet more savage 
men, the ferocious, man-eating Caribs. The only practicable route to 
the interior was by the rivers; but the region is a bench country, 
rising, as one penetrates it, by a series of steps or benches. Thus it 
happens that, ascending the rivers ( other than the Orinoco), the border 
land of alluvium on the coast is hardly passed before the traveler 
meets a cataract or rapid or series of rapids blocking the way. 
Patiently carrying or dragging his wood-skin canoe through dense 
woods around the obstacle, he may paddle a short distance against a 
strong current only to find another cataract and yet another in weari- 
some succession. To penetrate the interior through the water-soaked 
and swampy forest jungle is well-nigh impossible. To penetrate it by 
the streams is only possible in small boats, and then with difficulty 
and danger. These are the conditions and these the reasons why the 
world was so long in gaining its small store of knowledge about the 
interior of Raleigh's wonderland, Guiana. 

Origin <>( Title.- -Neither Venezuela nor Great Britain holds in South 
America by original title. Venezuela derives her title from Spain, 
a title acquired by war, with resulting conquest and cession. Great 



132 THE AXGLO-VEXEZUELAN BOUNDARY DISPUTE 

Britain similarly acquired her title from the Dutch hy war, with re- 
sulting conquest and cession. Venezuela succeeded to Spanish rights 
and Great Britain to Dutch rights. Thus the arbitral tribunal was 
engaged in trying the title to a piece of real estate. True, the estate 
was large ; true, the parties were great corporations. Trial to the title 
of a tract claimed by two states of our Union may be tried before our 
Supreme Court, but no permanent court exists for tiding the title to 
lands claimed by two nations. The appeal, therefore, has often, in 
such cases, been to the force of arms rather than to the force of argu- 
ment. By agreement of the claimants in this case, the matter was to 
b< j settled by a battle of brains rather than b}' a battle of bullets. 

Spain's title to the disputed territory is thus stated in Venezuela's 
case: 

Spain first discovered the new world ; first explored its continents; 
first explored, possessed, and settled Guiana, and first firmly estab- 
lished herself in that province as its sole and lawful owner. 

Similarly, Venezuela's title is thus stated: 

Venezuela revolted from Spain April 19, 1810. On March 30, 1845, 
Spain recognized Venezuela's independence and formally renounced 
in her favor all the sovereignty, rights, and claims previously her own 
in the territory formerly known as the Captaincy-General of Vene- 
zuela. Said territory included the region now in dispute. 

Such is the Venezuelan title. The British title cannot be so suc- 
cinctly stated. In very brief, however, it is as follows: 

In 1581 the Dutch, then subjects of Spain, revolted and entered 
upon that long and bloody war which resulted in their independence 
in 1648. During this war the Dutch, in 1598, made a trading voyage 
to the Guiana coast. This voyage, made 100 years after the Spanish 
discovery of this coast, was the first Dutch voyage thereto of which 
we have any definite knowledge. Already Trinidad had been occu- 
pied by the Spanish, a Spanish settlement planted on the lower 
Orinoco, and formal and ceremonial possession taken of Guiana by 
Spaniards in the name of their King. In June, 1621, was created by 
the States-General of the United Netherlands the Dutch West India 
Company. By the terms of its charter no native or inhabitant of the 
Netherlands was permitted, except in the name of the company, to 
sail upon or trade with the countries of America and the West Indies, 
from Newfoundland to Cape Horn and from Cape Horn to Bering 
Strait. Trade to the New World, without permission of the company, 
was, by the charter, forbidden to all Dutchmen. The company ex- 



THE ANGLO-VENEZUELAN BOUNDARY DISPUTE 133 

isted for 53 years. After several extensions of its charter it finally 
died in 1674, and a wholly new Dutch West India Company was then 
created, which lived for 117 years, being finally dissolved in 1791. 

Under the original charter of 1621 the company, in or about the 
year 1626, established a trading post some 50 miles up the Essequibo, 
at the junction of the Cuyuni and Mazaruni rivers, on a small, rocky 
islet, which they named Kykoveral, or See-over-all. Here lived a few 
unmarried employes of the company and carried on with the natives 
a trade for the dyes of the forest, balsam, hammocks, canoes, etc. 
There were no colonists, no cultivation, save possibly a bread garden, 
and no industries, save, probably, fishing for the use of the post. It- 
was a trading post, and was, down to 1648, the sole Dutch occupation 
of the disputed tract. Under these conditions the long war between 
Spain and her rebellious subjects ended in 1648. By the treaty of 
peace at Minister in that }^earthe Dutch achieved their independence. 
At the same time and by the same treaty Spain agreed that the Dutch 
should " remain in possession of and enjoy such lordships, towns, 
castles, fortresses, commerce, and countries of the . . . West 
Indies . . . and America " as the}' then held and possessed. 

This, then, was the Dutch title, a title which remained Dutch for 
one hundred and sixty-six years. In April, 1796, Great Britain and 
the Netherlands being then at war, an English fleet appeared at 
Demerara and took possession of that river and Essequibo. Posses- 
sion was held by the English for six years. In 1802, b} r the peace of 
Amiens, these possessions were restored to the Dutch. But war broke 
out again the next year, and Great Britain again took the possession 
which has since remained unbroken. The war, which broke out in 
1803, was terminated by the treaty of London, in 1814, whereby the 
Netherlands ceded to Great Britain the Cape of Good Hope, in Africa, 
and the establishments of Demerara, Essequibo, and Berbice, in 
America. 

Such is the Dutch-British title, which may be still more succinctly 
Btated as follows : The Dutch, while subjects of Spain, revolt and squat 
on Spanish land in America. When the war ends Spain confirms to 
them the possession they have taken. This possession is afterward, 
in war. taken from the Dutch by the British. The possession taken 
by the British is confirmed to them by treaty, and such is the British 
title. 

Schomburgk and Jli> Line. — Much has been heard during this contro- 
versy about Schomburgk and his line. A few words, therefore, <>n 
tin- theme. 



134 THE ANGLO-VENEZUELAN BOUNDARY DISPUTE 

Robert Hermann Schomburgk was born in Freiburg, Saxony, in 
1804, and died in Berlin in 1865, aged sixty-one. Between 1825 and 
1830 he was in the United States, first in Boston and later in Rich- 
mond, Virginia, where he was in the tobacco business. Failing in 
this, he went to the West Indies, where he surveyed the island of 
Anegada. His published observations on the cultivated plants of the 
West Indies brought him to the notice of the Royal Geographical 
Society, which in 1834 engaged him to explore in Guiana. He reached 
Georgetown or Demerara, as it is usually called, for the first time on 
August 5, 1835, and for nine years thereafter was engaged in explora- 
tion and survey work in Guiana. For the Geographical Society he 
made three journeys, of about six months each, into the interior, and 
in October, 1839, returned to England. Early in 1840 he published 
his little book, entitled Description of British Guiana. The Geograph- 
ical Society awarded him a gold medal, the King of Prussia knighted 
him, and the same year Great Britain engaged the now Sir Robert 
Schomburgk to survey the boundary between British Guiana and 
Venezuela. This was not to be a joint survey, but only a British 
survey, the results to be presented to Venezuela and Brazil as a state- 
ment of the British claim. He returned from England to Georgetown 
in October. 1840, and made three more trips to the interior, now under 
government auspices. In May, 1844, he took final leave of Guiana 
and went to Barbados, where he stayed some time and wrote a history 
of the island. In 1848 he was made British consul at Santo Domingo. 
In 1857 he was sent to Siam as Her Majesty's Consul-General. In 
declining health he returned to England in 1864 and retired on a 
pension. He died in Berlin the following year. 

With him during a part of his explorations was his brother, Rich- 
ard Schomburgk, a trained botanist, who published an interesting 
account of the Guiana exploration, a work in three stout octavo 
volumes. Sir Robert, having informed himself as well as the means 
at hand and his zeal for his employer would allow, proceeded to 
trace out on the ground a line, setting up posts, blazing trees, and 
marking them with British insignia. His zeal seems to have over- 
mastered his judgment, and all doubts were resolved in favor of 
his employer. Why not? Was not his line, after all, only a claim ? 
But, alas, it came later to be treated as a line of right. The Schom- 
burgk boundary survey grievously offended Venezuela. She pro- 
tested at once, and insisted upon the removal of the marks. To 
this Great Britain, at length, consented, with the usual proviso that 



THE ANGLO- VENEZUELAN BO UNDAR Y DISPUTE 135 

by such act she waived none of her rights. . This survey of 1841 and 
the resulting correspondence may be regarded as the beginning of 
the controversy. 

In 1841 Schomburgk submitted to Sir Henry Light, the governor 
of British Guiana, a report setting forth the grounds upon which he 
laid claim to the Atnacura and Barima for Great Britain. This was 
an official report intended for the public, and was given to the public 
in a parliamentary paper. On the same day, however, he wrote to 
Governor Light a confidential letter, pointing out the importance to 
Great Britain of the possession of Point Barima as a point com- 
manding the entrance to the Orinoco River. In this letter he dwelt 
at length upon the fact that the occupation of Barima meant the 
commercial and military control of the entire Orinoco region. He 
also furnished a map showing the line claimed by him for Great 
Britain. What the Foreign Office thought of Schomburgk's claim I 
do not know. Certain it is, however, that this map was not made 
public for many years. The line shown thereon, says Great Britain 
at the arbitration, is the only Schomburgk line — I. e., the only line 
Schomburgk ever drew. Without assenting to or denying this, it 
may be remarked that the phrase The Schomburgk Line had come to 
mean, both in popular and official usage, something different from 
the line on Schomburgk's map that was sleeping, unknown to the 
public and unknown to some of the officials, in the government 
archives. 

There was published early in 1877, in London, a large, fine map of 
British Guiana, which has been often referred to as the Great Colonial 
Map or Great Map of the Colony. The map was engraved and printed 
by Stanford, of London. It is dated 1875. Its long title indicates 
that it was compiled from surveys by Schomburgk and corrected 
to date from surveys by the crown surveyor of the colonies and by 
the government geologists, Brown and Sawkins. The map bears 
this note: 

The boundaries indicated in this map are those laid down by the 
late Sir Robert Schomburgk, who was engaged in exploring the 
colony during the years 1835 to 1839 under the direction of the Royal 
Geographical Society; but the boundaries laid down between Brazil 
on the one side and Venezuela on the other and the colony of 
British Guiana must not be taken as authoritative, as they have 
never been adjusted by the respective governments ; and an engage- 
ment subsists between the governments of Great Britain and Vene- 



136 THE ANGLO- VENEZUELAN BOUNDARY DISPUTE 

zuela by which neither is at liberty to encroach upon or occupy 
territory claimed by both. 

This map, compiled from official sources and with an explicit state- 
ment that it shows the Sckomburgk line, was accepted as the official 
map of the eolony. When the geologists, Sawkins and Brown, made 
a geological survey and map of the colony they carried their work 
to the boundary line shown on this map, and stopped there. 

In 1886 or 1887 another edition of this map appeared. There is 
nothing in its appearance, however, to indicate that it is a second or 
different edition ; the title is unchanged and the date is still 1875, as 
before; hut the note as to the boundary has disappeared and in place 
of the old line a new boundary, differing materially from the old one. 
appears, a boundary which enlarges British Guiana and contracts 
Venezuela. The change, made at the instance of the government, 
may 1"- regarded as a first publication of the line submitted b} r 
Schomburgk in 1840. It is, perhaps, needless to comment on the 
anger aroused in Venezuela by this publication, or to wonder at their 
designation of the caprichosa linen de Schomburgk. Early in the his- 
tory of tin- United States Commission on the Venezuelan Boundary a 
piece of elastic was sent in bearing the printed words Schomburgk line. 

Thus much for Schomburgk and his line, of which little was said 
in the arguments of counsel for Venezuela at the arbitration. What- 
ever temptations the story offered for unkind words, those tempta- 
tions were resisted, and the arguments were maintained upon a plane 
commensurate with the great cause and the great tribunal designated 
to try it. 

Diplomatic Correspondence. — The story of the correspondence be- 
tween the governments touching their boundary is too long and 
tangled for recital here. Suffice it to say that there were proposals and 
counter-proposals, all of which proved fruitless. No agreement was 
reached. Several times Venezuela proposed arbitration, and several 
times Great Britain refused arbitration. In October, 1886, the Brit- 
ish Government inserted in the London Gazette a notice reciting that 
information had come that Venezuela had made grants of land in 
the disputed territory, and declaring that such grants would not be 
recognized. The notice continued as follows : 

"A map showing the boundary between British Guiana and Venezuela, 
claimed by Her Majesty's Government, can be .seen in the library of the < "- 
lonial Office, Downing Street, or at the office of the government secretary 
< feorgetown, British < riiiana." 



THE ANGLO- 1 r ENEZUELAN BOUNDARY Disp UTE 1 37 

What map this was does not appear, but it was at about this time 
that the second edition of the Great Colonial Map appeared, the map 
hearing the expanded Sehomburgk line. Prior to this notice, viz., 
in March, 1S85, the British minister had commissioned two rural 
constables for the Amacura River, and in August, 1886, a British post 
was established on that river. Venezuela protested, and in January, 
1887, demanded the immediate evacuation of the territory between 
the Amacura and the Pomeroon. This was not complied with, and 
Venezuela then broke off diplomatic relations. For ten years there- 
after fruitless attempts were made to settle this old and irritating 
dispute. Meanwhile; and as earl}'' as 1886, the United States had 
manifested its interest in the question by offering to Great Britain 
its good offices in the matter. Finally, in Februaiy, 1896, after the 
famous Cleveland message of December, 1895, were begun the nego- 
tiations which led to the treaty of arbitration, which in turn ended 
the long dispute. 

United Stales Intervention. — Mr 01ne} T , Secretary of State in 1895, 
following up a correspondence begun as early as 1886, corresponded 
with Great Britain with a view to bringing about a settlement of the 
boundary question. This correspondence was, on the part of Mr 
Olnej', direct, vigorous, logical, and forceful. In due time, which 
means several months, came, late in 1895, Lord Salisbuiw-'s careful, 
courteous, diplomatic, and dignified reply, again declining to arbitrate. 
Thereupon promptly followed Cleveland's message to Congress, a 
message wherein, after briefly summarizing the situation, he said that, 
having sought in vain to induce a just settlement by impartial arbi- 
tration and being finally apprised of Great Britain's refusal to so 
settle, nothing remained but for the United States to determine for its 
own purposes where was the true divisional line between Venezuela 
and British Guiana. He thereupon recommended that a commission 
of five be appointed to investigate and determine the true divisional 
line between Venezuela and British Guiana, and that an adequate ap- 
propriation lie made for its use. Then followed these weighty and 
significant words, whose power to thrill has not yet vanished : " When 
such report is made and accepted, it will, in my opinion, be the duty 
of the United State- to resist by every means in its power as a willful 
aggression upon its rights and interests the appropriation by Great 
Britain of any lands or the exercise of governmental jurisdiction over 

any territory which, after investigation, we have determined ol* right 

belongs to Venezuela." Within four day- from the writing of this 



138 THE ANGLO- VENEZUELAN BOUNDARY DISPUTE 

message it- recommendations had been enacted into law, and almost, 
if not quite, without parallel, not a .-ingle vote was recorded against 
it in either house. What stronger evidence of its non-partisan charac- 
ter is possible? And yet only last week a prominent London news- 
paper could say : 

"We were brought to tin- verge of war four years ago for the sake of Mr 
( 'levehu ul's reelection, and a pretext for a diplomatic quarrel will never be want- 
ing when the anti-English elements of the Republic have to be conciliated." 

Tims, in January, 1896, was horn the United States Venezuelan 
Boundary Commission, composed of David J. Brewer, Associate Jus- 
tice of the Supreme Court of the United States: Richard H. Alvey, 

Chief Justice of the Court of Appeals of the District of Columbia, a 
skilled Spanish scholar; Mr F. R. Coudert. a distinguished member 
of the New York bar and of counsel lor the United States in the Bering 
Sea case ; Dr D. C. Oilman, geographer, president of Johns Hopkins 
University, and Dr Andrew D. White, historian and diplomatist. As 
its chairman, the commission chose Judge Brewer, and as secretary 
Mr S. Mallet-Prevost, of the New York bar, a thorough Spanish scholar 
and trained lawyer. Thus jurists, lawyers, and scholars composed the 
United States Commission, which organized forthwith, established an' 
office in the Sun Building, on F street, and began investigation. 
Floods of information were poured in upon it, and floods of applica- 
tions for employment. For a few weeks its work was the leading 
news item of the British and American press. To its aid it invited 
scholars — Justin Winsor, of Harvard College, distinguished for his 
great work on American history and cartography; Prof. J. Franklin 
Jamison, of Brown University, especially familiar with the history of 
the Dutcli in America: and especially did it summon Prof. George L. 
Burr, of Cornell University, upon whom fell most of the historical 
research work. I have not ceased to marvel at the amount and ex- 
cellence of the work done and results achieved by him. For aid in 
geographic matters the commission came to the Geological Survey, 
availing itself of the special knowledgeof several of the experts in that 
office. After preliminary studies the work was organized, and Pro- 
fessor Burr went to Holland and to London to study the Dutch 
records. Here he was joined later by Mr Coudert. The secretary 
made, in the Harvard library, a special study of the maps of the 
region, and similar studies were carried on in Washington. It is not 
too much to say that the studies thus conducted threw much new 
light on the question ; that supposed facts were in some important 



140 THE ANGLO- VENEZUELAN BOUNDARY DISPUTE 

instances shown to be not veal facts, and that consequently neither 
Great Britain nor Venezuela was master of its own case. Rarely, if 
ever, has a great case been sifted or studied with more thoroughness, 
impartiality, or care. 

Meanwhile the diplomatic correspondence was proceeding with its 
usual deliberation, secrecy, and silence. It came to be seen that a 
finding adverse to Great Britain would produce an awkward situation. 
What influences were potent to bring about what actually resulted I 
cannot say. nor would it be wise to say if I could, but the result every 
one knows was an announcement by Lord Salisbury at the Lord 
Mayor's dinner in London, in November, 1896, that negotiations were 
in progress and so far advanced that he was justified in believing that 
a satisfactory solution of the much-vexed boundary question -was 
about to be reached. Tins courteous and diplomatic statement meant 
arbitration, the arbitration which finally concluded, at Paris, on the 
4th of last October, this ancient quarrel. Some three months after 
Lord Salisbury's announcement, to wit, on February 2, 1897, Sir Julian 
Pauncefote for Great Britain and Senor Jose Andrade for Venezuela 
signed in Washington a treaty of arbitration. That done, nothing 
remained for the United States Commission but to close its work and 
disband. The work of determining the boundary now passed on to 
the new tribunal constituted by the treaty. 

The United States Commission had gathered a large amount of 
material useful for determining the question. Accordingly, in clos- 
ing its work it prepared a brief report of its operations and accom- 
panied it by appendices containing the material collected. This 
report consists of three octavo volumes and an atlas containing 76 
maps, the whole constituting a distinct contribution to knowledge 
along geographic and historical lines. 

The Arbitral Tribunal. — By the treaty there was constituted a tribunal 
of five jurists, composed of Lord Herschell and Lord Justice Collins, 
two of the foremost judges in Great Britain ; Judges Fuller and Brewer 
of the Supreme Court of the United States, and the fifth to be chosen by 
those four. The English submitted the names of several jurists ac-' 
ceptable to them. Similarly, the American jurists submitted names 
of several jurists acceptable to them. In both lists was found the name 
of F. de Martens, a distinguished Russian writer on international law, 
and he was chosen as the fifth arbitrator. Before the case came to 
trial Lord Herschell died and was succeeded by Lord Russell. 

On March 15, 1S98, each party submitted in 'print its case, with 
accompanying papers. Venezuela's case was contained in three vol- 



142 THE ANGLO- VENEZUELAN BOUNDARY DISPUTE 

times and an atlas, Great Britain's in seven volumes and an atlas. 
Four months later, on July 15, 1898, each submitted its counter-case. 
Venezuela's counter-case made three volumes and an atlas, Great 
Britain's two volumes and a portfolio containing six maps. Four 
months later, on November 15, 1898, each submitted its printed argu- 
ment, Venezuela's being contained in two volumes and Great Britain's 
in one. The formal sittings for hearing the oral argument began in 
Paris, June 15, 1899, and lasted through fifty-four sessions of four 
hours each, ending on the 27th of September. Just one week later, 
on October 4, 1899, the unanimous award of the tribunal was pre- 
sented, and a controversy which had lasted for fifty-eight years, 
which had brought three nations to the very verge of war, was over. 

Great Britain was represented by four counsel, Sir Richard E. Web- 
ster, Attorney General ; Sir Robert T. Reid, ex-Attorney General ; Mr 
G. R. Askwith, and Mr Rowlatt. 

Venezuela was represented by Gen. Benjamin Harrison. ex-Pres- 
ident of the United States; Mr S. Mallet-Prevost, formerly secretary 
of the United States Venezuelan Boundary Commission ; Gen. Benja- 
min F. Tracy, and Mr James Russell Sole}\ 

Sir Richard opened for Great Britain in a speech lasting thirteen 
days; Mr Mallet-Prevost followed for Venezuela in a speech of thir- 
teen days. Finally Sir Richard closed for Great Britain and General 
Harrison for Venezuela. Can 1 be mistaken in thinking General 
Harrison's argument much the stronger one ? The speeches were 
reported in shorthand and printed from day to day, the whole 
making eleven folio volumes. 

The Award. — The award was completed and signed October 3, 1899, 
and is signed by all the judges. It is a short document, making onl}" 
about half of an ordinary newspaper column. After reciting in legal 
phrase the creation of the tribunal, its membership, and its duties, it 
declares : 

" Now we, the undersigned arbitrators, do hereby make and publish 
our decision, determination, and award of, upon, and concerning the 
questions submitted to us by the said treaty of arbitration, and do 
hereby, conformably to the said treaty of arbitration, finally decide, 
award, and determine that the boundary line between the colony of 
British Guiana and the United States of Venezuela is as follows: 

"Starting from the coast at Point Playa, the line of boundary shall 
run in a straight line to the River Barima at its junction with the 
River Mururunia and thence along the midstream of the latter river 
to its source and from that point to the junction of the River Haiowa 



THE A NGL 0- YEXEZ I EL A N B UN DA R } ' DISP UTE 1 43 

with the Amakuru and thence along the midstream of the Amakuru 
to its source in the Imataka Ridge and thence in a southwesterly di- 
rection along the highest ridge of the spur of the Imataka Mountains 
opposite to the source of the Barima and thence along the summit of 
the main ridge in a southeasterly direction of the Imataka Mountains 
to the source of the Acarahisi to the Cuyuni and thence along the 
northern hank of the River Cuyuni westward to its junction with the 
Wenamu and thence following the midstream of the Wenamu to its 
westernmost source and thence in a direct line to the summit of 
Mount Roraima and from Mount Roraima to the source of the Cotinga 
and along the midstream of that river to its junction with the Takutu 
and thence along the midstream of the Takutu to its source, thence 
in a straight line to the western point of the Akarai Mountains and 
thence along the ridge of the Akarai Mountains to the source of the 
Corentin called the Cutari River." 

In this award are involved two things: first, the sovereignty of a 
tract of country claimed by two nations ; second, international arbi- 
tration as a mode of settling such disputes. As to the first, the 
award is clear, sharp, and decisive, though it will be contrary to gen- 
eral experience if difficulties of interpretation do not arise when the 
line is surveyed. As to the second, viz., the international arbitration 
of such questions, this is strengthened by a unanimous award, but 
weakened by the absence of a written opinion setting forth the facts 
and principles upon which the award was reached. As the common 
law lias grown up and been established by the opinions of great jurists 
dealing with great cases, so here was, it seems to me, an exceptional 
opportunity to expound and establish principles of international law 
that would be most helpful in the future. The award is obviously the 
verdict of a widely disagreeing jury, which finally compromises on a 
line satisfactory to none. Such a decision concludes the particular 
dispute, but affords little light for the future. 

In theory, principles of international law control; in fact, compro- 
mises control. The award is on its face a compromise. Moreover, on the 
day on which it was published there was cabled to America an inter- 
view with Justice Brewer, in which the reporter quotes him assaying: 

"Until the last moment 1 believed a decision would be quite impossible, and 

it was only by tin; greatest conciliation and mutual concessions that a compro- 
mise was arrived at. If any of US had been asked to give an award, each would 
have given one differing in extent and character. The consequence of this was 
that we had to adjust our different views, and finally to draw a line running 
bel ween w hat each thought right." 



1-J4 THE ANGLO-VENEZUELAN BOUNDARY DISPUTE 

Courts, other than criminal, are constituted to settle disputes — 
justly if possible, but to settle them ; and so this august tribunal 
has settled this old and irritating dispute peacefully, lawfully, 
and I wish I could add. justly. Contrasted, however, with any 
other device for settlement, arbitration is the best practical mode 
yet devised, and is cheap. Last week a statement of the expense 
in the case of the Venezuelan Boundary Arbitration was presented 
to the House of Commons. The cost to Great Britain from 1895 
up to last week was £65,625, or about $320,000. The cost to Vene- 
zuela is not published, so far as I know, but is probably not less. 
The appropriation by Congress for the United States Commission was 
$100,000. So that the total cost to the nations involved in a fierce 
and hot dispute, lasting four years, conducted by peaceful means, was 
about three-quarters of a million of dollars, equal to war expenses for 
about one day. In the way of cost, then, arbitration is most econom- 
ical ; and as to justice, Venezuela gets not all she desired, but she does 
get control of the mouth of her great river, the Orinoco. Former 
British ministries had recognized the justice of her claim to this, and 
had proposed to cede to Venezuela this Orinoco mouth ; but since the 
British moved forward into this tract some fifteen years ago and took 
possession by establishing police stations, issuing mining and timber 
licenses, etc., Venezuela's efforts to induce her to withdraw from the 
Orinoco mouth have been unavailing. Nor could she drive her out. 
By the arbitration, therefore, Venezuela, the weaker power, gets some- 
thing which is of much value to her, which she has always prized, 
which Great Britain possessed herself of and the title to which she 
refused to arbitrate until after intervention. The very pith of the 
award lies in the possession and control of the Orinoco mouth. That 
Venezuela gets this is to my mind an act of justice and a triumph for 
arbitration, which does much to reconcile to a decision which I wish 
were in all respects as just as this. 

But the European and American view of American questions is far 
apart. As to prior rights resulting from discovery, occupation, etc. ; 
as to rights based on relations with the aborigines; as to the nature, 
extent, and effect of political control — respecting all these, America 
and Europe are far apart. Jurists of the highest ability and integrity 
are certain to find themselves holding irreconcilable views. All this 
is most significant and should never be lost sight of when arbitration 
is proposed as a mode of settlement. 



KOREA — THE HERMIT NATION 

By Commander Harrie Webster, 

United Slates Navy 

Korea — called by several writers " The Hermit Nation '' and by its 
inhabitants Cho-sen, the Land of the Morning Calm — is that singu- 
lar country in eastern Asia which stretches south from the elevated 
plains of Manchuria, and is bounded on the east by the Sea of 
Japan and on the west by the Yellow Sea. Its area of approximately 
80,000 square miles sustains a population of some 12,000,000 ; but 
in both geography and population much is necessarily left to the im- 
agination, for an accurate knowledge from any point of view is yet 
to be obtained. 

The historical records also are meager and tinged with the Oriental 
tendency to assert as facts much that cannot be proven. Situated as 
she is, between two nations, each jealous of the influence and favor 
of the other, it has been her unfortunate fate to suffer attack and 
outrage from China and Japan in turn. She has been a battle- 
ground for centuries. 

The physical characteristics of Korea have been aptly described 
by an English traveler as " a sea suddenly congealed during the pro- 
gress of a gale of wind." The mountainous character of the country 
can only be appreciated by actual experience. The traveler is 
always certain that from the top of the next mountain plains and 
level ground will be disclosed ; but no such good fortune awaits him, 
for the sole outlook from the ridges of Korea is upon other moun- 
tains, which in turn conceal still others. It has been said there is 
no level land in the country, and this is almost literally true. 

As a natural result of the lack of plains, the rivers are frequent 
and small, the Han being perhaps the most important. At the 
mouth of this fine river is Chemulpho, and some 60 miles farther up, 
the capital, Seoul ; but navigation between the two points is very 
difficult, as the tremendous tides along the coast exercise an influ- 
ence even above the capital city. 

The Han River is wild and picturesque, the numerous bends and 
rapids giving it a character unique for this part of the globe, where 
the vast alluvial plains of the Chinese Empire remind one of the 

11 148 



146 



KOREA — THE HERMIT NATION 



prairies of our western territories. The trip from Chemulpho to Seoul 
takes an entire day, a day fraught with incident and accident from 
start to finish. Numerous ruined forts, partly demolished walls, and 
picturesque villages lend an air of antiquity to the prospect, well 
seconded by the dress and character of the people. 

The traveler has no definite means of transportation except those 
furnished by nature, and called in our own country "Shanks' mare." 
The wealthier officials, it is true, have sedan chairs, home by four or 




A VILLAGE IX KOBEA — THE HAN BIVEB .N THE DISTANCE 



six men, but beyond this and an occasional saddle-poin- the average 
Korean does his traveling on foot, and it is marvelous to contemplate 
the distances which can be covered by one of the native runners 
when engaged on government business. 

The roads are even poorer than the means of traveling over them, 
and from the writer's experience it is evident that no attention has 
ever been given to laying out, making, or repairing roads in the 
kingdom. The wandering bridle-paths doing duty for roads spread 



KOREA— THE HERMIT NATION 



147 



aimlessly over the landscape, changing direction with the seasons, 
but crowded with travelers at all seasons of the year, for the Korean 
is a restless being, and the custom of his country enables him at 
sundown, when the day's travel comes to an end, to accept the un- 
questioning hospitality of the nearest family. During the rain} 7 
season — October and November — these roads are almost impass- 
able by reason of mud, and many of them become rushing torrents 
of water. 

The climate is not very different from that in similar latitudes in 
the United States, from New York to North Carolina. At Chemulpho, 




TWO KOBE n thai ELER8 



148 KOREA — THE HERMIT NATION 

the principal seaport of the country, snow falls frequently from 
December to February, but does not remain on the ground for any 
length of time, owing to the proximity of the two seas bordering it 
on the east and west. The winter season, however, becomes very 
tedious by reason of the persistent winds which find their way 
through the innumerable gorges, chilling the traveler to the bone 
and rendering comfort impossible. They start far away to the 
north among the mountains and plains of Manchuria and sweep 
across the Korean peninsula with great force. It is for protection 
against the winds that the Korean tiger, that singular exotic from 
tropical regions, wears a thick coat of fur in place of the thinly 
distributed hair with which we are accustomed to see his Bengal 
brother clothed. In northern Korea rich harvests are gained by 
hunters of the smaller fur-bearing animals, such as squirrels, mar- 
tens, and foxes, which find their principal market in China, a few of 
the poorer sorts going to Russia. 

One of the striking objects in every landscape is the immense num- 
ber of graves clustering on the sides of hills and in the neighborhood 
of groves of evergreens. On casual inspection these graves appear 
to be simple circular mounds of earth, varying in size according to 
the importance of the person buried and scattered without plan or 
order; but a careful examination of several hundred graves has con- 
vinced me that instead of being arranged subject to the whim of the 
survivors a very definite plan is followed, not only in their shapes. 
but in their disposition and arrangement. I found them, without 
exception, following the outline of the tortoise. So much care is 
bestowed upon this fancy that even the serrations of the shell and the 
flimsy tail possessed by the animal arc carefully wrought out in these 
mementos of the dead. 

Trees are generally planted in close proximity to a favorite ceme- 
tery, and it is looked upon as an act of desecration to destroy a tree 
standing near a grave. Respect for ancestors takes a curious direc- 
tion here. While it is not unusual to hear one's father reviled in no 
measured terms without inciting anger, if so much as a pebble is cast 
at the grave of that father blood alone can wipe out the affront. 

In appearance the Korean differs materially from his neighbors, 
the inhabitants of China and Japan, the coloring matter in his skin 
belonging to a different class from either. In common with them, 
however, his hair is black, straight, and coarse, and it is rarely that a 
bald Korean is seen. Their eyes do not have the slanting appearance 



KOREA— THE HERMIT NATION 



149 



noticed in their neighbors, and the aquiline nose is not a rarity. 
Unlike the Japanese, however, the Korean does not wear his hair short, 
but apparently lets it grow from 3 r outh to old age with no attempt at 
clipping or trimming. 

The Korean boy, up to sixteen years of age, is generally a delight 
to the eye. With his large, wide-open eyes, smooth skin, plump 
cheeks, and hair plaited down the back and parted in the middle, he 
has been compared to an angel. As the years advance, however, his 




A HOUSE IN KOBE 



beauty gives way to the coarseness and stolidity which have become 
national traits, and by the time the boy becomes a man the angel has 
disappeared, to be replaced by a very commonplace human heing. 

Girls and women, except of the laboring class, are seldom in evi- 
dence, and tlmsc of whom one gets glimpses are not very prepossess- 
ing, bul so far as my observations extended they are plump and well 
kept, and if ii were not for the plainness of the method of hair-dress- 
ing would be regarded as quite interesting in appearance. As may 



150 



KOREA — THE HERMIT NATION 



be seen from the illustration, the Empire type of dress is adopted, 
giving them somewhat of a stump}-, high-shouldered appearance. 

The Korean girl wears beneath her dress, encircling her bust, a 
swathing of two or three thicknesses of some thin material, which is 
drawn tightly about that portion of the female anatomy to which 
nature generally gives no little prominence, with the result that all 
Korean girls are flat-breasted. This fashion of compressing the bosom 
i- continued until marriage, when the opposite extreme is adopted, 
and the bosom is exposed in a horizontal line by the curious arrange- 
ment of the little jacket, so that a nursing baby has no impediments 
to displace in his search for food. Babies are cared for after the style 
of Japan, and seem to be as happy and as well pleased with life. 
Owing to the miserable sanitary conditions existing in the Korean 
domestic arrangements, the mortality among children is said to be 
very high. Those who survive are literally the fittest for the battle 
for existence. 




1BOUF i iK KOEEA.Vf 



KOREA— THE HERMIT NATION 151 

The first object to strike the visitor to the Land of Morning Calm 
is the clothing of the inhabitants. The universal adoption of white, 
the singular hats, the foot-gear, all tend to impress upon the stranger 
the fact that he is in a part of the world which is uncontaminated by 
the customs of western civilization. The peculiar hats, shown in the 
illustration, are made of horsehair for the wealthy wearer and of 
finely split bamboo for his poorer brother; but beneath the hat 
proper is a sort of cap of the same material and so shaped as to 
protect the carious little topknot into which the hair is gathered after 
marriage. The band of this under cap is drawn tightly about the 
brows, oftentimes inflicting severe headaches upon the wearer. The 
other type of head covering shown is made of rice straw and is worn 
by country people and mourners. 

The material of their white clothing may be either cotton, silk, or 
the so-called grass-cloth of China. The larger part of the cotton 
material used in the country is woven in Japan, but the silk and 
grass-cloth are frequently the product of domestic looms. 

Man}' years ago — long before the " western barbarian " reached 
the shores of Cho-sen — the Koreans were noted among their Chi- 
nese and Japanese neighbors for the skill and taste displayed in tex- 
tile manufactures, and the products of their looms could be found side 
by side with their pottery in all the markets then open in the East. 

By the slow but sure degradation of wars, insurrections, and inva- 
sions manufactures and arts in Korea gradually lost their value in 
both quality and quantity, until today her people, rich and poor 
alike, are dependent upon China and Japan for a large percentage 
of their clothing and pottery. 

Tbere is, however, one branch of manufacture, the working of 
bronze, in which the Hermit Nation easily leads, the use of this metal 
for domestic purposes being peculiar to this country. The bronze, 
which is of good quality, hard, and takes a good polish, is of an alloy 
of copper and tin, with a small per cent of zinc and a trace of iron. 
The bronze spoons, with which every family is liberally supplied, are 
models of grace, as are the hibachis or fire-pots, which are largely ex- 
ported to Japan. These graceful bronze bowls are applied to every 
domestic use imaginable, in the kitchen for eating purposes and in 
the sleeping-rooms. The same material is used in the manufacture 
of the tobacco pipes in universal demand, and much taste is displaj'ed 
in their ornamentation. 



152 KOREA— THE HERMIT NATION 

From the regularity and finish of these various bronze articles it is 
difficult to believe that the tools employed are scarcely an advance 
on those of two thousand years ago. For a lathe the Korean artisan 
uses an apparatus propelled by his feet as he sits on the ground, the 
motion being but a half revolution in each direction, while the turning 
tool is held in the hand. Necessarily the process is a slow one, but, 
as is common with all Orientals, time is no object, and the work turned 
out by these crude and archaic processes would do credit to an Amer- 
ican workshop. 

Recent investigation has shown that Korea is rich in many of the 
better class of minerals, gold, silver, copper, iron, and coal. The gold 
is almost solely in the more northern part of the kingdom and is as- 
sociated in many cases with silver. A peculiarity of the gold mined 
is its intense yellow, resembling, in this respect, the flake gold win- 
nowed from the sands of the African Gold Coast. The coal measures 
have not been very accurately exploited, but so far the output, which 
has been entirely by native enterprise and labor, is a fair bituminous 
and of considerable extent. The great and principal drawback to the 
prosecution of mining lies in the inaccessibility of the country to 
modern methods of transportation, as its physical characteristics pre- 
clude development on modern lines. Little is known of precious 
stones, for this form of personal adornment is not much in vogue 
among the Koreans, and few attempts have been made to develop 
the industry,. 

In religion the Korean must be marked with a minus sign. To all 
appearances he has none. There are, however, several Buddhist 
temples and monasteries in and around the city of Seoul. The only 
temple I had an opportunity of visiting while at the capital was that 
devoted to the god of war, and the edifice does not differ in any 
respect from Buddhist temples elsewhere. 

As an architect, the native of Clio-sen, in times past, seems to have 
shown much skill in construction and boldness in design, several of 
the city gates of Seoul indicating artistic ability and a desire for im- 
p'ressiveness. The great south gate is a remarkable piece of work, 
and the fact that it is still in use as an entrance to the city shows the 
excellence of its construction. The north gate is built of carefully 
hewn granite blocks, and is as well proportioned and as true, from an 
architectural point of view, as though erected yesterday in commem- 
oration of a modern victory. Granite seems to have been a favorite 



KOREA— THE HERMIT NATION 



153 




ftUARDIAK OF THE TEMl'I.E 01' THE 



Hi UK WAK 



material for the stone-workers of the country. The delicacy of treat- 
ment shown in the huge dogs guarding the palace gate and the skill 
shown in the picture of the guardian of the temple of the god of 
war confirm the Korean boast that from them Japan and China re- 
ceived a large part of their skill and taste in art. However this may 
be, it is undeniable that Korean art must have been at one time of 
high character. 

One of the objects of interest in Seoul, and, though in audible evi- 
dence each day, seen by few foreigners, is the great bell. Unlike the 
great bell of Moscow, the big bell of Seoul, said to be third in size 
in the world, is as perfect today as when first cast, and as the cen- 
turies roll by its tone grows mellower and more musical. It hangs 
in its original tower, in the center of the city, where its sonorous 

1 tills the air to all parts of Seoul and has opened and closed the 

- of the city for nearly five centuries. 



154 



KOREA— THE HERMIT NATION 




AN EXAMPLE OF SOEEAK MM 



Iii shape and general outline it is of the Japanese type. In fact, 
the Korean claims that the bells of Dai-Nippon have been modeled 
after those of Korea. The quality of the bronze was so excellent 
that the metal rilled every mark in the mold, reproducing with per- 
fect fidelity the delicately cut, classical Chinese characters forming the 
inscription : " Sye Cho the Great, Twelfth Year Man Cha I year of the 
cycle) and Moon, the fourth year of the Great Ming Emperor Ilsiian- 
hua(A. I). 1468), the head of the Bureau of Royal Despatches, Sye 
Ko Chyeng. bearing the title Sa KaChyeng, had this pavilion erected 
and this bell hung." 



KOREA— THE HERMIT NATION 



155 



The condition of the bell is perfect and the method of sounding it, 
with blows from a suspended beam, has no tendency to injure it, as 
does the more modern metallic tongue or clapper. Gongs are seen 
everywhere in this country, and, though hardly credible, many of 
them are sweet-toned and harmonious. 

Twenty years have elapsed since the Hermit Nation opened its 
doors to the representatives of western civilization. Its progress in 
some directions has not been inconsiderable. Alread}' the American 
trolley car runs beside the great bell and the first steam railroad in 
the kingdom is approaching completion under American supervision, 
with American material, and backed by American capital. 

The political and commercial future of this interesting country 
will be watched with a widespread interest, and no people will extend 
a more willing and disinterested hand than the people of the United 
States of America. 




1 II I. fJREA'l Mil l ll ilh BECIUI 



AN ASSUMED INCONSTANCY IN THE LEVEL OF LAKE 

NICARAGUA; A QUESTION OF PERMANENCY 

OF THE NICARAGUA CANAL 

By < '. WlLLARD If AYES. 

I '. S. Gi ological 8u 

A paper under the above heading by Prof. Angelo Heilprin appears 
in the Scientific Ann rim,, of February 24. 1900. To one not familiar 
with the investigations which have been carried on in this portion of 
the isthmian region, the conclusions reached by Professor Heilprin 
appear to have some foundation; and since the}' casta doubt upon 
the feasibility of the proposed Nicaragua Canal and on it.- perma- 
nence after construction, the questions raised are of sufficient impor- 
tance t<> l>e answered Bomewhat fully. 

Stated very briefly, Professor Heilprin's premises and conclusion 
are as follows: In 1781 the Spanish engineer Galisteo determined 
tin- altitude of Lake Nicaragua to be 133.11 feet above low water in 
the Pacific. Later, in 1838, Lieutenant Baily ran a line of levels from 
tin- Pacific and made the altitude of the lake surface 128.3 feet above 
low water at San Juan del Suron the Pacific. In 1852 Colonel Childe 
surveyed a route for an isthmian canal and determined the elevation 
of the lake to be about 108 feet above mean sea-level. Subsequent 
determinations by Lull in 1873, Menocal in 1885. the Maritime Canal 
( lompany in 1890, and the Nicaragua Canal Commission in 1898 have 
reached substantia] agreement as to the elevation of the lake, making 
its mean about 104 feet above mean tide in the Pacific. This dis- 
crepancy of 20 tn 25 feet between the earlier and later determina- 
tions of the lake level has generally been ascribed to the inaccuracy 
of the earlier surveys. Professor Heilprin. however, concludes that 
the earlier determinations wen- correct, and that the level of the lake 
has subsided that amount between the dates of the earlier and the later 
surveys. It will readily be >een that a region subject to a change in 
elevation of 20 feet in a period of 14 years (between 1838 and ]^~>-< 
would offer serious obstacles to the construction of a canal of the mag- 
nitude of the one proposed or to its permanency after construction. 

Three causes, singly or in combination, might bring about a change 
in altitude of the lake surface: (1) A depression of the whole of this 

L5C 



LEVEL OF LAKE NICARAGUA 157 

portion of the isthmus without warping ; (2) a depression of the lake 
basin by warping, the sea margins remaining constant; (3) a cutting 
clown of the lake outlet. 

(1) If the whole isthmian region had undergone recent subsidence, 
the evidence of such a change would be manifest at the coast. Grey- 
town is located upon a low sandy beach, which was thrown up by 
the surf, and has within the past century been cut off from the sea by 
a sand spit which inclosed first a harbor and then a closed lagoon. 
This land has not been added to since it was exposed to the surf early 
in the century, and any change in elevation, even of a few feet, would 
be quickly apparent and would be a matter of record. The surface 
of the San Juan deltaplain ascends from the margin of the sea with 
a regular gradient merging at its inner margin with the fioodplain, 
as determined by the volume and load of the river. This regular 
gradient precludes the possibility of any recent change in altitude of 
this region. Even a slight subsidence would permanently flood ex- 
tensive areas, and a corresponding rise would cause the streams to 
deepen their channels so that the flood waters would no longer over- 
top the banks. 

The same evidence of stability is in general true of the Pacific coast. 
The streams flowing to the Pacific from the divide opposite the south- 
ern end of the lake occupy, in their lower courses, drowned channels 
which have been more or less completely silted up. Any recent de- 
pression of the coast would have flooded these alluvial valleys and pro- 
duced irregularities in their gradient. No such flooding is observed, 
but, on the contrary, unmistakable evidence that present conditions 
have prevailed for a considerable time, certainly for several centuries. 
In the vicinity of Corinto, on the Pacific coast, northwest of the de- 
pression which holds lakes Nicaragua and Managua, there has been 
a recent subsidence of a few inches, and this is well recognized by the 
people of the region, and its amount has been determined by the engi- 
neers of the railroad which runs from Corinto to Momotombo. This 
shows that rapid changes of level even of small amount are quickly 
recognized, and that a depression of 20 feet of any occupied portion 
of the coast could not possibly escape notice. 

(2) Lake Nicaragua is about 100 miles long and 45 broad. It for- 
merly extended eastward at least 25 miles farther to the present posi- 
tion of Castillo Rapids. Now it has been shown above that the roust 
on either side of the isthmus, at least opposite the southern end of 
the lake, has not suffered recent subsidence. A depression of the 



158 LEVEL OF LAKE NICARAGUA 

lake basin itself sufficient to produce a decrease in tbe altitude of its 
surface amounting to 20 feet would almost certainly have produced 
more or less tilting of the surface by the subsidence of some portions 
of tbe lake's perimeter more than others. It is quite inconceivable 
that the region should have been warped in such a manner that the 
lake shore at Las Lajas should be lowered 20 feet, while the Pacific 
coast, only 12 miles distant, was not affected, and that at the same 
time every part of the lake shore should also be depressed an exactly 
equal amount. But if the basin had been unequally depressed, some 
portions of the shore would be drowned, while at other points the 
lake bottom would be laid bare, and raised beaches left at the former 
shore line. Nearly the entire circuit of the lake was made by the 
writer, and its shores were carefully studied with the object of deter- 
mining whether or not there existed any evidence of recent changes 
in level. Owing to the regularity of the winds which prevail in this 
region, the different portions of the lake shore present wide differences 
in character, but there is everywhere a nice adjustment of shore features 
to present conditions. At the lower end and along the northeastern 
side, where there is generally an offshore wind and consequently no 
surf, the streams have built extensive deltas out into the lake, and 
tlif surface of the deltaplains and flood plains is regulated by the 
fluctuations in height of streams and lake due to seasonal changes. A 
depression of 6 feet relatively to lake level would permanently flood 
these deltaplains. while an elevation of equal amount would raise 
them above Hood level and start the streams to deepening their chan- 
nels and building new deltas at lower levels. 

Along the southwestern side of the lake there is a rather heavy 
suit" throughout the greater part of the year. Wave erosion is there- 
fore progressing more or less rapidly, according to the character of 
the rocks. The width of the beach between the water margin and 
the base of the wave-cut cliff is everywhere perfectly adjusted to the 
seasonal fluctuations in level and the character of the materials in 
which the cliff is cut. Any recent change in the relation of lake 
level to shore would necessitate a readjustment of these conditions. 
An elevation relatively to lake level would have raised beaches above 
the reach of the highest flood water. A depression would drown the 
beach and start the waves to cutting at a higher level. Nothing of 
this kind was found, and it is certain that the relations of lake level 
to land have not suffered recent change on this side of the lake. The 
changes at the upper end of the lake, in the vicinity of Tipitapa 
River, cited by Professor Heilprin, will be discussed later. 



LEVEL OF LAKE NICARAGUA 159 

(3) A third way in which the level of the lake might have been 
lowered is by the cutting down of its outlet. As fully explained in 
the report of the Canal Commission, 1897— ; 98, it appears probable 
that the level of the lake was early in its history determined by a 
rock sill over which the Rio San Juan flowed at Castillo. This sill 
has since been cut down somewhat, and the lake level is now held 
by the delta of the Rio Sabalos which forms the Toro Rapids. From 
the point where it issues from the lake to the Toro Rapids the Rio 
San Juan meanders through an alluvial plain, which represents a 
former extension of the lake silted up by tributary streams except 
for the channel kept open by the outflow from the lake. The sur- 
face of this plain stands at such a level that it is just covered by the 
streams when in flood. In other words, it has the character of a 
growing fioodplain and proves conclusively that present relations 
have held for a considerable time. Any lowering of the lake level 
by cutting down the outlet would at once leave this alluvial plain 
above the reach of floods and completely change its character. As 
has already been pointed out, the sill which holds the lake at its 
present level is a delta deposit, and it will not long resist corrasion of 
the waters which cross it ; so that in a relatively short time, as geo- 
logical changes go, the river may be expected to begin the rapid 
trenching of its upper channel and eventuall} 7 , unless artificially 
checked, lower the lake level. 

The evidence that the lake level has not been lowered by this third 
method is, of course, confirmed by the absence of raised beaches 
about the lake, where they would certainly be a conspicuous feature 
if the change had taken place as suggested. 

Changes in the conditions of the upper end of Lake Nicaragua 
have been cited by Professor Heilprin as evidence of recent loAver- 
ing of the lake's level. This doubtless arises from ignorance of 
the peculiar physical conditions which jjrevail there. As stated 
above, the constant trade winds which sweep across the lake produce 
a heavy surf along its southwestern margin throughout the greater 
part of the year. The oblique direction at which the waves strike 
the shore sets up a strong littoral current, by which the sand is trans- 
ported toward the northwest and deposited at the end of the lake. 
A sand spit 10 miles in length has been built across the point of the 
lake, cutting off a broad, shallow lagoon and crowding the Tipitapa 
River to the extreme margin of the valley. From the rate at which 
tin- shore in the vicinity of Granada is being cut away and at which 



1 00 LEVEL OF LA KE NIC A RA G UA 

the materials are being transported northward, it is easy to under- 
stand how rapid changes might take place in the character of the 
Tipitapa River and convert it in a few years from a deep estuary to a 
shallow lagoon. The amount of water passing through the Tipitapa 
River is entirely independent of the elevation of Lake Nicaragua, 
since it depends wholly upon the relation between rainfall and evap- 
oration in the basin of Lake Managua. Changed conditions at the 
head of the lake therefore do not in any way support the contention 
that the level of the lake has fallen in recent times. 

It might be inferred from Professor Heilprin's article that Lake 
Nicaragua is in the heart of a volcanic region subjected to frequent 
destructive earthquakes. This subject of volcanism and the proba- 
bility of earthquakes of sufficient intensity to injure canal structures 
is fully discussed in the recent report of the Canal Commission. It 
need only be stated here that the canal region lies midway between 
the Costa Rican volcanoes to the south and the Nicaraguan volcanoes 
to the north, and that the volcanic activity in both these groups is 
evidently on the wane. No earthquake of destructive violence has 
visited the canal region since its occupancy by the Spaniards, and the 
two centers of the moderate seismic activity, namely, Irazu on the 
south and the Maribios Range on the north, are respectively 60 and 
100 miles from the nearest portions of the canal route. 

The quotation from the English engineer Colquhoun indicates that 
the latter was a superficial observer whose conclusions were drawn 
from a relatively short period of observation. It is quite true that 
the amount of water flowing in the lower San Juan is becoming 
smaller each year, but this is due to a corresponding increase in the 
Rio Colorado, which is now the main distributary from the head of 
the delta to the sea. This successive transfer of the main channel to 
more southerly distributaries has been fully discussed in the report 
above cited. Even between the head of the delta and the mouth of 
the San Carlos one is impressed in the dry season with the insignifi- 
cant volume of the Rio San Juan, and if one's observations were con- 
fined to this period he might readily believe that a permanent dimi- 
nution in the volume of the stream had taken place. This, however, 
is merely a seasonal fluctuation. 

Professor Heilprin's citation of the fluctuation in altitude of various 
lakes, as Great Salt Lake and Lake Tanganyika, has no bearing what- 
ever upon the question, since these are inclosed lakes and the observed 
great fluctuation of their levels is directly connected with C3 r cles of 



THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION 161 

climatic change. The fluctuations in level of Lake Nicaragua due to 
seasonal changes have been h\\\y discussed by Chief Engineer Wheeler 
and Hydrographer Davis in the report of the Canal Commission. 
This fluctuation possibly reaches an extreme range of 14 feet, although 
the ordinary range is undoubted!}' less than 10 feet. With the rise in 
its surface due to extraordinary precipitation, the section of the outlet 
increases so rapidly that the balance is soon reached between inflow 
and outflow, and it is therefore impossible for the level of the lake to 
reach the elevation given by Lieutenant Baily merely by reason of 
heavy precipitation. It appears, therefore, in view of the consistent 
physiographic evidence, that notwithstanding these earlier determi- 
nations the level of Lake Nicaragua has remained constant except for 
slight seasonal fluctuations, at least for a period whose length has to 
be measured in centuries; and, furthermore, it appears that the geo- 
logic conditions in this portion of the isthmus are such that they afford 
a promise of future stability, and that the region is therefore favorable 
for the construction and maintenance of a work such as the proposed 
Nicaragua Canal. 



THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION 

Three hundred surveyors and engineers are at present in the field in Panama 
and Nicaragua working for the Isthmian Canal Commission. They are examin- 
ing with the greatest care the Nicaragua route, the Panama route, and all other 
routes suggested by any of the former surveys. There are also in the field a 
number of exploring parties in the hope of discovering sites that have been 
hitherto overlooked. To quote a member of the commission : " Our object is 
to do the work with such thoroughness that our results cannot be questioned at 
any future time. We have the reports of all previous surveys, but we shall 
cover every mile of ground through which we think it possible for the canal to 
be run. The country is varied and the work of the surveyors is difficult and 
progresses slowly, especially in the section about Darien. For this reason it is 
impossible to set even an approximate date for presenting our formal report to 
the State Department. Unless Congress especially requires one, we shall submit 
no preliminary report. Until our work is done, therefore, it is improper for 
any member of the commission to speak in regard to the merit of the several 
routes proposed." 

"The present Panama Company," states Mr Edward Noble, of the American 
( iommission, " has been spending the money it has mainly in making a narrow, 
deep cut through the great divide that they have to get through to reach the 
other coast. The work is being well done. In regard to Hie Chagres River, we 

have found that the Panama people have a feasible way t anage that, although 

everybody laughed at them when they said they could dam it. We havea 
surveying party at this point now making the necessary survey on their plans." 



INTERNATIONAL ARBITRATION AND ITS POSSIBILITIES 

The two wars that within the present century have resulted in the greatest 
changes in the map of the world have been that between Fiance and Germany 
in 1870 and that between the United States and Spain in 1898. The former 

not only transferred Alsace and Lorraine to Germany, but unified and consol- 
idated the latter country, welding a number of kingdoms and grand duchies, 

with Prussia at their head, into the great empire of which the King of Prussia 
was made the first ruler. The war between the United States ami Spain not 
only removed the Spanish flag from the western hemisphere and planted that 
of the United States over Cuba and Puerto Pico, hut made the Great Republic 
of the West the ruler of the largest group of islands in the Past Indies. In a 
recent interesting article in the London Spectator, these two wars are mentioned 
as among those which would almost certainly have been prevented by the 
operation of even that qualified and moderate system of international arbitra- 
tion which was the principal feature of the work of the Peace Conference at the 
I [ague. 



HELPING NAVIGATION 

In the interesl of commerce the i\ s. Coast ami Geodetic Survey has now 
nine vessels charting the bottom, looking for isolated rocks on which ships may 
strike, studying the Ocean current-, and gathering data for the Coast Pilot. 
Whatever facilitates approach to or departure from thecoast increases the value 
of our products. The whole cuiintrv benefits from easier communication by 
sea, and aids to navigation are then-fore in the interest of public prosperity. 
The dangers to navigation form an important chapter in hydrographic work. 
On some part.- of the coast Bubmerged rocks are the cmi i- taut dread of the mar- 
iner. Unknown channel- aie also a source of apprehension, while continual 
changes occurring in harbors are always dangerous. Thousands of miles of 
Soundings are run every year, shoreline is drawn, light-houses and huoys located, 
ami new map- are made or old one- brought up to date. 

The localities in which work is now actually under way are Chesapeake Bay, 
Puerto Rico (where three vessels are employed), San Francisco, Seattle, and 
the Hawaiian Islands. Under the shadow of Haleakala, the largest extinct 
crater in the world, lies the beautiful harbor of Kahului. This is the outlet 
for much of the sugar from the rich plantations of Maui. The Coast and Geo- 
detic Survey steamer P-itlifinder is now adding to our maritime knowledge of 
this port by hydrographic surveys and otherwise. The coast charts of Hawaii, 
often unsatisfactory ami always less accurate than the commercial importance 
6f the place would justify and demand, will now !"■ steadily perfected. It is 
hoped to continue surveying operations in the-.- vessels until the principal parts 
are completely charted. 

It may not be generally known that the work of the British Hydrographic De- 
partment is done by a civilian force under the direction of the Admiralty. In 

II 2 



WHERE EXPLORA TION IS NEEDED 163 

many respects the organization is similar to that of the IJ. S. Coast and Geodetic 
Survey. The ships employed are not men-of-war, hnt regularly appointed 
surveying vessels. In 1899 four of these were employed at home and seven in 
foreign waters. Hydrographie work has been in progress in England for 110 
years, and will, of coarse, be continued as long as English commerce exists. 



RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION AND IMPROVEMENTS 

While the construction of new lines of railway in 1899 was the largest since 
1890, there are many evidences that it is to the improvement of existing lines 
rather than to the building of new ones that the railway managers of the country 
are giving their attention. The doubling of existing tracks, the straightening 
out of curves, the substitution of iron or steel bridges for wooden structures, an 
increase in rolling stock, in the capacity of cars, and in the hauling power of 
locomotives, together with the adoption. of improved signaling apparatus, are 
reported from many different quarters. 

Perhaps the most notable recent occurrence in the railway world is the com- 
pletion of the Pennsylvania Company's four-track road over the Al'.eghanies. 
For several years past the construction of the third and fourth tracks has been 
gradually approaching the summit of the range on both the eastern and western 
slopes, and recently the very costly undertaking was completed, the final stage 
of the work including the famous Horseshoe Curve. 

Another interesting occurrence is the filling in of Sheep's Canyon on the Bur- 
lington and Missouri River Railroad, eight miles north of Edgemont, S. Dak. The 
railway formerly crossed this canyon by a wooden trestle 700 feet long and 126 
feet high. This bridge has now been done away with, an immense embank- 
ment having taken its place. The work of construction involved the employ- 
ment of 1,486 trains of 15 cars each, 22,290 carloads of earth, or about 320,000 
cubic yards,. being required for the fill. 



WHERE EXPLORATION IS NEEDED 

A number of startling geographic statements which were circulated in the 
daily papers during March may be cited without comment: 

E. S. Grogran, returning to London after a two years' journey overland from 
the Cape to Cairo, reports entering near Lake Tanganyika a region of active 
volcanoes, where he encountered "enormous lava streams forming a veritable 
sea 40 by HO miles and 100 feet deep, forests and herds of elephants being 
buried in liquid lire." 

"The neighboring country," he says, "is occupied by some 5,000 Balekas, 
ferocious cannibals from the Congo, who live by man-hunting." His guides 
told him that the country, covering 3,500 square miles, had been until. recently 
densely populated, hut that the people had virtually been killed and eaten by 



164 WORK IN THE ARCTIC AND ANTARCTIC 

the Balekas. He says the Balekas are not repulsive to look upon. Although 

small, they are well-built and have good features. Men and women go about 
stark naked, and their long hair gives them a peculiarly wild appearance. 

A burning cliff, rising from 20 to 2,000 feet directly from the sea and 20 miles 
long, the whole one mass of flames and smoke, is said to have been discovered 
by Mr A. J. Stone, of the American Museum of Natural History, in his explo- 
rations of the northernmost coast of America during 1809. 

But most curious of all is the statement of a Mr La Joie, a French Canadian, 
who claims to have just returned from the North Pole, in the vicinity of which 
he had lived for nearly two years. In his hunting in Canada he traveled 
further and further northward until, after a series of marvelous adventures, 
he reached what he believes is the North Pole. Here he found a wild tribe of 
people, who speak a language different from any known and write in hiero- 
glyphics. The climate was much milder than further southward. Finally 
Mr La Joie effected his escape from the tribe, and by continuous traveling on 
snowshoes succeeded in regaining the civilized world. 



WORK IN THE ARCTIC AND ANTARCTIC 

A Scottish expedition will undoubtedly be organized to cooperate with the 
English ami German Antarctic expeditions of 1901. The Weddell sea quadrant, 
south of the Atlantic Ocean, will be the Scottish sphere. As previously noted 
in the National Geographic Magazine (vol. X, p. 316), the British sphere will 
be south of the Pacific < >oean and the German south of the Indian Ocean. 

Lieutenant Robert E. Peary has probably by this time left his winter quar- 
ters at Cape Sabine, Kllesmere Land, and is well started on his dash for the 
North Pole. The series of caches of stores planted by him last year will lessen 
the difficulties of his advance to ( 'ape Joseph Henry, where the real trouble 
will begin. Mr Pe.iry planned to take about a dozen picked Eskimo and some 
so dogs and a- many loaded sledges as the latter can drag. When a sledge has 
been emptied it will he sent back to Cape Sabine with one of the drivers, and 
the rest will push on. Tims he hopes to reach Cape Joseph Henry with a 
large supply of provisions. From this point he will then set out with only two 
companions. 

The lirst South Polar expedition to winter on Antarctic land has successfully 
reached Wellington, New Zealand. Mr Borchgrevink, the leader of the party, 
reports that the south magnetic pole has been located, and that the expedition 
reached latitude 78° 50', the farthest south ever attained by sledge. The expe- 
dition, which was fitted out by Sir George Newnes, % of London, left Hobart, 
Tasmania, on December 19, 1898. During the latter part of February, 1899, the 
members landed from the Southern Cross near Cape Adare, Victoria Land, it 
having been arranged that the steamer should leave them there with a full 
equipment of every kind, and should return for them early in 1900. Mr Boreh- 
grevink's party consisted of nine, including himself. Lieut. W. Colbeck, R. N. R., 
was selected as first magnetic observer, to be assisted by Mr Louis Barnacchi ; 



GEOGRAPHIC LITERATURE 165 

Mr N. Hansen and Mr Hugh Evans were chosen as zoologists, and Dr H. 
Kloevstad as medical officer. With them went two natives of Finland to look 
after ninety dogs. 

Another effort to discover some clue to the fate of Andree will be made this 
summer. The Swedish-Russian Expedition, which will leave about June 1 for 
Spitsbergen to relieve the party that is at present engaged in the work of measur- 
ing an arc of the meridian in that latitude, plans to make a detour to King 
Charles Land and carefully search the entire neighborhood. It will be remem- 
bered that in September of last year a buoy was picked up on the north coast 
of King Charles Land, at S0° north latitude and 25° east longitude, marked 
''Andree' s Polar Expedition." When taken to Stockholm and opened, it proved 
to be what Andree had called " the North Pole Buoy," and in which he was to 
place a message when he passed the North Pole. However, a microscopical ex- 
amination of the interior could discover no message. As the buoy could not 
have drifted to King Charles Land from the neighborhood of the Pole, the only 
conclusion possible is that it was a part of the wreckage of the expedition, and 
that possibly more wreckage may be found near by. 



GEOGRAPHIC LITERATURE 

Contemporary History of the World. By Edwin A. Grosvenor, Professor of Euro- 
pean History in Amherst College. Pp. ix -f- 173, with colored maps. New 
York: Thomas Y. Crowell & Co. 1899." $1.00. 
In the production of this unpretentious duodecimo volume of less than 200 
pages the accomplished Professor of European History at Amherst has placed 
the American people under an obligation that probably neither he nor they as 
yet adequately appreciate. Of all enlightened nations we have hitherto been 
the most self-centered. Engrossed in the development of the material resources 
of our own country, in the building of innumerable cities, the creation of vast 
industrial enterprises, the binding together of the several parts of our far ex- 
tending domain by the greatest system of railways in the world — the equivalent 
of a ten-track road around the globe at the equator — and in the practical appli- 
cation of science to the affairs of everyday life to an extent unknown in any 
other country, we have had neither time nor inclination to give more than a 
passing thought to the affairs of other nations. We have been to a large extent 
ignorant of their political and social systems, notwithstanding our composite 
character as a people, and although an enterprising newspaper press has vividly 
pictured to us from time to time the great events that have been occurring on the 
world's stage, even the chief actors have soon been forgotten or have become 
to ii- mere names, less familiar in some cases than the more remote historic 
personages immortalized byScottor Bulweror Dumas, and possessing even less 
individuality than Adam Bedeor Colonel Sellers or David Haruin. How many 
graduates of our high schools, or even of some of our state universities, know 
anything about Stein or Cavour ; how many could tell us who covered himself 
with glory by his heroic defense of Kara in 1855, or who was ground between 



166 GEOGRAPHIC LITERATURE 

three Prussian armies at Sadowa; how man}' could give even an intelligent 
guess as to what kingdom was annexed to Prussia in 1866, or what city was the 
capital of Italy from 1864 to 1871 ? Such questions would probably be scorned, 
not only by that utilitarian visitor to the Yellowstone Park who, gazing upon 
line of the most interesting scenes in that wonderful region, remarked what a 
good place it would he " to scald hogs in," hut by thousands of other men whose 
utilitarianism has not found so extreme an expression ; and yet no one can be 
familiar with the great events that led up to the unification of Germany, can 
know how Italy came to be something more than a mere geographical expres- 
sion, or have much acquaintance with the profoundly interesting series of events 
that have attended the gradual decadence and dismemberment of the Ottoman 
Empire in Europe without knowing all these and a thousand other things of 
which our average college graduate is entirely ignorant. 

But whatever ignorance as to modern European history has existed among us 
in the past, its continuance in the future will be absolutely without excuse. 
Professor Grosvenor's new book, published at a price considerably below that 
of the average text-book, presents a narrative of the principal events of the last 
fifty years in Europe and North America that, while modestly disclaiming to 
be more than a mere outline, contains a wealth of interesting information, 
breathes the true historic spirit in every line and word, and is characterized 
throughout by a literary grace that constitutes it a veritable royal road to one 
of the most important departments of human knowledge. 

The book opens with a brief but graphic recital of the stirring events that 
made the year 184S one of the turning-points in human history, and then pro- 
ceeds to discuss the influence of those events upon Europe. Chapter II deals 
with the Second French Republic, brought to so speedy a termination by the 
( 'oup d'Etat. A glance at Central Europe, the scene of a temporary triumph of 
reaction, and we are introduced to the Second French Empire, which, lasting 
less than is years, was yet signalized by three of the gieatest wars in history, 
and came to its end in the midst of the most stupendous events the world had 
witnessed since the overthrow of the First Napoleon. 

Succeeding chapters discuss the rivalry between Prussia and Austria, culminat- 
ing in the Seven Weeks' War; the disintegrating influences at work in the new 
Empire of Austria- Hungary ; the regeneration of Italy and those epoch-making 
events which preceded the transfer of the capital to Rome; the spread of Nihil- 
ism in Russia; the interminable Eastern Question in all its various phases; 
France under the Third Republic; the partition of Africa, Asia, and Oceania; 
the foreign and domestic policies of successive British ministries, with the final 
near approach of Great Britain to universal suffrage and equal rights, and, last 
of all, the marvelous changes the half-century has witnessed in our own country, 
which, almost against its will, has taken its seat in the parliament of nations 
and has made itself respected and recognized as it never was before. 

Had Professor Grosvenor dealt with European history as a unit, his book 
would have been deprived of much of what constitutes its chief value, namely, 
its adaptation to the needs of the historical novitiate. He might, with that 
literary skill of which he is an acknowledged master, have presented us with a 
series of graphic pictures that would have challenged our admiration ; but Euro- 



GEOGRAPHIC MISCELLANEA 167 

pean history is too many-sided to be looked at from more than one point of 
view at a time, and a composite historical picture is more attractive than in- 
structive. The author's primary purpose was to instruct, and he accomplishes 
that purpose best by successively changing his point of view from capital to 
capital. 

It may seem hypercritical to pick flaws in so nearly perfect an historical mo- 
saic, but one would scarcely think the student should have to look in vain for 
any reference to that most dramatic and portentous of all diplomatic incidents, 
the meeting of the King of Prussia and M. Benedetti at Ems, an interview that 
precipitated the war, and that subsequent disclosures have shown to have been 
brought about by the wily Bismarck for the express purpose of rendering war 
inevitable by exposing his sovereign to insult. The absence in the chapter 
devoted to the United States of any reference to the presidential campaign of 
1896, with the important issues that it involved and the unprecedented cleav- 
age of party alignment by which it was rendered memorable, is likewise notice- 
able. When even the United States Government itself has published a map 
showing the Oregon country as a part of the Louisiana purchase, it is scarcely 
to be wondered at that the publishers of the present volume have fallen into a 
like error. The Government, however, made haste to correct its mistake, and 
its example will doubtless be followed in the next edition of Professor Gros- 
venor's book. 

History is the foundation of political geography, and no apology need be 
offered for reviewing at this length a book not strictly geographical. Professor 
Grosvenor's modest volume is a contribution of the first importance to both 
sciences. Its educational value is of the highest, and the book should have a 
large sale, not only among schools and colleges, but also for use in the family 
circle. 

J. Hyde. 



GEOGRAPHIC MISCELLANEA 

The wheat acreage of the United States for 1 899 is estimated by the Statistician 
of the Department of Agriculture to have been 44,592,51(>, yielding 547,303,S46 
bushels, with a value of $319,545,259. The corn acreage was 82,108,587, yielding 
2,078,143,933 bushels, valued at $629,210,110; the acreage in oats, 26,341,380, 
yielding 796,177,713 bushels, valued at $198,167,975. The barley crop is esti- 
mated at 73,381,563 bushels, the rye crop at 23,961,741 bushels, the potato crop 
at 228,783,232 bushels, and the hay crop at 56,655,756 tons. 

The opening up of Cuba to American methods in every department of life is 
being repeatedly emphasized. In this direction the census of the island for 
1900, taken under the direction of the U. S. War Department, and the data for 
Which are now being tabulated under the general supervision of Mr Henry 
Gannett, will prove immediate and effective. As an instance might be cited 
the establishment of corporate limits to llabana, Matan/.as, and other cities on 
the island. Before the present year not a single town or city in Cuba had dis- 
tinctive bounds. 



168 GEOGRAPHIC MISCELLANEA 

Results of the surveys of Gila River, Arizona, have been published as Water 
Supply and Irrigation Paper, No. 33, of the United States Geological Survey. 
The bulletin gives a description of southern Arizona, with views illustrating 
the character of the country, and maps and diagrams showing the location of 
the sources of water supply ami the possibilities of storing water for the de. 
velopmeni of agriculture. It is shown that the construction of Btorage works 
on Gila River ai a cos! of about one million dollars would many times compen- 
sate for the outlay, through the sale of public lands and the increase of taxable 
property. 

The second school of forestry to be founded in the United States will soon 
be established at Vale University, Mr and Mrs James \V. Pinchot, of New 
York, ami their sons, Gifford ami Amos B. E., having generously endowed 
that institution with Sl">0,000 for the purpose. Mr Gifford Pinchot is the for- 
ester of tin- U. 8. Department of Agriculture, ami his services to this cause are 
well known to the public. In addition to the gift of the large sum named, use 
is given to the University for a term of years of a large tract of forest land in 
Pike county. Pa., where the practical workings of economic forestry may he 
demonstrated— as well as the use of buildings in this locality serve as a local head- 
quarter- for the school. MrHenryS. Graves will be the director of the school. 

r.Mu:i: the law ni7 one can do any dredging on the water front of Cape Nome 
within a three-mile limit without the authority of the War Department. That 
authority has now heen granted in several instances because it was shown that 
the proposed dredging of sand would not interfere with navigation or the rights 
of owners of adjacent territory. The particular character of the sand to be 
dredged did not enter into the consideration of the case. The Secretary of War 
states that any one is privileged to dig for gold in the open sea, and the only 
question considered by the War Department is whether such operations con- 
ducted within the three-mile limit are an interference with navigation or an in- 
fringemenl on the rights of others. When these conditions are complied with 
the Department is prepared to grant permission to any one to dig in the beach 
at Cape Nome or at any point lying within three miles of low-water mark. 

The bubonic plague has increased in severity ami extent during the past 
month. A dispatch from Cape Town to the London Times announced the dis- 
covery of a Case in that port early in March. The infected ve-sel was an army 
transport from Bosario, Argentine, where the epidemic had prevailed for sev- 
eral months and where the quarantine had only recently heen raised. In San 
Francisco several cases, supposed to he genuine, were discovered in Chinatown, 
l.nt energetic measures have prevented contagion. Advices have also been re- 
ceived by the Surgeon-General of the Marine Hospital Service of the presence of 
the plague in the Island of Cozumel, off the east coast of Yucatan, Mexico. It 
had probably been bronghi here directly from Brazil. In Honolulu its severity 
seems to have passed, though a large number of sporadic cases are still arising. 
From Manila the disease has spread to Iloilo and also to Hilo. It has, how- 
ever, been considerably retarded in its occupation of the Philippines. In 
India the frightful ravages have continued on the increase, with no prospect 
of immediate abatement. A recent telegram from Calcutta states that 4,725 
deaths occurred in that city and in Bengal in a single week. 



XA TIOXA L GEO GRA PHIC MA GA ZINE 



NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 



Preside tit 
Alexander Graham Bell 

Yice-Pres id en t 
W J McGee 



1897-1900 
Marcus Baker 
Henry F. Blount 
F. V. CoviEEE 
S. H. Kauffmann 
Willis L. Moore 
W. B. Powell 



Board of Managers 
1 898-1901 
A. Graham Bell 
Henry Gannett 
A. W. Greely 
John Hyde 
W J McGEE 
F. H. Newell 



1 899- 1 90 2 
Charles J. Bell 
G. K. Gilbert 
A. J. Henry 
David J. Hill 
C. Hart Merriam 
H. S. Pritchett 



Treasurer 
Henry Gannett 

Recording Secretary 
A. J. Henry 



Corresponding Secretary 
Willis h. Moore 

Foreign Secretary 
Eliza Ruhamah Scidmore 



OFFICES OF THE SOCIETY 

Rooms 107, 108, Corcoran Building, Fifteenth and F Streets N. W., Washington, D. C. 
Office Hours : 8.30 A. M. to 5.00 P. M. Telephone No. 471. 

The National Geographic Magazine is sent free of charge to all members of the 
National Geographic Society 

Recommendatioa for HeiUp in He National Geopghic Society. 

The following form is enclosed for use in the nomination of persons for member- 
ship. Please detach and fill in blanks and send to the Secretary. 

: 

Dues: Resident, $5; Non-resident, $2 ; Life membership, $50. .If check be en- 
closed, please make it payable to order of the National Geographic Society, ahd, if at a 
distance from Washington, remit by New York draft or P. O. money-order. 

1900 



To the Secretary, National Geographic Society, 

Washington, D. C. : 

Please propose 

occupation and address: 



for. membership in the Society. 



It is understood thai persons nominated on this blank have expressed a desire to 
join tbe Society. 



NA TIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 






*-~? 



CHESAPEAKE &, OHIO RY. 

*T"HE F. F. V. LIMITED is one of the finest trains hauled over any railway track in America. It runs 
solid between Cincinnati and New York, the route from Washington being over the Pennsylvania 
system. It has every modern convenience and appliance, and the dining-car service has no superior if 
it has an equal. The road-bed is literally hewed out of the eternal rocks; it is ballasted with stone 
from one end to the other ; the greater portion is laid with one-hundred-pound steel rails, and although 
curves are numerous in the mountain section, the ride is as smooth as over a Western prairie. 

One of the most delightful rides in all the route is that through the New River valley. The 
mountains are just low enough to be clad with verdure to the very top, and in the early spring every 
variety of green known to the mixer of colors can be seen, while the tones in autumn take on all the 
range from brown to scarlet. 

These facts should be borne in mind by the traveler between the East and the West. 

H. W. FULLER, Genl. Pass. Agent, Washington, D. C. 



The Fastest and Finest Train in the West , . . . 



IS 




The Overland Limited 



TO. 



^ UTAH and CALIFORNIA. 



°'SWCTO^ V 



FROM 16 TO 20 HOURS 
SAVED BY USING 



"Til OVERIfAlf© mQTJT 

Double Drawing-Room Pullman Sleepers. 

Free Reclining Chair Cars. 

Pullman Dining Cars. 

Buffet Smoking and Library Cars. 



H% 



tr 



Send for Descriptive Pamphlet "49-96,'' 
Folders and other Advertising Matter. 
(Mention this publication.) 



E. L. LOMAX, 

General Passenger and Ticket Agent, 

OMAHA, NEB 



Please mention this Magazine when writing to advertisers. 



NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



THE CHICAGO, MILWAUKEE AND ST. PAUL RAILWAY 

- - RUKTS - - 

Electric Lighted and Steam heated Vestibuled Trains between Chicago, Mil- 
waukee, St. Paul and Minneapolis daily. 

Through Parlor Cars on day trains between Chicago, St. Paul and Minneapolis. 

Electric Lighted and Steam Heated Vestibuled Trains between Chicago and 
Omaha and Sioux City daily. 

Through Sleeping Cars, Free Reclining Chair Cars and Coaches between Chicago 
and Kansas City, Mo. 

Only two hours from Chicago to Milwaukee. Seven fast trains each way, daily, 
with Parlor Car Service. 

Solid trains between Chicago and principal points in Northern Wisconsin and 
the Peninsula of Michigan. 

•Through Trains with Palace Sleeping Cars, Free Reclining Chair Cars and Coaches 
between Chicago and points in Iowa, Minnesota, Southern and Central Dakota. 

The finest Dining Cars in the World. 

The best Sleeping Cars. Electric Reading Lamps in Berths. 

The best and latest type of private Compartment Cars, Free Reclining Chair 
Cars, and buffet Library Smoking Cars. 

Everything First=class. First-class People patronize First-class Lines. 

Ticket Agents everywhere sell tickets over the Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul Ry. 

GEO. H. HEAFFORD, 

Genera/ Passenger Agent, Chicago, III. 



CALIFORNIA.. 

/""^F course you expect to go there this Spring. Let 
^*^ me whisper something in your ear. Be sure that 
the return portion of your ticket reads via the . . . 

Northern Pacific-Shasta Route* 

Then you will see the grandest mountain scenery in 
the United States, including nt. Hood and fit. Rainier, 
each more than 14,000 feet high, Ht. St. Helens, 
nt. Adams, and others. You will also be privileged 
to make side trips into the Kootenai Country, where 
such wonderful new gold discoveries have been made, 
and to Yellowstone Park, the wonderland not only of 
the United States, but of the World. Close railroad 
connections made in Union Station, Portland, for Puget 
Sound cities and the east, via Northern Pacific. 

CHAS. S. FEE, 

Genera/ Passenger Agent, St. Paui, Minn. 
Please mention this Magazine when writing to advertisers. 



NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



"PEOPLE like to read about the great 

and wonderful country of the 

Southwest ; of its quaint and curious 

towns, its ancient civilizations, its 
\ 

natural marvels. They like to get ac- 

. curate information about California 

v and the Pacific Coast. This is because 

\ most people want to some day see these 

S things for themselves 

\ 
V 



%££ %££ 



A charming book covering these 
facts is issued by the 



fe^5«^5 



\ 



^+f^+f^^^^^^^^^^^^^^+f+f+#+f+f+f+#+f+#+S+f+#+f+S+S+S+f+ 



THE BOOK IS ENTITLED 



a 



v 



Through Storyland 
to Sunset Seas/' 



\ 

\ 

\ 



PASSENGER DEPARTMENT 

OK THE 

Southern Pacific Railway, ^ 

and will be sent to anyone, postpaid, ^ 
on receipt of TEN CENTS. ■ 

I 
1 

8 



< 
^ 

N 
N 

M 
^ 






s 

N 

N 

V 



♦*♦♦*♦♦•»•*»♦*♦♦•»••♦♦•♦♦*♦ 6AAAAA. > iAAAAA. , u '..Vu , u , ..'» l ..W.. 



«^8«^5 



You can get a copy by writing to 

S. F. B. MORSE, 

General Passenger Agent, 
Southern Pacific, 

New Orleans, 

and sending 10 cts. to defray postage. 



«^<^5 



AND IS A WONDERFULLY HAND- 
SOME VOLUME OF 205 PAGES, 
WITH 160 ILLUSTRATIONS. . . . 
The paper used is FINE PLATE 
PAPER, and every typographical de- 



\ 
\ 

N 
N 

\ 
\ 
\ 



:.,,, 



tail is artistic. It is a story of what || 
four people saw on just such a trip as f| 
vou would like to make If 



Please mention this Magazine when writing to advertisers. 



NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



Burlington 



Leave BOSTON every Tuesday 
Leave CHICAGO every Wednesday 
Leave ST. LOUIS every Wednesday 



PERSONALLY CONDUCTED 
TOURIST PARTIES TO 

California 

Comfortable and Inexpensive 




CELECT PARTIES leave Boston every Tuesday via Niagara Falls 
and Chicago, joining at Denver a similar party, which leaves St. 
Louis every Wednesday. From Denver the route is over the Scenic 
Denver and Rio Grande Railway, and through Salt Lake City. 

Pullman Tourist Sleeping Cars of a new pattern are used. They are thoroughly com- 
fortable and exquisitely clean, fitted with double windows, high-back seats, carpets, 
spacious toilet-rooms, and the same character of bedding found in Palace Cars. They 
are well heated and brilliantly lighted with Pintsch gas. Outside they are of the regu- 
lation Pullman color, with wide vestibules of steel and beveled plate glass. Beautifully 
illustrated books on California and Colorado, with maps, train schedules and com- 
plete information can be had from any of the following Burlington Route agents: 



E. J. SWORDS 

lll'.l Broadway 

NEW YORK CITY 

F. E. BELL 

21 1 Clark Street 

CHICAGO ILL. 



W. J. O'MEARA 

:5()<J Washington Street 
BOSTON, MASS. 

C. D. HAGERMAN 

7()I5 Park Building 

PITTSBURG, PA. 



E. HELLER 

«;:?!» Chestnut Street 

PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

G. DELAPLAINE 

Broadway and Olive Streets 
ST. LOUIS, MO. 



Please mention this Magazine when writing to advertisers. 



NATIONAL GEOGUAFHK MAGAZINE 



M 

► j 

j 

. j 

H 






►.<< 

m 



Shortest Line 



TO 



St. Paul and Minneapolis 



and the Northwest 



Chicago 
Great 



Maple 
Leaf 
Route" 



Western 



RAILWAY 



► $ 






For tickets, rates or any detailed information apply 
to your home agent or write to 

F. H. LORD, 

den'l Pass'r and Ticket Agent, 
CHICAQO. 



H 



^>^j^j^^^^U»^^jik^^jj»^r^^^j^^^j^^jfej^^^^^^^i^4ag 



^ 



A VITAL POINT 



IMPROVEMENT THE C^DER OF THE AG .' 




A TYPEWRITER'S 
PRINTING MECHANISM 

MUST BE SCIENTIFICALLY CON- 
STRUCTED. THIS POINT IS OF 
UTMOST IMPORT FOR 

EASY OPERATION AND 

PERFECT EXECUTION. 

Che Smith.. 
Premier 
typewriters 



Superior on This Point as Well as on All Others. 



ONLY CORRECT 
PRINCIPLES EMPLOYED. 



The Smith Premier Typewriter Co., 

SYRACUSE, N. Y. , U. S. A. 






Catalogues and Information at Washington Office, No. 519 Eleventh Street. 



Please mention this Magazine when writing to advertisers. 



NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE. 



THE AMERICAN 
FORESTRY ASSOCIATION, 



AKb. YOU COSTEB ON — ^k 

. FORESTRY ? 



Organized April, 1882. Incorporated January, 1897. 

ORF"ICERS F"OR 1900 : 

President : Hon. James Wilson, Secretary of Agriculture. 
First Vice-Pres.: Dr. E. E. Fernow. Vice-Pres. for District of Columbia: George W. McUnahan. 

Corresponding Sec' y : F. H. Newell. Recording Secretary and Treasurer : George P. Whittlesey. 

The objects of this Association in conserving the forest wealth of the United States are detailed in 
a pamphlet which will be sent, together with a copy of The Forester, upon request. 

Patrons, $ioo. Life Membership, $50. Annual Membership, $2. 



American Forestry Association, APPLICATION FOR MEMBERSHIP. 

WASHINGTON, D. C. 

Dear Sir : Please propose my name for membership in THE AMERICAN 
FORESTRY ASSOCIATION. 



(Signed) Name 

P. O. Address 



ALL MEMBERS RECEIVE 



Tup FORFSTFR 

THE OFFICIAL MONTHLY MAGAZINE, I ML \ V/llL.O I LRi 

Pertinent papers by forest experts, accurate descriptions of the forests by officials of 
the U. S. Government, scientific forestry at home and abroad, questions of lumbering, 
irrigation, water supply, sheep-grazing, and a keen summary of forest news. 

" 'The Forester' is devoted to the preservation of American forests, which ought to enlist for it the atten- 
tion of every American patriot."— Chicago Advance. 

CORCORAN BUILDING, Washington, D. C. 

WOODWARD & LOTHROP 

invite attention to their selections and importations in desirable 

merchandise for the present season, 

comprising in part 

Paris and London Millinery, Silks, Velvets, 
High-class Dress Goods, Ready-to-Wear 
Outer Garments for Women, Girls and Boys, 
Hand-made Paris Lingerie, Corsets, Infants' 
Outfittings, Hosiery, Laces, Ribbons, Em- 
broideries, Linens, Upholstery Goods, Books, 
Stationery, Card Engraving ; also Paris, 
Vienna, and Berlin Novelties in Leather and 
Fancy Goods, Sterling Silver Articles, Lamps, 
Clocks, Bronzes, etc , for Wedding Gifts .... 

40th, llth and F Streets, Washington, D. C. 

Please mention tliis Magazine when writing to advertisers. 



NA TIONA L GEOGRA PMC MA GA ZINE 



COMMENCED JANUARY, 1888. TWO VOLUMES PER YEAR. 

""theamerican geologist, 

1900. 



The Oldest Exclusively Geological Magazine Published in America 

TERMS. 

To Subscribers in the United States, Canada and Mexico $3.50 a year 

To other Subscribers in the Postal Union * 00 a year 



The AMERICAN GEOLOGISTS issued monthly from the office of publication at Minne- 
apolis, Minnesota, United States of America. Twenty-four volumes are completed; the 
twenty-fifth began with tbe number for January, 1900. Tbe magazine lias received a 
cordial welcome and a generous support from leading geologists everywhere and it is now 
recognized as the exponent of the rapid geological progress that is taking place on 
tbe continent of North America, including Canada, the United States and Mexico. No- 
where else in the world are geologic phenomena exhibited on a more extensive scale 
and nowhere else are results attained of greater economic and scientific importance. 

The AMERICAN GEOLOGIST lays before its readers from month to month the latest 
results of geological work. In addition to the longer papers it gives synopses of recent 
geological publications and brief notes on current geological events. 

THE GEOLOGICAL PUBLISHING CO., 

Minneapolis, Minn. 

SEND TO TMEl — 

MACMILLAN COMPANY 

For the LATEST TEXT-BOOKS and WORKS OF REFERENCE 

ON EVERY BRANCH OF SCIENCE BY 

LEADING AUTHORS. 

PROF. I,. H. BAILEY (Cornell University), PROF. NICHOLS and his Colleagues (De- 
works on Agriculture and Botany partment of Physics, Cornell Univ.), in Physics, 

PROF. THORP (Mass. Inst. Tech.), on Indus- Electricity, etc. 
trial Chemistry. $3.50 net. 

DDnomw.DinD t- ■ n e- / 1 PRO F. LAM BER T" ( Leh igh U niversitv), on Z)i/ 

PROF. PACKARD (Brown Lniv.), on Entomology. v ° - " J 



$4.50 net. 



ferential and Integral Calculus. $1.50 net. 



PROFS. HARKNESS and MORLEY (Bryn pROF LACHMAN ( Univ , of Oregon), The 

Mawr and Haverford), Theory of Analytic Spirit of Organic Chemistry. $1.50 net. 

Functions. $3.00 net. 

PROF. DAVENPORT (Harvard University). PROF. TARR ('Cornell Univ.), Physical Geogra- 

Experimental Morphology. Vol. I, $2.60; Vol a/, V) Geology, etc. 

II, $2.00. 

PROF. HENRY F. OSBOKN (Columbia Univ.)> PROF. COMFY (Tufts College), Dictionary ot 

Editor of the Columbia Biological Series. Chemical Solubilities. 

These are a few only of the names represented in the Catalogue or the New 
Announcement List (sent free). 

THE MACMILLAN COMPANY, Publishers, NEW YORK. 

Please mention this Magazine when writing to advertiseis. 



NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



The Leading Scientific Journal of America 

SCIENCE 

A JOURNAL DEVOTED TO THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE. 

PUBLISHED EVERY FRIDAY. 

Annual Subscription, $5.00. Single Copies, 15 Cents. 



From its first appearance, in 1883, Science has maintained a repre- 
sentative position, and is regarded, both here and abroad, as the leading 
scientific journal of America. 

Its Editors and Contributors come from every institution in this country 
in which scientific work of importance is accomplished, including Harvard, 
Yale, Columbia, Pennsylvania, Johns Hopkins, Cornell, and California 
Universities, among others. 



EDITORIAL COMMITTEE. 

S. Newcome, Mathematics; R. S. Woodward, Mechanics; EC. Pickering, Astronomy; 
T. C. Mendenhall, Physics ; R. H.Thurston, Engineering ; IraRemsen, Chemis- 
try ; J. Le ConTE, Geology ; W. M. Davis, Physiography ; Henry F. Osborn, 
Paleontology; \V. K. Brooks, C. Hart Merriam, Zoology; S. H. 
Scudder, Entomology ; C. E. BESSEY, N. L. Britton, Botany ; C. S. 
MlNOT, Embryology, Histology ; H. P. BowdiTCH, Physiology ; 
J. S. B11XINGS, Hygiene ; J. McKeen Cattei,^, Psychology ; 
J. W. PowEEL, Anthropology. 



NEW AND POPULAR SCIENTIFIC BOOKS. 



MANUAL OF BACTERIOLOGY 

By Robert Muir, M.D.. F.R.C.P , 
Ed., Professor of Pathology, Univer- 
sity of Glasgow, and James Ritchik, 
M.D., Lecturer on Pathology, Uni- 
versity of Oxford. Second edition. 
With 126 illustrations. 

Cloth, Cr. 8vo, $3.25 net. 

GANONG 

The Teaching Botanist. A Manual 
of information upon Botanical In- 
struction, together with Outlines and 
Directions fi r a Comprehensive Ele- 
mentary Course. By Wii.uam P. 
Ganong, I'll. I)., Smith College. 

Cloth, 12010, 5 1 • i" ">'i- 
A manual of iii formation upon botanical in- 
struction, with outlines and directions 
elementary course. 



MACBR1DE 

The Slime Moulds. A Handbook of 
North American Myxomycetes. By 
Thomas II. MacBride, Professor of 
Botany, University of Iowa. 
Cloth,' i2mo. 

A list of all species described in North 
America, including Central America, with an- 
notations. 

5UTER 

Handbook of Optics. For Students 
of Ophthalmology. By William N. 
SUTER, M. D., National University, 
Washington, I). C. 

Cloth, 121110, $[.00 net. 

Aims to c;ive a clearer insight into the phenoin" 
ena of refraction as applied to ophthalmology 
than can i>- obtained from the usual text-books on 
Refraction ol the eye. 



THE MACMILLAN COMPANY, Publishers, NEW YORK, 



Please mention this Magazine when writing to advertisers. 



NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



APPLETONS' WORLD SERIES. 
A New Geographical Library. 



Edited by H. J. MACKINDER, M. A., 

Church, Reader in (jeoeraphy 
ford, Principal of Reading Co 

12mo. Cloth, $1.50 each. 



Student of Christ Church, Reader in Geography in the University 
of Oxford, Principal of Reading College. 



A COMPLETE ACCOUNT OF THE WORLD. 

The series will consist of twelve volumes, each being an essay descriptive 
of a great natural region, its marked physical features, and the life of its people. 
Together the volumes will give a complete account of the world, more especially 
as the field of human activity. 

The series is intended for reading rather than for reference, and will stand 
removed on the one hand from the monumental work of Reclus, and on the 
other from the ordinary text-book, gazetteer, and compendium. 

Bach volume is to be illustrated by many maps printed in colors and by 
diagrams in the text, and it will be a distinguishing characteristic of the series 
that both maps and diagrams will be drawn so that each of them shall convey 
some salient idea, and that together they shall constitute a clear epitome of the 
writer's argument. With a like object, the pictures also will be chosen so as 
to illustrate the text and not merely to decorate it. A detailed announcement 
of this important series will be presented later. 

List of the Subjects and Authors. 

i. Britain and the North Atlantic. By the Editor. 

2. Scandinavia and the Arctic Ocean. By Sir Clements R. Markham, 

K. C. B., F. R. S., President of the Royal Geographical Society. 

3. The Romance Lands and Barbary. By Elisee Reclus, author of the 

" Nouvelle Geographie Universelle." 

4. Central Europe. By Dr. Joseph 1'arTSCH, Professor of Geography in 

the University of Breslau. 

5. Africa. By l>r. J. SCOTT KELTiE, Secretary of the Royal Geographical 

Society ; Editor of " The Statesman's Year-Book." 

6. The Near East. By D. G. Hogarth, M. A., Fellow of Magdalen Col- 

lege, Oxford ; Director of the British School at Athens; Author of "A 
Wandering Scholar in the Levant." 

7. The Russian Empire. By Prince Krapotkin, author of the articles 

"Russia" and "Siberia" in the Encyclopaedia Brilannica. 

;;. The Far East. By Archibald Little. 

9. India. By Sir T. Hungerford Holdich, K. C. I. E-, C. B., R. E., Su- 
perintendent of Indian Frontier Surveys. 

10. Australasia and Antarctica. By Dr. H. O. Forbes, Curator of the 

Liverpool Museum ; bite Curator of the Christ Church Museum, N. Z. ; 
Author of "A Naturalist's Wanderings in the Eastern Archipelago." 

11. North America. By Prof. I. C. Russell, University of Michigan. 

12. South America. By Prof. John C. Hrannek, Vice-President Leland 

Stanford Junior University. 

Maps by J. G. Bartholomew. 

D. APPLETON & CO., Publishers, 

NEW YORK. 



Please mention this Magazine when writing to advertisers. 



NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



IMPORTANT ANNOUNCEHENT ! 
THE 

INTERNATIONAL 
GEOGRAPHY. 



The last few years have proved so rich in geographical discov- 
eries that there has been a pressing need for a resume of recent ex- 
plorations and changes which should present in convenient and 
accurate form the latest results of geographical work. The addi- 
tions to our knowledge have not been limited to Africa, Asia, and 
the Arctic regions, but even on our own continent the gold of the 
Klondike has led to a better knowledge of the region. The want 
which is indicated will be met by The International Geography, a 
convenient volume for the intelligent general reader, and the library 
which presents expert summaries of the results of geographical sci- 
ence throughout the world at the present time. 

Seventy authors, all experts, have collaborated in the production 
of The International Geography. The contributors include the lead- 
ing geographers and travelers of Europe and America. The work 
has been planned and edited by Dr. H. R. Mill, who also wrote 
the chapter on The United Kingdom. Among the authors are : 

Professor W. M. Davis (The United States), 

Dr. Eridtjof Nansen (Arctic Regions), 

Professor A. Kirchhoff (German Empire), 

Mr. F. C. Selous i Rhodesia), 

Professors DE EapparenT and Raveneau (France), 

Sir Clements R. Markham, F. R. S. (Ecuador, Bolivia, and Peru), 

Sir John Murray, F. R. S. (Antarctic Regions), 

Count Pfeil (German Colonies), 

Mr. James Bkyce, M. P. (The Boer Republics), 

Sir H. H. Johnston, the late Sir Lambert Playfair, 

Sir F. J. Goldsmid, Sir Martin Conway, 

Sir George S. Robertson, Sir William MacGregor, 

vSir Charles Wilson, F. R. S. ; the Hon. D. W. Carnegie, 

Mrs. Bishop, Dr. A. M. W. Downing, F. R. S. ; 

Dr. J. Scott Kkltie, and 

Mr. G. G. Chisholm, the editor of the Times Gazetteer. 

The book is illustrated by nearly five hundred maps and diagrams, which 
have been specially prepared. It is designed to present in the compact limits 
of a single volume an authoritative conspectus of the science of geography 
and the conditions of the countries at the end of the nineteenth century. ^7^ 

D. APPLETON & CO., Publishers, 

72 Fifth Avenue, New York. 



Please mention (his Magazine when writing to advertisers 



XI TIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



NEW BOOKS. 



The United States of Europe. W. T. Stead. 

ON THE EVE OF THE PARLIAMENT OF PEACE. 

Mr. Stead's recent talks with the Czar and with all the great European statesmen 
lend much value to this timely review of current politics, written with special reference 
to the Russiau Peace Rescript and American "Expansion." It covers such pertinent 
matters as America's task in Cuba and the Philippines, the "Chinese Puzzle," South 
African Problems, the Fashoda Muddle, the Concert of Europe and its work in Crete and 
Candia, and so on, with many suggestive forecasts. 

Size, sVz x &%; pages, 468; over 100 portraits, maps, and illustrations; binding, cloth. 
Price, $2.00. 

Sketches in Egypt. Charles Dana Gibson. 

"Egypt," says Mr. Gibson, " has sat for her likeness longer than any other coun- 
try." The recent important events that have turned all eyes toward the Upper Nile 
have not disturbed in the least the ancient composure and serenity of the Land of the 
Pharoahs, and few countries offer such a tempting field to the artistic pen. Mr. Gibson's 
forceful and suggestive drawings are well reinforced by his written impressions — more 
complete than he has ever before published — and the whole makes up a uniquely in- 
teresting record, from an artist who occupies a peculiar position among us. It is the real 
Egypt from a new standpoint. No pains have been spared to produce a true art work, 
giving really adequate presentations of Mr. Gibson's drawings. 

Size, 73^ x 10^; cloth decorated; pages, 150; type, 12 point. Regular edition, $3.00 
net. Edition de Luxe, 250 signed and numbered copies, each accompanied by a portfolio 
containing art proofs of ten of the most important pictures, on Japan silk tissue and 
mounted on plate paper suitable for framing. Price per copy, $10.00 net. 

From Sea to Sea. Rudyard Kipling. 

35th THOUSAND. 

This is an authorized edition of the collected letters of travel which Mr. Rudvard 
Kipling has written at various times between 1889 and 1898, and has just edited and 
revised. It includes hitherto unpublished matter, as well as an accurate text of the 
"American Notes," with "Letters of Marque," " The City of Dreadful Night," "The 
Smith Administration," etc., etc. 

Even Mr. Kipling never wrote anything more entirely irresistible than are, for in- 
stance, his letters on Japan. The ludicrousness of the Japanese "heavy cavalry," the 
fascinating O-Toyo, the cherry blossoms, and the wonderful art which permeates the 
daily life of natural Japan— all these things become permanent in the reader's mind and 
can never be forgotten; and thev show a side of the author which is not at all prominent 
in most of his other work. 

Size, 5x7^; two volumes in box; pages, 860; type, 10 point; binding, cloth. 
Price, $2.00. 

. DOUBLEDAY & McCLURE CO., 
141-155 East 25th Street, New York. 



Please mention this Magazine when writing to advertisers. 



NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



The American Anthropologist. 

The only American magazine devoted to the science of Anthropology ; 
published at the National Capital. No one interested in anthropology in any 
of its branches can afford to be without it. Subscribe today. 



Handsomely Printed and Illustrated. Published Quarterly. Four Dollars a Year. 

Address: THE AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGIST, 

G. P. Putnam's Sons, 27 and 29 West 23d Street, New York City. 




V-v 





1^-0 XV / L 



Y 




A practical journalist, long a member of the staff of the Washington 'Evening s/ur, resigned 
his position to go to Guatemala. Before he left Washington he bad been a firm believer in the 
medicinal qualities of l; ip:i n- T:ii.ni.\-. ami look a lo( of them with him to Guatemala, where he 
earned the friendship of the eaptain of the steamer, which sails from San Francisco and stops at 
ports in Central Vmerica, by making known to him the marvelous virtues of R-I-P-A-N-3 tin- 
medical wonder <jf tin- century. He often dilates upon the captain's enthusiasm al t the Tabules 

and asserts that tin- people of the tropics Buffer terribly from indigestion, and tha( the Tabules 

are now known most favorably throughout Central \ rica. Ripans Tabules quiet the nerves, 

compose the mind, allay irritation, ami Invite repose, One givee relief. 

WANTED:— A case of bad health thai R-I-P-A-N-8 will not benefit. They banish pain and 

prolong life. ( »ne gives re I jet. Note the word R-I-P-A-N-8 on the package and a pt no substitute. 

R-I-P-A-N-8. 10 fo or twelve packets for is cents, may be had al any drug store, 'ivn 

■ amplea and otoe I housand testimonials ft ill be mailed i" any address i"i 6 cents, forwarded to the 
Ripanc Chemical Co., No. 10 Spruce St., New ¥ork. 



Please mention this Magazine when writing to advertisers. 



NATIONA L GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



LECTURE COURSES OF THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY. 



The program of the lectures for each month and all other announcements 
by the Society will be published regularly in the National Geographic 
Magazine. 



The Popular Course, delivered in the First Congregational Church, 
Tenth and G Streets N. W., 



on Friday evenings at S o'clock. 
April 6. — Mouchuria 

April 20. — Cuba .... 

April 27. — The Missions of California 



Mr Sergey Friede, C. E. 

Mr George Kennan. 

Mr J. StaneEY-Brown. 



The Technical Course, delivered in the Assembly Hall of Columbian 
University, Fifteenth and H Streets N. W., 

on Friday evenings at 8.15 o'clock. 



April 13. — The Roman Forum 



Professor Mitchele Carroee, 
Columbian University. 



THE LENTEN COURSE. 

The subject of this course is The Growth of Nations, as illustrated by the geo- 
graphic and social development of leading European nations. This course of six 
lectures has been projected with the view of bringing out the elements of national 
power, and emphasizing the importance of individual character and of natural con- 
ditions in shaping national growth. The course is complementary to that of last season 
on "The Growth of the United States." The lectures are delivered in 

COLUMBIA THEATER, F STREET NEAR TWELFTH, 

4.20 to 5.30 p. m., on Tuesday afternoons. 

April 3. — England Dr Edwin D. Mead, 

Editor of the New England Magazine. 

Professor Edwin A. Grosvenor, 

Amherst College. 

ESPECIALLY VALUABLE IN 1900. 



April 10. — Russia 



"THE MOVEMENTS OF OUR POPULATION," 

By HENRY GANNETT, Geographer of the U. S. Geological Survey, 

IN THE 
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE, Vol. V, No. 2. 

Tn this article Mr. Gannett shows the numerical increase of the population of the 
United states, its geographic distribution over the country, and its composition as regards 
sex, race, and nativity, not only at present but in past times. Nineteen charts illustrate 
the text, showing the proportion of Germans, French, British, Canadians, etc., to our 
total population, the centers of population during each decade since 17W, the proportions 
of urban and rural population since 1780, and other information valuable in this year of 
the twelfth census of the United States. 

By mail for 50 cents. 

NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 

Corcoran Building, Washington, D. C. 



NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



EXCURSIONS OF THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY. 



Excursion to High Island. — A trip to High Island on the Potomac, just below the 

Little Falls, has been planned for Wednesday, April 4, 1900. It is expected that a party 
from the Teachers' Geography Club of Boston will also join in the excursion. Those 
members of the Society intending to make the trip will rendezvous in Georgetown, at the 
junction of the Metropolitan and Cabin John lines, at 1.30 P. M. Thence the party will 
proceed by electric car and on foot to High Island, where the topographic as well as the 
botanic and geologic features of the place will receive attention. The talk on topography 
and geology will be given by Mr G. K. Gilbert, of the U. S. Geological Survey; that on 
the botany of the region by Mr F. V. Coville, of the U. S. Department of Agriculture. 
Returning, the party will reach Washington by 6 P. M. 



THE ANNUAL FIELD MEETING 

of the National GjsogkaphIC Society has been arranged so that the members of the 
Society may have an opportunity to ohserve the total eclipse of the sun which takes 
place on Monday, May 28. As the center of the belt of totality will pass near 
Norfolk, Virginia, the board of managers of the Society have made a conditional contract 
with the Norfolk & Washington Steamboat Company for an excursion to that city and 
vicinity. The party will leave Washington by the Norfolk & Washington steamer at 
7o'clock P. M., Sunday, May 27. Returning, leave Norfolk at 6 o'clock Monday afternoon, 
reaching Washington on Tuesday morning in time for breakfast at home. 

The total duration of the eclipse will be 2 hours, 34 minutes, and 6 seconds, of which 
1 minute and 26 seconds will be total. The eclipse will be entirely over at 10:15.6 A. M., 
and from that hour until 6 o'clock the steamer will be at the disposal of the party for a 
cruise around the harbor and visits to the many points of interest around Norfolk, such 
as the Navy Yard, Portsmouth, Newport News, Fortress Monroe, the Indian Industrial 
School at Hampton, etc. 

The cost of the round-trip ticket (including transportation and three meals on boat 
Monday, but not including sleeping accommodations) will be $6. The charge for state- 
rooms, accommodating two persons, will be from $1 to $3 for each person, according to 
location. The larger staterooms can be made to accommodate 3 persons by placing a cot 
therein. A charge of fifty cents will be made in such cases. Cots in the main saloon 
will be charged for at the rate of fifty cents. These rates are for the round trip. 

The number of tickets to be sold is limited to 250, and as there are only 90 state- 
rooms, accommodating 180 persons, on the boat, they will he allotted to members in 
order of their application. Members who desire staterooms or cots should make their 
reservations as early as possible. A guarantee deposit of $2 on each ticket will he re- 
quired when the rooms, arc reserved. 

A diagram of the steamer showing the location and prices of rooms will he found at 
the Offices of the Society, Rooms 107=108, Corcoran Building, Washington, D. C, 



HENRY ROMEIKE'S BUREAU OF PRESS CUTTINGS, 

no Fifth Avenue, New York, 

Reads every paper of importance published in the United states, and through its 
European agencies in London. Paris, Berlin, and Vienna every paper of importance 
published in Europe and the British Colonies. One subscription on an\ given Bub 

ject will bring notices from the United States, and if desired also from the European 
papers. Write fur terms. 



NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



$h- SOUTHERN RAILWAY 

^ GREATEST SOUTHERN SYSTEM. 

TO ALL POINTS SOUTH, SOUTHEAST, AND SOUTHWEST. 

Through Pullman Drawing Jioom Sleeping; Cars from New 
York and Washing-ton to New Orleans, Memphis, Port 
Tampa, Jacksonville, Augusta, ami Intermediate Points — 
First-Class I>ay Coaches— Dining Car Service. 

Fast Trains for the SOUTH leave "Washington Daily at 11.15 A. M., 6.35 
P. M., 9.50 P. M., and 10.45 P. M. 

Through Tourist car on the 10.45 P. M. Train every Monday, Wednesday, 
and Friday for Texas, Arizona, and California points, without change. 

Direct line to the Summer Resorts in Virginia and the Carolinas and the 
"Winter Resorts of Florida, Gulf Coast, Texas, Mexico, and California. 

Direct Through Car Line to and from Asheville, Hot Springs, and other 
Western North Carolina points— " THE LAND OF THE SKY." 

The ■' New York and Florida Limited." the finest train in the world, leaves 
"Washington at 6.35 P. M. daily except Sunday. Solid train to Florida. Dining 
Car Service. 

For Map Folders, "Winter Homes Guide Book, and Book on "ASHEVILLE 
AND THEREABOUTS" write to— 

A. S. THWEATT, Eastern Passenger Agent, 271 Broadway, New York, N. Y. 
J. C. HORTON, Passenger Agent, 201 E. Baltimore Street, Baltimore, Md. 
L. S. BROWN. General Agent, 705 Filteenth St. N. W., Washington, D. C. 
W. H. DOLL, Passenger Agent, Norfolk, Va. 

S. H. HARDWICK, Assistant General Passenger Agent, Atlanta, Ga. 

C. A. BHNSCOTER, Assistant General Passenger Agent, Chattanooga, Tenn. 

W. H. TAYLOE, Assistant General Passenger Agent, Louisville, Ky. 

J. M. CULP, Traffic Manager. W. A. TURK, General Passenger Agent, 

Washington. 1). C. 

The Mutual Life Insurance Co. 

OF NEW YORK, 

RICHARD A. McCURDY, President, 

Is the Largest Insurance Company in the World. 



($918,000,000) 

($235,000,000) 

($9,000,000) 

($136,000,000) 



The Records of the Insurance Department of the State of New 
York SHOW THAT The Mutual Life 

Has a Larger Premium Income - - ($39,000,000) 

More Insurance in Force - 

A Greater Amount of Assets ... 

A Larger Annual Interest Income - 

Writes More New Business - 

And Pays More to Policy-holders - - ($25,000,000 in 1896) 

THAN ANY OTHER COMPANY. 

It has paid to Policy-holders since I . _ $437,005,195.29 
its organization, in 1843, j fwi ( www^th« 

ROBERT A. GRANNISS, Vice-President. 
WALTER R. GILLETTE, General Manager. FREDERIC CROMWELL, Treasurer. 

ISAAC F. LLOYD, Second Vice-President. EMORY McCLINTOCK, Actuary. 

WILLIAM I. EASTON, Secretary. 



Please mention this Magazine when writing to advertisers. 



BACK NUMBERS OF THE 

National Geographic Magazine 

The National Geographic Magazine has a few unbound volumes for 
the years 1896, 1897, and 1898. Each volume contains numerous maps and 
illustrations and much valuable geographic matter. It is impossible to give 
the contents of each volume, but the following subjects show their wide 
range and scope : 

Vol. VII, 1896: Russia in Europe, by the late Hon. Gardiner G. Hubbard; 
The Scope and Value of Arctic Exploration, by Gen. A. W. Greely, U.S.A. ; Venezuela, 
Her Government, People, and Boundary, by William E. Curtis; The So-called 
Jeanette Relics, by Wm. H. Dall ; Nansen's Polar Expedition, by Gen. A. W. Greely, 
U.S.A.; The Submarine Cables of the World (with chart 49x30 inches); Seriland, 
by W J McGee and Willard D. Johnson; The Discovery of Glacier Bay, Alaska, by 
E. R. Scidmore; Hydrography in the United States, by F. H. Newell; Africa since 
1888, by the late Hon. Gardiner G. Hubbard ; The Seine, The Meuse, and The Moselle, 
by Prof. Wm. M. Davis; The Work of the U.S. Board on Geographic Names, by Heniy 
Gannett; A Journey in Ecuador, by W. B. Kerr; Geographic History of the Piedmont 
Plateau, by W J McGee; The Recent Earthquake Wave on the Coast of Japan, by E. R. 
Scidmore; California, by Senator Geo. C. Perkins; The Witwatersrand and the Revolt 
of the Uitlanders, by George F. Becker; The Sage Plains of Oregon, by F. V. Coville. 

Vol. VI H, 1897: The Gold Coast, Ashanti and Kumassi, by Geo. K. French ; 
Crater Lake, Oregon, by J. S. Diller ; Storms and Weather Forecasts, by Willis L. Moore ; 
Rubber Forests of Nicaragua and Sierra Leone, by Gen. A. W. Greely, U.S.A. ; A Sum- 
mer Voyage to the Arctic, by G. R. Putnam; A Winter Voyage through the Straits of 
Magellan, by the late Admiral R. W. Meade, U.S.N. ; Costa Rica, by Senor Ricardo 
Villafranca; The National Forest Reserve, by F. H. Newell; The Forests and Deserts of 
Arizona, by B. E. Fernow ; Modification of the Great Lakes by Earth Movement, by G. K. 
Gilbert; The Enchanted Mesa, by F. W. Hodge; Patagonia, by J. B. Hatcher; The 
Washington Aqueduct and Cabin John Bridge, by Capt. D. D. Gaillard, U.S.A. 

Vol. IX, 1898: Three Weeks in Hubbard Bay, West Greenland, by Robert 
Stein; The Modern Mississippi Problem, by W J McGee; Dwellings of the Saga-Time 
in Iceland, Greenland, and Vineland, by Cornelia Horsford ; Articles on Alaska, by Gen. 
A. W. Greely, U.S.A., Hamlin Garland, E. R. Scidmore, Prof. Wm. H. Dall, and others ; 
on Cuba, by Robert T. Hill, Frank M. Chapman, John Hyde, and Henry Gannett; on 
the Philippines, by Dean C. Worcester, Col. F. F. Hilder, John Hyde, and Charles E. 
Howe; American Geographic Education, by W J McGee; Origin of the Physical 
Features of the United States, by G. K. Gilbert; Geographic Work of the General 
Government, by Henry Gannett ; Papagueria, by W J McGee; The Bitter Root Forest 
Reserve, by R. U. Goode ; Lake Chelan, by Henry Gannett ; The Geospheres, by W J 
McGee; Sumatra's West Coast, by D. G. Fairchild; The Five Civilized Tribes in the 
Survey of Indian Territory, by C. II. Fitch ; Cloud Scenery of the High Plains, by 
Willard D. Johnson; Atlantic Coast Tides, by M. S. W. Jefferson. 



Each volume may be had for $2.00. To obtain any of the 
above mentioned articles, send 25 cents in stamps, indicating 
merely the title of the article desired. 



107-108 Corcoran Building, Washington, D. C. 



CHART OF THE WORLD 

48x30 INCHES 

Showing all Submarine Cables and the principal 
Connecting Land Lines, and also Coaling, 
Docking, and Repairing Stations. 

No. 3, Vol. 7. By Mail for 25 Cents. 



THE PHILIPPINES 

The Economic Condition of the Philippines. By 
Max L. Tornow, of Berlin and Manila. 

Manila and the Philippines. By Major Von Son- 
ne?iberg, of the Imperial German Army, late 
military attache at Manila. 
No. 2, Vol. 10. By Mail for 25 Cents. 

The Philippine Islands (with maps). By F. F. Hilder. 
Notes on Some Primitive Philippine Tribes. By 
Dean C. Worcester. 

Commerce of the Philippine Islands. By the Editor. 
No. 6, Vol. 9: By Mail for 25 Cents. 



THE REDWOOD FOREST 

The Redwood Forest ok the Pacific Coast. By 
Henry Gannett. In this article Mr. Gannett 
shows the geographic distribution, the average 
annual cut, and the estimated duration of the 
supply of redwood. 

Is Climatic Aridity Impending on the Pacific Coast? 
Th e Testimon v of th e Forest. By J. B. Leiberg. 
No. 5, Vol. 10 By Mail for 25 Cents. 



THE TRANSVAAL 

The Witwatersrand and the Revolt of the Uit- 
landers (1895-6.) By George F. Becker. 
No. 11, Vol. 7. By Mail for 25 Cents. 

NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE, Corcoran Bldg., Washington, D. C. 



JUDD & DETWEILER, PRINTERS, WASHIINGTON, D. C. 



Vol. XI MAY, 1900 No. 5 



THE 

NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC 



MAGAZINE 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

STREET SCENE IN JOHANNESBURG— Frontispiece. 

THE GROWTH OF RUSSIA 

With maps EDWIN A. GROS VENOR 169 

INFLUENCE OF GEOGRAPHICAL CONDITIONS ON MILITARY OPER- 
ATIONS IN SOUTH AFRICA 

With map MAJOR W. A. SIMPSON, U. S. A. 186 

APPERCEPTION IN GEOGRAPHY M. E. KELTON 192 

ICE CLIFFS ON WHITE RIVER, YUKON TERRITORY 

C. WILLARD HAYES AND ALFRED H. BROOKS 199 

A GERMAN ROUTE TO INDIA 

With map GILBERT H. GROSVENOR 203 

THE CUBAN CENSUS 205 

FRANK HAMILTON CUSHING 206 

GEOGRAPHIC LITERATURE 206 

GEOGRAPHIC MISCELLANEA 208 



WASHINGTON 

PUBLISHED BY THE NATION A I, OLOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 

Fur Sale at Bbentano'b: 

31 Union Square, N»W Yore; L015 Pennsylvania Avenue, Washington; 

218 Waijasii Avenue, Chicago; :>7 Avenue de l'Opera, Paris 

Price 25 Cents $2.50 a Year 



THE 



National Geographic Magazine 

AN ILLUSTRATED MONTHLY 



Editor: JOHN HYDE, 
Statistician of the U. S. Department of Agriculture 

Associate Editors 

General A. W. Greely, Marcus Baker, 

Chief Signal Officer, U. S. Army U. S. Geological Survey 

W J McGek, Willis L. Moore, 

Ethnologist in Charge, Bureau of Chief of the Weather Bureau, U. S. 

American Ethnology Department of Agriculture 

Henry Gannett, H. S. Pritchett, 

Chief Geographer, U. S. Geological Superintendent of the (J. S. Coast 

Survey and Geodetic Survey 

C. Hart Merkiam, O. P. Austin, 

Chief of the Biological Survey, U. S. Chief of the Bureau of Statistics, 

Department of Agriculture U.S. Treasury Department 

David J. IIn.i., Charles H. Allen, 

Assistant Secretary of State Governor of Porto Rico 

Eliza Ruhamah Scidmore, Carl Louise Garrison, 

Author of " Java, the Garden of Principal of Phelps School, Wash- 

the East," etc. ington, D. C. 



Assistant Editor: GILBERT H. GROSVENOR, Washington, D. C. 



The list of contributors to the National Geographic Magazine 
includes nearly every United States citizen whose name has become iden- 
tified with Arctic exploration, the Bering Sea controversy, the Alaska and 
Venezuela boundary disputes, or the new commercial and political questions 
arising from the acquisition of the Philippines. 

The following articles will appear in the Magazine within the next few 
months : 

"The Road to Bolivia," by Hon. Wm. E. Curtis. 

"The Growth of Germany," by Professor J. L. Ewell of Howard University. 

"The Annexation of the West," by F. H. Newell, Hydrographer, U. S. Geological 
Survey. 

"The Growth of England," by Dr Edwin D. Mead, Editor of the New England 
Magazine. 

"The Colonial Expansion of France," by Professor Jean C. Bracq of Vassar College, 
Poughkeepsie, New York. 

"The Native Tribes of Patagonia," by Mr J. B. Hatcher of the Carnegie Museum, 
Pittsburg, Pennsylvania. 

"Explorations on the Yangtse-Kiang, China," by Mr Wm. Barclay Parsons, C. E., 
surveyor of the railway route through the Yangtse-Kiang Valley. 

Entered at the Post-office in Washington, D. C, as Second-class Mail Matter. 



THK 



NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 

Vol. XI MAY, 1900 No. 



THE GROWTH OF RUSSIA 

By Edwin A. Grosvenor, 

Professor of Modern Governments and their Administration in Amherst Co 

Russia in history and character is the product of geographic en- 
vironment. Nowhere, not even in Greece or Spain, have physical 
causes been more powerful in determining the political and religious 
ideas of a people and in shaping that people's destiny. Slow work- 
ing through the space of over a thousand years, those causes have 
evolved the Russian as he is and created the Russian Empire as we 
behold it today. 

Of all European countries Russia is the farthest away. It is sep- 
arate from us not only by leagues of territorial distance, but by the 
more repellent distance of language and race. The theory of govern- 
ment which it has developed is the direct opposite of our own. The 
Christianity to which it clings with unsurpassed devotion is neither 
Protestant nor Catholic. Its Eastern orthodoxy is a wall of separa- 
tion from rather than a bond of union to the West. Russia stands 
in immense isolation apart from all the rest of the European continent, 
and yet its most commanding and stateliest figure. 

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS 

Physical geography by an irregular north and south line divides 
Europe into two nearly equal but most dissimilar portions. In the 
western portion ia seen every possible diversity of outline and surface. 
Enormous peninsulas thrust out from it into the sea and enormous 
gulfs and bays project themselves into tbe land. The limitless variety 
of the mountains, rivers, islands, and plains is mirrored in the limit- 
less variety of the human groups which dwell upon them. 

13 



170 THE GROWTH OF RUSSIA 

To all this eastern Europe presents a marvelous contrast. What- 
ever western Europe is. that eastern Europe is not. A prodigious 
plain, more than two thousand miles in length and almost a thou- 
sand miles in breadth, stretches southward from the flat shores of 
the Arctic Ocean. Hemming it in as boundaries and marking its 
extent are, on the northwest, the Valdai Hills and the granite cliffs 
of Finland; on the southwest, the Carpathians; on the south, the 
lofty spurs of the Crimea and of the Caucasus; on the east, the Ural 
Mountains. Thus outlined in immensity between its mountain limits 
is an area of almost two million square miles. Tins area is uniform 
and monotonous. Except at the extreme west, south, and east, no- 
where does the surface of the ground attain an elevation of 1.000 
feet. Not a single range of lofty hills, not a single lonely peak breaks 
the universal sameness. The rivers, tortuous and creeping, seem 
doubtful in which direction to find their channels. The Volga 
through it- 2,400 miles of wandering has an average fall of only four 
inches to the mile. The geologic strata are horizontal. Rarely does 
a boulder or rock emerge above the surface of the ground. Even the 
wir/ds an- seldom fitful. Either they blow with icy coldness in un- 
hindered sweep from the Arctic Ocean or come with the hot breath 
of the sands from the south and the deserts of Turkestan. 

Degrees of latitude do not affect the essential territorial unity; 
neither do the four so-called agricultural /.one- winch, rudely par- 
allel to each other, occupy the entire area. B.y far the vastest is the 
forest zone or forest region, with an extent of 1,400,000 square miles. 
League after league, it stretches northward — omber, awful, infinite — 
broken here and there by wide, open tracts, and yet seemingly con- 
tinuous until it ends amid polar marshes which never thaw. It is 
hounded on the south hy the /.one of black earth. Without artificial 
stimulant, there the exhaustless soil yields harvests as abundant as in 
the days when half of Europe was dependent upon it for food. It 
covers an area equal to the combined territory of Ohio, Indiana. Illi- 
nois, Michigan, and Wisconsin, and is prolonged beyond the Ural and 
Caucasus into western Asia. Next comes the region of the steppe, 
where ;i forest or a tree is rare, but where the tall grass and reeds 
shoot up often seven or eight feet high. All of this territory is capa- 
ble of cultivation. It equals in extent Kentucky, Tennessee. Mis- 
souri, Arkansas, and Mississippi combined. Last of all are the in- 
d< scribable, shapeless tracts along the southern mouths of the rivers. 
These form the so-called barren steppe, which no industry or art of 



THE GR WTH OF 11 USSIA 1 7 1 

man can reclaim. Though resembling in no other respect those splen- 
did States of the American Union — Georgia, Alabama, and Florida — 
it almost exactly coincides with them in area. The general aspect of 
this steppe is Asiatic rather than European. 

No natural divisions anywhere intersect these zones to allow the 
erection of jarring local interests into separate states. The difference 
between them is in agricultural capability. They bear no other land- 
marks than the funeral mounds of a bygone age, which, laboriously 
constructed, dot their face. Over illimitable forest and illimitable 
steppe hovers a uniformity as limitless as the limitless variety of 
western Europe. In the upheaval and turmoil which preceded and 
followed the fall of the Roman empire, barbarian hosts of various 
lineage chased each other all over that prodigious plain which we call 
Russia today. Its predominant physical features were then the same 
as now. But upon the tumultuous, receding masses of humanity they 
produced impressions no more permanent than did the clouds. In 
time the tribal movements diminished and almost ceased. Most of 
the tribes that outlived disease and carnage settled in fixed habita- 
tions. The boundaries of their nascent states were vague and shift- 
ing, but they now possessed a recognized center from which to act 
and around which to grow. 

THE SLAVS, THE FINKS, AND THE TARTARS 

Thus in the western portion of the plain a large body of Slavs 
established their definite home. Of Indo-European or Aryan stock, 
they were the distant kinsmen of the Teutons, the Celts, and Greco- 
Latins, who had parceled out among themselves the central, western, 
and southern portions of Europe. By far the larger part of the plain 
remained under the control of various Turanian or Tartar-Mongolian 
tribes. They may be included under the general names of Tartars 
and Finns. The Finns held all the sparsely inhabited country be- 
tween the Baltic Sea, the Arctic Ocean, and the Urals. South of 
them, as far as the shores of the Black Sea, were found mixed tribes 
of Finns and Tartars. Northwest and north of the Caspian Sea were 
Tartars anil Turks. Finns and Tartars were descended from a com- 
mon original stock and were kindred t<> the ancestors of the Magyars 
or Hungarians and of the Ottoman Turks. The word Russian or 
Russia \\;i- then unknown. But nil the history since of an empire — 
expanding like the tree of Holy Writ, which overspread the earth — 



172 



THE GROWTH OF RUSSIA 




iJo/>s> B TorberC 



is but the later history of those Slavic bands, planted in the plain and 
confronted throughout its larger part by the children of the East. 



THE BEGINNINGS OF NATIONAL EXISTENCE 

History has no drearier, more depressing page than that wherein 
is written the story of Russia from the tenth to the fifteenth century. 
Disastrous as were the intermittent foreign wars, still more destruc- 
tive was the internecine strife in which cities and districts and prin- 
cipalities constantly engaged. 



THE GROWTH OF RUSSIA 173 

None the less we who look hack to those times along the unrolled 
panorama of a thousand years can trace the energizing, mighty forces 
which even then were shaping the Slavic nature and the Slavic Em- 
pire like' plastic clay. A nation is never horn except in anguish. 
The pioneer period of national existence ma)' ahvays be traced, like 
the march of Washington's arm}' through the snows of New ■Terse)'', by 
the stains left from bleeding feet. Amidst dissension and fratricidal 
strife the sense of possible national life was quickening and the goal 
of national existence was being slowly approached. It was much 
that the strength of the Finns had been broken ; that more than one 
attack from Lithuanians had been repressed ; that on the banks of 
the Neva Alexander Nevski had won over the Swedes a decisive vic- 
tory, which the Russian church commemorates with hymns and 
thanksgiving annually to this day. 

Of momentous consequence was the fact that their newly embraced 
Christianity had come from Constantinople and not from Rome. 
The other leaders of the Slavic race, the Bohemians and the Poles, 
had been converted by apostles whose spiritual head was the Pontiff 
upon the Tiber. The Russian church had found its -father in the 
Patriarch upon the Bosphorus, and its brethren in the adherents of 
the Eastern Orthodox faith. In coming years, when religion and 
politics Ave re to be strangely blended, Russia, because of that early 
and unbroken bond, Avould be of necessity the sympathetic champion 
of her coreligionists throughout the East. 

But it Avas most of all under the bloAvs of the Mongol invasions 
that Russia found her need of union and Avas hammered into shape. 
Against the resistless might of ovenvhelming numbers, the courage 
and desperate resistance of the SlaA'S were of no avail. During tAvo 
hundred and thirty-seven years Mongol conquerors racked the land 
with their merciless rule. One-half of the country was occupied by 
their hordes. A portion of the other half was left to the inhabitants, 
who paid heavy tribute and who, princes and people, acknowledged 
themselves the humble vassals of the Khan. Poland, favored by the 
Mongol conquerors, seized the southwestern portion of the plain. 
Thus Poland was enabled to span Europe from the Baltic to the 
Black Sea; but her gains were destined to hear bitter fruit. Born 
from it was that traditional Russian hatred for Poland and all things 
Polish which future wars were to perpetuate, but could not intensify. 

Yet, crushed and mangled, the nation was taking definite form. 

In the twelfth century a prince, pursuing a defeated rival, had halted 



174 THE GROWTH OF RUSSIA 

on a pretty elevation which overlooked the River Moskva. The spot 
pleased his eve. He built there a church and village. Both long 
remained in almost forgotten obscurity. But the later chroniclers 
embellish that foundation with as many romantic legends as the 
Roman writers throw around the building of Rome. The church has 
since become the Kremlin, unequaled and gorgeous combination of 
monastery, cathedral, palace, fortress, and imperial mausoleum. The 
village, taking its name from the river, grew into the metropolis and 
capital which the Russian peasants with mingled veneration and truth 
call the " Holy Mother Moscow." 

It would he a congenial task to trace how waves of resistance to the 
Mongols, of conquest over hostile and rival towns, and of widening 
political influence radiated from this center. It was shown, as M. 
Rambaud eloquently says, that "the Slavic soul had been confined, 
not depraved or enslaved, by the Tartar terror, and was only biding 
its time." Shrewdness, suppleness, and heroism were reasonably com- 
bined in the princes of Moscow. Dimitri of Moscow, by a victory 
over the Mongols upon the Don. proved that the dreaded foreign 
oppressors were not invincible. Though the Mongol yoke was shortly 
riveted again, none the less the eyes of the people grew accustomed to 
looking upon Moscow as their future deliverer. At last it was from 
Moscow that their deliverance proceeded. On the lips of foreigners 
Muscovy and Muscovite became the term to denote the entire country 
and its inhabitants. Even today an Ottoman Turk always speaks of 
a Russian as a Moscow 

Meanwhile Constantinople and the Byzantine Empire had fallen 
before the mace of Sultan Mohammed II, the conqueror. The heiress 
to the shattered empire was the Princess Sophia. When, in 1472, she 
wedded Ivan III, Grand Duke of Moscow, she brought to him as her 
imperial dowry her claim to the Byzantine throne. Her husband 
assumed the title of Czar and adopted as his coat of arms the double- 
headed eagle of Constantinople. Wherever the Russian escutcheon 
is now displayed, enwrapped in the ermine and surmounted by the 
jeweled crown, it is a reminder not only of that historic marriage, but 
of the definite hope and aspiration of the czars. 

In 1598 the Czar Feodor died, and with him the royal house of 
Russia became extinct. The heir to the throne, the boy Dimitri. 
had live years before preceded him to the tomb. A crowd of im- 
postors arose, each claiming to be the dead prince. Each pretender 
drew after him a host of armed partisans, and Russia was given over 



THE GROWTH OF RUSSIA 



175 



1 Muscovy in 1303 

2 Muscovy in 1389 

3 Muscovy in 16-45 



— Western Boundary 
of Empire in 1645 




GROWTH nl RUSSIA l\ EUROPE FROM 1303 TO L645 



to anarchy and civil war. The Swedes invaded the country from 
the north ; the Poles seized the south, captured Moscow, and placed 
a garrison in the Kremlin. The state, so many years in painful 
building, seemed already become the permanent spoil of its hered- 



] 7G Til E GROW Til T R I 'SSL I 

itary foes. Then with one spontaneous outburst Russian nationality 
awoke to life. Priest, noble, tradesman, peasant rose as a single 
man. From every direction in impetuous companies the} 7 pressed 
toward Moscow. The leaders of the movement were the butcher 
Minine and the Prince Pojarski. They swept the foreign garrisons 
and the foreign armies from their path like chaff. The Russian 
people had rescued Russia. 

Then from all over the country delegates were chosen to meet in 
solemn conclave at Moscow and elect :i c/.ar. In no part of Europe 
had a great popular assembly, equally representative of all interests 
and classes, ever met to select a nation's ruler. The contentions were 
long ;ind fierce. At last the delegates agreed in the unanimous choice 

of Michael R anoff. No other dynasty reigning in Europe today 

owes its original existence to the choice of the people in equal degree 
with the Russian imperial house. 

PETER THE GREAT 

It is not my purpose to narrate Russian history except wherein 
that history is synonymous with growth. 1 wish to contemplate that 
word growth in its largest and most comprehensive sense, including 
thereby creation and development of national character no less than 
increase of national territory. In fact, the former is the more im- 
portant, is the essential element of the two. The concentric accre- 
tions in expanse of area under the Grand Dukes of Moscow and the 
czars were but the consequence of that character, painfully elaborated 
by geographic environment and time. 

Peter, whom the world rightly honors as the Great, came to the 
throne in 1689. Thus far the Russian Slavs had (ought and suffered 
and grown strong in almost Oriental seclusion. It was Peter who first 
compelled them to learn the crafts, study the institutions, and benefit 
by the manners and appliances of the West. The diplomacy begun 
by Ivan the Terrible he carried farther, and forced Russia into un- 
welcome and un welcomed fellowship with the European states. His 
ambitions and achievements are too familiar to repeat. His para- 
mount interest to us consists in this, that he was, more than any other 
Russian ruler had ever been, the incarnate spirit of his people. He, 
indeed, stood on a higher plane and looked out with a larger vision 
than had any other Slav before him. Yet in the bedrock of his char- 
acter he was preeminently a Slav. His two chief natural endowments 
were a patience that never failed and a persistence that knew no de- 



THE GROWTH OF RUSSIA 177 

feat. No other people have possessed or now possess these qualities 
equally with the Russian Slav. Herein was the difference between 
Peter and Charles XII of Sweden. Charles XII was only an episode 
in a drama. Peter was a colossus that could not be shaken and re- 
mained. Before he was born the Russian people had been fashioned 
into an efficient weapon ready to his hand. The dormant spirit of a 
mighty nation had revealed itself in him. On the decisive field of 
Pultowa, Sweden received a blow from which she has never recovered. 
St Petersburg, built among the marshes and the forests of the Neva, 
is the majestic monument of that victory and of his reign. To it the 
discouraged but venerated Moscow yielded its proud rank as capital. 
With its erection Russia consecrated the spot where her foot first 
touched the shores of a western sea. 

TERRITORIAL EXPANSION SINCE 1725 

The territorial expansion from the death of the Great Czar until the 
present 3 r ear can be shown more clearly by the map than by any de- 
scription in words. The whole added territory on the west and south 
constitutes a sort of territorial fringe, with an average width of over 
200 miles. It extends from the Arctic to the Black Sea, and thence 
strikes southeastward till it reaches the Caspian. 

In her extension east Russia pressed on toward the Pacific Ocean, 
completing the acquisition of Siberia,. Whatever claims China pos- 
sessed to the left bank of the 'Amur and the right bank of the Usuri 
were peacefully ceded by her to Russia in I860. Port Arthur, on the 
Gulf of Petchili and Talien Wan. were just as peacefully ceded b} r the 
same power in 1897 for a nominal term of twenty-five years. 

Such territorial extension not only amazes but appals. It does not 
so impress by its vastness as by its continuance. Ever since Russia, 
according to the Slavic saying, " found herself," this process has been 
going on. Were it in consequence of a temporary popular spasm, or 
of the exceptional tendency of a single reign, the considerations it 
opens up would be less momentous. 

A COMPARISON OF THE ACQUISITIONS OF TERRITORY BY GREAT BRITAIN 

AND RUSSIA 

It is true that the acquisitions of territory by Great Britain during 
the last century have been on an even more stupendous scale. Since 
1870 G real Britain has annexed to her empire 2,854,170 square miles 
of territory and 125,00f>,000 human beings. Yet, though < dent Britain 



178 



THE GROWTH OF RUSSIA 



in less than a generation has added to herself an area larger by 800,000 
square miles than Russia in Europe, and a population almost as great 
as that of the entire Russian empire, her annexations do not equally 
disturb the political equilibrium of the world. Though politically 
connected with her and dependent upon her, they do not feel them- 
selves an integral part of her. The East Indian, the Cypriote, the 




hn B Torbert 



THE GROWTH OF RUSSIA 179 

Egyptian never can be a Briton or an Englishman. Except so far as 
the inhabitants of annexed territory are natives of Britain or descend- 
ants of British stock, they increase her danger rather than contribute 
to her strength. The French of Canada, who have been subject to 
the British scepter one hundred and forty years, may be cited as an 
exception to this statement. Though carrying law and order with 
him, the Englishman does not possess and almost despises the faculty 
of assimilating a conquered people and identifying them with him- 
self. From them he dare recruit but a small number for his armies, 
and only with the most solicitous precaution. That small number 
he must keep in positions of safe inferiority. 

Russia, unlike Great Britain, makes no acquisitions which do not 
border on her own soil. Only such territory as is adjacent or will 
speedily become adjacent does she annex. To the United States she 
willingly disposes of Alaska, which the accident of discovery had 
placed under her flag. To Japan she cedes the Kurile Islands for 
land nearer home. But territory once hers is completely incorporated 
in her empire for weal or woe. Once within the iron grip of her iron 
hand, there is no escape for Tartar or Cossack or Kalmuck or Pole or 
Finn from ultimate identification Avith the Russian. From the con- 
quered she forms battalions and regiments and brigades, and stimu- 
lates their fidelity and fires their ambition with important commands. 
Whole army corps she entrusts in time of war to the Armenians Meli- 
koff and Der Hougassoff and to Alikhanoff, the Turkoman. Beneath 
her sway there is a uniformity of service and subjection like the uni- 
formity of the plain that has reflected itself in Russian nature. For 
years the acquiescence may be forced, but one generation passes 
away and another comes that is profoundly Russian except in remote 
ancestry. 

Moreover, there is a marvelous assimilating faculty in the Slav. 
The Greco- Latin never possessed it, nor does the Celt or the Teuton 
now. In preeminent degree is the Slav endowed with the genius 
of emigration and colonization. There is a rough picture, frequently 
seen, of the Russian emigrant. His axe fastened to his belt, his boots 
with prudent economy hanging from his shoulders by a, cord, his 
fingers bent in the sign of the cross, his face Looking straight before 
him, he stolidly steps on to the beyond. Herein is the significance 
of each Russian annexation. It augments the strength which has 
produced it. 

There is another essential difference to be noted in the relations of 



1 80 THE G R WTII F R USSIA 

Russia's dependencies and those of Great Britain with other nations. 
I mention Great Britain because out of all the powers of the eastern 
hemisphere she alone in magnitude and strength can be weighed in 
the same scale with Russia. Russia's gains touch the borders or affect 
the direct interests of few European states. She may arouse their 
jealousy or fear, because she casts so stupendous a shadow upon the 
world-map, but she seldom comes into perplexing or irritating con- 
nection with them. She is not near at hand to excite their suspicion, 
endanger their welfare, or humiliate their pride. Wherever there is a 
British possession it must impinge upon or wound the susceptibilities 
of somebody else. Hence arises an infinity of possible complications 
and troubles which* only long-suffering tact and sorely strained com- 
promise can adjust. But Russia's fingers touch neither North nor 
South America, Africa nor Oceanica — that is. throughout one of the 
hemispheres and by far the largest portion of the other nowhere does 
her tread threaten to trample on another's feet. 

Russia's inaccessibility by sea 

In nothing is the contrast greater between eastern and western 
Europe than in their accessibility by sea. Russian territory com- 
prises about eleven-twentieths of Europe, and the non-Russian terri- 
tory, shared by nineteen states, the remaining nine-twentieths. The 
nine-twentieths have a coast line of over 15,000 miles. The eleven- 
twentieths have a coast line of less than 5,000 miles, 2,400 miles of 
which extend along the inhospitable and frozen shores of the Arctic 
Ocean and White Sea. The remaining 2,600 miles nowhere touch 
the ocean or any of its immediate waters. They border only on three 
inland, almost land-locked seas— the Baltic, the Black Sea, and the 
Caspian. The White Sea and the Arctic Ocean are navigable only 
from .June to September, about four months each year. The eastern 
Baltic is commonly shut to navigation from the end of November to 
April. The Caspian is an Asiatic lake, connecting with no other 
water. The Black Sea is shut in by European diplomacy to the 
navies of Russia. Not a fishing smack can descend the Bosphorus 
without the special permit of the government of the Sultan. 

The rest of the European world looks out upon — accessible at its 
door — the chief maritime highways of mankind, the North Sea, the 
Atlantic Ocean, and the Mediterranean. Russia, with her swelling 
population, her tremendous area, and her enormous products, does 
not touch upon those highways at any point. What the Mississippi 



THE GR WTH OF R USSIA 1 s l 

basin was to the adventurous pioneers be3 r ond the Alleghanies, what 
it now is to all the opulence and enterprise of the imperial center of 
our nation, that nature designed from all eternity the current of the 
Bosphorus should be to the inhabitants of that northern plain. For 
that natural outlet the Russian nation waits with the assurance of 
the patient and strong. 

THE INFLUENCE OF RUSSTA AS THE HEAD OF THE ORTHODOX CHURCH 

The foreigner can hardly appreciate the peculiar influence accru- 
ing to Russia in Eastern Europe from the relations which she sustains 
as the political head of the eastern Orthodox Church. During the 
"Age of Woe " she was herself the victim of Mussulman Mongols. 
What she suffered then is still handed down by countless traditions 
and is burned into the national memory. Western Europe, even in 
Spain, has never experienced such horror and terror at the hands of 
Islam. Hated as oppressors, the Mongols were abhorred as infidels. 
When at last the Russian broke his chains his thanksgiving was for 
a double victory. Orthodox Christianity had triumphed over Islam 
and the natives of the soil had triumphed over the invader. Russia 
stood forth as the victorious champion of her faith. Under the Otto- 
man Turk, in a later and less barbarous age, she saw repeated among 
her coreligionists something of that treatment she had herself ex- 
perienced at Mussulman hands. In the East the tie of a common 
faith is strong. To her, as to no other human power, the subject 
Christians of the Balkan Peninsula generation after generation ever 
stretched their supplicating hands. 

On the part of the Russian people rather than of the Russian gov- 
ernment there was always present for the members of their common 
church an intense sympathy, of which state policy might take advan- 
tage, but which it could not wholly check or restrain. The Russian 
peasant calls a war with the Moslem "God's battle." In 1877 the 
sympathies of the common people for Bulgaria forced the govern- 
ment into a war, of which neither the Czar Alexander II nor his 
chancellor, Gortchakoff, approved. There is a burying place in 
Constantinople where more than three hundred Russian soldiers rest 
in a common grave. Taken prisoners, they died in captivity during 
the war of 1828-'29, which Russia waged for the fraedom of Greece. 
The epitaph on tin; white marble describes the manner of their death 
and closes with the verse, "Greater love hath no man than this, that 
he lav down his life for. his friends." To Russia Kouniania. Servia. 



182 THE GROWTH OF RUSSIA 

Montenegro, and Bulgaria owe their quasi-independence. How far 
selfish motives have controlled her action the}' can not tell, but of one 
thing they are sure — it is, that Russia has fought for them, and that 
no other European nation ever expended anything but words in their 
behalf. Despite intrigues from abroad and petty ambitions and jeal- 
ousies at home, the cooperation of the Balkan States is assured to 
Russia. 

Russia's INFLUENCE in asia 

Russia's largerand more recent conquests have been in Asia. Con- 
fronted for centuries by Orientals, both along her borders and upon 
her soil, she understands the Oriental to the core. Among these wild 
and lawless peoples, explosive as gunpowder, the torch of civilization 
can he carried only with a firm and steady hand. Asia has never 
voted except with swords. The sword is the only ballot which the 
continental Asiatic respects or comprehends. In that vast region, 
wherever her rule has gone, it has been equally vigorous and benefi- 
cent. From tin- Bosphorus to China there is an awe of Russia such 
as no other power on earth can inspire. 

THE DESTINY OF RUSSIA 

I '»ut it is not in broadening territorial extent or teeming numbers, 
not in world-wide prestige or disciplined armies, that a nation must 
confide. The throne of Napoleon III was falling months before he 
declared war against Prussia and set out on his journey to Sedan. 
The foundation 8 tone of national existence and national greatness is 
the Bpiril of a people. 

In the peculiar character of her common people is Russia's abiding 
strength. Tenacious, docile, imitative, but not inventive; receptive, 
but not constructive; profoundly religious, as he understands relig- 
ion : submissive to what he considers the will of God and the Czar. 
the Russian has remained unchanged through all these changing 
years. Said Grodzitski in the tower of Kudak when surrounded by 
his foes: "1 am commanded to stay here, I stay; commanded to 
watch. 1 watch: commanded to be defiant, I am defiant; and if it 

< ies to dying, since my mother gave me birth, I shall know how to 

die, too." 

There were only 12,000,000 Russians when Peter, at the beginning 
of the Last century, crushed the might of Sweden at Pultowa. There 
were only 28,000,000 when Catharine II signed the first treaty be- 



THE GROWTH OF RUSSIA 



183 




DIAGRAM SHOWING SlrrF.SSIVF. ADVANCES OF RUSSIA TOWARD INDIA 



tween Russia and the United States. There were only 45,000,000 
when, during the reign of Alexander I, Napoleon the Great began his 
march to Moscow. There were 68,000,000 when, during the Crimean 
war, Nicholas I withstood the combined strength of Sardinia, Turkey, 
Great Britain, and France. There. are 130,000,000 today. According 
to the natural law of increase, there will be 250,000,000 during the life- 
time of many who read these words. Doubtless before that not-far- 
distant period arrives the map of the world will show many changes. 
States now existing will disappear and new states may be born and 
write their names upon the chart. In Russia, indissoluble on her 
plain and virile in her strength, there is no symptom of decay. While 
thrones topple and old names vanish, Russia remains. The perpetuity 
of the American Republic is not more sure. 

Russia has been preparing forathousand years and is still prepar- 
ing for her destiny. The present in all its magnificence of endeavor 



1S4 THE GROWTH OF RUSSIA 

and achievement is but the guarantee of a far grander future. It 
would be a congenial task to linger upon great national enterprises 
begun and fast pushing to completion. Above the quicksands of 
Turkestan and through the wastes of Siberia to the Eastern Ocean 
Russia is constructing her solid iron roads. Over the face of her pro- 
digious European plain she is marking out the paths of the canals on 
which from sea to sea navies will ride. Siberia, the old-time synonym 
of desolation and solitude, is inviting the activity of the colonist, 
whether farmer, miner, or engineer. Korea and the provinces of dor- 
mant or disintegrating China await their share in the world's life from 
the electric impulse of her northern brain. That brain is to nerve 
Asia, long outworn, to a resurrection as from the dead. What the 
warrior monk Elias uttered long ago receives confirmation every pass- 
ing year: "The progress of Russia is mysterious and profound. Be- 
fore she moves she neither betrays her plan nor hesitates nor boasts, 
but none can hinder her arriving where she has set her will." 

Not long ago I received a letter from a Bulgarian friend, a leading 
member of the Sobranie, or Bulgarian Chamber of Deputies. He 
uses these words: "In the near or distant future I see only two 
prominent nations — the United States in the west, and Russia own- 
ing nearly the whole of Asia and exercising a preponderant influence 
over the European continent. The whole of the Balkan peninsula, 
Asia Minor. Persia, Central Asia are her natural and inevitable in- 
heritance. Above Asia and Europe I see the White Czar of Holy 
Russia. Your people need have no concern. The interests of Russia 
and the United States nowhere conflict. Naturally they are friends 
and allies. Together they are to regenerate the world." Thus the 
Bulgarian statesman utters his own conviction and the great political 
credo of the Slav. 

The one necessity ami the chief ally of Russia is time. How far 
the peace manifesto of Nicholas II was prompted by philanthropy or 
by profound but selfish statecraft it is impossible to know. If phi- 
lanthropy, that manifesto remains the noblest and most memorable 
document ever issued by a Christian monarch ; if political sagacity, 
that manifesto is in appreciation of the future the astutest utter- 
ance ever made by the occupant of a Russian throne. But it is unbe- 
coming to question the hidden motives of a deed in itself sublime. 
History will record no more than this : that at the close of a century 
more crowded with bloodshed and war than any other since time 
began, Russia through the voice of her autocratic Czar put forth a plea 
to all mankind in favor of universal brotherhood and peace. 



INFLUENCE OF GEOGRAPHICAL CONDITIONS ON MILI- 
TARY OPERATIONS IN SOUTH AFRICA 

By Major W. A. Simpson, U. S. A., 

Assistant Adjutant General and Chief of the Military Information Division, U. S. 

War Department 

In all military operations the character of the terrain exercises a 
very important influence. All great generals have understood and 
utilized this fact. A knowledge of the geographic character of the 
country is necessary to an understanding of a Campaign. 

The principal watershed of South Africa is the Drakensberg Range. 
It extends generally in a northeasterly and southwesterly direction, 
nearly parallel to the coast line of the Indian ( tcean, and at an aver- 
age distance from it of about 200 miles. Along the Indian Ocean 
there is a belt of low land. Going inland the ground rises in a series 
of irregular terraces, until- the highest altitude is readied in the cresl 
of the Drakensberg, some of whose peaks are over 10,000 feet high. 
The western dope- ofthe Drakensberg are much more gentle than those 
on the eastern side, and the ground falls away gradually into the great 
centra] plateau, of which the South African Republic and the Orange 
Free State form the principal part. In this respect the Drakensberg 
Range is comparable to our Rocky Mountains, the ground rising grad- 
ually going west from the Mississippi Valley, and descending more 
abruptly from the crest to the west. In the southern part of the 
South African Republic runs, east and west, the Witwatersrand. or the 
Rami. a~ it is commonly called. This forms a secondary watershed. 
The rivers to the north How into the Limpopo, which is the northern 
boundary of the South African Republic, while those to the south flow 
into the Vaal. 

Although it has heen stated that the ground rises from the Indian 
Ocean in a 3eries of terraces, it is not intended to convey the idea that 
these terraces are level. The term terrace is used simply to convey 
the idea of a belt of nearly uniform average elevation. As a matter 
ol fact, the country in Natal (this does not emhrace all the territoiy 
east of the mountains, but it is all that it is necessary for us to con- 
sider,! is verv much broken. There are many streams which, rising 



MILITARY OPERA TIONS IN SO UTH AFRICA 1S7 

in the Drakensberg, flow toward the Indian Ocean. As they fall 
thousands of feet in a comparatively short horizontal distance, the}' 
are naturally characterized by many waterfalls and rapids. The 
country is seamed with ravines, which grow narrower and whose sides 
become steeper as the mountains are approached. There are many 
hills, some nearly circular in shape, others in the form of ridges, 
whose sides are generally steep and strewn with boulders. 

In the central plateau, which is lowest near its western border, the 
country general]}' appears level, but hills rise abruptly from the plain, 
with sides in many cases so steep and rough that it is difficult to get 
guns up even when the hills are undefended. 

The rivers, after heavy rains, become swollen, and in the dry 
season have but little water, and at times none at all. They gener- 
ally run through gullies considerably below the level of the banks, 
and this makes them difficult to cross. They are useless for pur- 
poses of navigation and merely serve as obstacles. 

The rain winds come principally from the Indian Ocean, and as 
the Drakensberg cuts off the moisture, it is much drier west of that 
range than east of it. The average yearly rainfall at Durban is over 
39 inches, while at Bloemfontein it is only about 21. The rainy 
season is in the summer, which corresponds in time to our winter. 

The South African Republic and the Orange Free State are very 
sparsely settled, and the principal occupation is cattle-raising. In 
the rain) 7 season grazing is good on the veldt. In the dry season the 
grass dries up and the cattlemen have to move their stock from 
place to place in search of water. The country is generally some- 
what barren, and, except in the southeastern part of the Orange Free 
State, in the country around YVepener, not much attention is given 
to agriculture. 

THE NECESSITY OF RAILWAYS 

South Africa is largely dependent upon railroads for transporta- 
tion. All countries are, of course : but South Africa, on account of 
absence of good roads and navigable streams, is particularly so. 
The present Cape Colony system of railroads is divided into four 
sections — the western, northern, midland, and eastern. The western 
starts at Cape Town and extends to De Aar, 501 miles. At De Aar 
the northern section begins, and extends through Kimherley and 
along the western border of the Orange Free State to Vryburg. At 
the latter place the Rhodesia road begins, running on through 



188 



MILITARY OPERATIONS IN SOUTH AFRICA 






TAELt OF DISTANCES. 




•ascension I. 



S.Pauln ill- Loan 



^<i / FREE STAfE 1/ Va~" , \ / n,„ t 

\ L.Tanganj/ikttT east Ezan-""' 

PORTUGUESE, ' ■.;■* -__. \ 

j west ^-4- '$ vlpT?^ 

.-.africa | v , ~4 l .k r| 



Zanr.il 

Laud Journey- 
Albert Nyanza to 450 

L.Tan^auyika 



Boat— L.Tanjanyika 41") 



Benguel 



•st.helena I. 



'Projected Railway 800 




V.J- — 



GERMAN 
SOUTH t 

Wolfish BayV west [~9echu-na 
FafricaL-. , 



Orange R\ 



THE BRITISH ISLES 
ON THE SAME SCALE 



I*. .rt Mizul.. Ih 



RAILWAYS IN SOI I'll \KRI0A 
By courtesy of Tht En ing Magazine 



Mafeking to its present northern terminus, Bulawayo, 1,360 miles 
from Cape Town. The midland section consists of a line from Port 
Elizabeth (with a short branch from Port Alfred) to Norvals Pont, on 
the Orange River, where it connects with the Orange Free State line 
running north to Bloemfontein, and on through Johannesburg to 
Pretoria. This road runs through the heart of the Boer Republics. 
The eastern section runs from East London to Aliwal North, near 
the Orange River. The western and midland sections are connected 
by a line from De Aar, on the former, to Naauwpoort, on the latter ; 



MILITA R Y OPERA TIONS IN SO UTH A FRIG A 189 

the midland and eastern by a line from Rosmead Junction, on the 
former, to Stormberg Junction, on the latter. The eastern section is 
also connected with the Orange Free State line by a branch running 
from Albert Junction to Springfontein, a short distance from the 
Orange River, in the Orange Free State. It crosses the river at 
Bethulie Bridge. These roads have numerous branches in Cape 
Colon}'-, so that the British are fairly well supplied with railroads 
south of the Orange River, but the Orange Free State line bej'ond 
Springfontein is the only line running north through Boer territory. 
The distance from Cape Town to Bloemfontein is 750 miles, while 
from Port Elizabeth to Bloemfontein it is 300 miles less. 

There is a railroad running from Durban, on the Indian Ocean, in 
a general northwesterly direction. At Ladysmith it branches, one 
branch going northwest from Lad} r smith through the mountains into 
the Orange Free State; the other branch runs north from Lad} r smith 
through the apex from Natal, then turns to the northwest and goes 
to Johannesburg and Pretoria. B3' this line Ladysmith is 180 miles 
from Durban, and Pretoria is 511 miles. 

Still farther to the north a railroad runs from Delagoa Bay in a 
westerly direction to Pretoria. This road runs through Portuguese 
territory, and is the onl}'' means of access to the sea from Boer terri- 
tory. It will thus be seen that one system of roads gives transporta- 
tion from the south to the Boer country, while the other at Durban 
gives it to the northwest. There is no communication between these 
systems, and troops and supplies for Natal must be landed at Durban. 

THE RAILROAD FROM BEIRA 

The permission recentl} T given to England by Portugal to transfer 
troops through Portuguese territory has directed attention to a line 
of which very little is general^ known. This line starts from Beira, 
a port on the Indian Ocean about 850 miles north along the coast from 
Durban, and extends in a general northwesterly direction via Umtali 
to Salisbury. Here the road ends. If the troops sent by this route 
are intended as an expedition for the relief of Mafeking, it will be 
some time before they can reach it, as they will have a march of about 
.'Kid miles over the country to Bulawayo, the present northern terminus 
of the Rhodesian railway. This expedition can hardly have any other 
object, as Salisbury'is about 300 miles north of the northern border 
of the Transvaal and about 600 mile-, north of Pretoria, and no part 

of this distance is covered bv railroads. 



190 MIL1TA R Y OPERA TIONS IN SO UTH A FRICA 

The Boer Republics form an irregular oval. The major axis, nearly 
parallel to the coast line of the Indian Ocean, is about 440 miles, and 
its minor axis, represented by a straight line from Mafeking to the 
apex of Natal, is about 290 miles. The eastern frontier of the South 
African Republic abuts on Portuguese territory. With this excep- 
tion, the Boer Republics are entirely surrounded by British colonies. 

MILITARY OPERATIONS IN NATAL 

The geographical situation of Natal peculiarly favors the Boers. 
The northern part forms almost an equilateral triangle. The north- 
western side is the Orange Free State boundary, the northeastern that 
of the South African Republic. In anticipation of war the various 
Boer commanders had assembled at various convenient points along 
the frontier, and, the morning after their ultimatum expired, made 
their entry in several different columns into British territory. To 
prevent the cutting off of the British forces in northern Natal and to 
effect a concentration at Ladysmith, the British were obliged to at- 
tack the Boers, who. on the offensive strategically, were on the de- 
fensive tactically, with great advantage to themselves. The actions 
of Glencoe, Elandslaagte, and Rietfontein were fought, and the net 
result of this series of movements was the cutting off of Sir George 
White's army and the investment of Ladysmith. The selection of 
this place was probably made as it is a. railway junction and large 
quantities of supplies had been collected there. From a military 
point of view, it had little else to recommend it. Though at an alti- 
tude of about 3,300 feet.it lies relatively in a basin, being commanded 
by higher ground on all sides, notably by Lombard's Kop, a little 
north of east, and Isimbulwana to the southeast, both within range 
of the guns mounted there by the Boers. 

The subsequent operations in Natal due to Buller's advance to the 
relief of Ladysmith were also greatly influenced by the topographical 
features. The line of advance was, under the conditions existing, 
necessarily restricted to the railroad running north to Ladysmith. 
None knew this better than the Boers, and they took full advantage 
of their knowledge. Good defensive positions abounded, and they 
could be prepared in advance. If the Boers were driven back from 
one, after inflicting much greater loss than they themselves suffered, 
they had another good position a little in the rear. When Spion 
Kop was taken by the British after hard fighting, it was thought by 
the officer in command on the ground untenable on account of the 



M1LITAR Y OPERA TIONS IN SO UTII AFRICA 191 

positions held by the Boers just beyond, and he ordered its abandon- 
ment, though this withdrawal was afterward adversely criticised by 
Lord Roberts. If the British tried to make a flank movement, they 
found the Boers too quick for them, and instead of a flank attack 
they found themselves making a frontal one. 

So it will be seen that, due to the natural features, Natal is an ex- 
tremel}^ difficult country for offensive military movements. It is 
open to question whether, had not a part of the Boer forces been with- 
drawn to meet Lord Roberts' advance in the Orange Free State, Buller 
would have been able to relieve Ladysmith at all. 

MILITARY OPERATIONS IN THE ORANGE FREE STATE 

In the western part of the theater of operations the ground is 
principally open veldt, but kopjes and ridges are found here and 
there affording excellent positions, as was shown in the operations 
of Lord Methuen's column for the relief of Kimberley. Here again 
the line of advance was confined to the railroad, and Methuen felt 
obliged to attack the Boers in the position of Magersfontein, just to the 
east of the railroad. He was defeated with great loss, retired to the 
Modder River, and no farther advance on that line was made until 
Lord Roberts' flank movement compelled the Boers to withdraw 
from their position at Magersfontein and raise the siege of Kimberley. 

There is very little timber in the Boer Republics, and what there 
is is found principally along the watercourses. As has been stated) 
many of the streams run through gullies, with steep banks, and 
when the rivers run dry a wide boulder-strewn ravine is left. It was 
in such a place that the Boers prepared their ambush recently for a 
part of Broadwood's command on its march westward from Tha- 
banchu. With proper precautions on the part of the British this 
surprise would not have taken place ; but it is nevertheless a suc- 
cessful utilization on the part of the Boers of the natural features of 
the ground in a military operation. 

To conduct a successful campaign in the Boer territory without 
heavy losses the British must be able to operate away from the railroad 
in strong force, and to do this they must have an immense amountof 
transportation. The country supplies nothing. Everything in the 
way of supplies must Ik; Ill-ought up from the eoast. The move- 
ment of Lord Roberts, culminating in the capture of Bloemfontein, 
was very successful, but he spent a, long time after his arrival in 
South Africa before lie was prepared to make it, It is estimated 



L92 APPERCEPTION JX GEOGRAPHY 

that in this short campaign his loss in animals — cavalry, artillery, and 
transport — was not less than 10,000. His recent apparent inaction at 
Bloemfonteinhas been <hu' to the necessity of making this loss good — 
remounting his cavalry and artillery and reorganizing his transpor- 
tation. At present writing it looks as if his preparations were com- 
pleted, and that important movements may he soon expected. 

In addition to the difficulties the British have to contend with in 
South Africa, there are the cost and delay in sending troops and sup- 
plies a long distance by sea. In the matter of horses and mules the 
home market cannot supply the demand, and large numbers have 
been purchased in this country for shipment to South Africa. 

Another advantage that the Boers have to a remarkable degree, due 
to geographical conditions and the systems of transportation, is the 
ability to move on interior lines. Controlling the Natal railroad west 
and north of Ladysmith, they can move troops from Natal entirely 
by rail//" Pretoria to the vicinity of Bloemfontein, or can move them 
rin Van Ih-enan's Pass into the Orange Free State. They can thus 
with little 'difficulty concentrate their forces in any part of the theater 
of operations. In moving troop- from the eastern theater of opera- 
tions to the western, the British, on the other hand, have to take a 
circuitous route. After the relief of Ladysmith troops were detached 
from Holler's army and sent to join Roberts. This involved a journey 
by rail to Durban, loading on transports at Durham a voyage down 
the coast, disembarkation at a Cape Colony port, and transfer by rail 
to the Orange River and bevond. 



APPERCEPTION IN GEOGRAPHY 

By M. E. K eltox 

The application of the inductive method to the various subjects of 
the school curriculum is encouraging many teachers to undertake a 
more systematic treatment of geography. In order to help the child 
to understand what distant lands are, we must store his mind with 
concepts based upon frequent observations of his own home and its 
surroundings. For this reason instruction in geography should he 
based upon the law of apperception. The relation of man to the 
earth gives wide scope for the study of the causes and effects of their 



APPERCEPTION IN GEOGRAPHY 193 

interaction. By this same inductive method the child is led to work 
out results for himself, and the subject that was once treated as a 
memory drill is made to hold its true place in training the reasoning 
faculties. 

In studying the relation of man to the earth three main topics must 
be considered — the crust of the earth, its fluid and gaseous envelopes, 
and the forms of life conditioned by the crust and its envelopes. 

Because geology, biology, and meteorology are the basis of induc- 
tion in geography, nature study should precede and form the correl- 
ative of geography in the early years of the school curriculum. In 
these first school days the child works with symbols of language 
and number. His chief aim is to learn to read. If he reads some- 
thing in which he is interested the task will be easy. For this reason 
nature stud} 7 is made the basis of the reading lesson; and, since 
nature stud} 7 is the background of geography, the child is led to 
such facts as will be of use later in developing the geographic story. 

Daily observation of weather teaches relation of winds to cloud 
and rain. The length of day recorded and compared in different 
months finally brings a comprehension of the conditions dependent 
upon revolution, and leads to a final knowledge of and belief in rev- 
olution itself. These ideas are strengthened by observing and record- 
ing the position of the sun in the sky at morning, at noon, and at even- 
ing during the different months. The shadow-stick is presented in the 
first year. A large nail fastened perpendicularly in a board or a pointer 
driven into a level path makes a good shadow-stick. Each day's rec- 
ord is marked upon a sheet of paper lying on the board or under the 
stick, and these records can be brought to class for study. By com- 
paring the results of such observations the principles of mathematical 
geography gradually become concepts upon which the child can base 
his further reasoning in geography. Thus he is led to inquire why 
the noon shadow in June is shorter than the noon shadow in Decem- 
ber, and to observe the gradual change in its length. 

These simple lessons in mathematical geography are further con- 
sidered in the reading lesson, where they are illumined by the myth 
which belongs to the early days of literature; but the myth means 
much more if associated with a reality. Hence the wind myths and 
sun myths are read when recording the observations of wind and 
sun, and the myths of cloud and rain when these phenomena of cli- 
mate mic observed. 

Following these observations of climate conies the relation of ani- 



194 APPERCEPTION IN GEOGRAPHY 

mal life to these conditions. In one year's changes the climate of 
the different zones is fairly represented. 

The preparation of plant and animal life for the seasons, the rela- 
tion of animal to plant, and of man to each is further treated in the 
nature lesson, such observations being made as will form the basis of 
the reading lesson that shall follow. 

The study of drainage follows the observation of rain. The knowl- 
edge of the work of the streams is based upon the observations made 
during the rain-storm. These ideas may be gained from a field les- 
son on a railroad cut or excavation in the neighboring hill country. 
These field lessons are supplemented by careful study of types of 
river- and mountains from maps and pictures. 

The life in each section visited on the excursions j.s compared with 
the conditions of home. In these lessons the land forms are taught. 
and man's need of clothing, food, and shelter suggest- occupations of 
people. From this Btudy of the organization of human endeavor 
arises tin- understanding of the growth of town and city and of the 
need of government. At this point the story of "Robinson Crusoe" 
is a valuable and interesting aid as a reading lesson. 

During the two years in which nature-work is the basis for the read- 
ing lesson ideas are developed which are to he utilized by the true 
geography teaching that belongs to the course of study in the third 
year. The main difficulty is to arrange the study to meet the capa- 
bility of tin- pupil. Our own adult notions in geography are largely 
gained from map-, which we enlarge by means of acquired concepts. 
Why not teach geography by this method? Experience lias taught 
that the study of a lesson from the text is mechanical and void of the 
desired effect to the majority of the pupils. Now. the search for facts 
from the map creates interest, and the recording of such facts stimu- 
lates thought and furnishes material for the recitation that follows. 
The reading of the text hook in a later recitation illuminates the ideas 
that have been gained by the individual efforts of pupil-. 

In the end the written lesson will he the compilation of such facts 
a- have been gained through individual investigation. The answers 
to carefully prepared questions will appear in the note hooks of the 
class as an original geography text book that lias grown out of the 
actual observation and reasoning of the pupils. 

Tfu Excursion. — As the neighborhood furnishes the fundamental 
concepts upon which we build, it follows that the first lessons must 
establish the common body of facts by simultaneous observation. 



A PPER CEP TION IN GEO GRA PHY 1 95 

In a Brooklyn school the excursion and field lesson precede the work 
on the map. The city is the unit upon which we begin our course of 
reasoning. By means of concepts obtained from observations of home 
surroundings we are to gain the ideas of conditions that have devel- 
oped other great centers of population. In New York we have before 
us a great commercial as well as a great manufacturing center. Upon 
these two conditions depends the dense population of Manhattan 
Island and the surrounding country. 

Density of Population. — An afternoon excursion across the ba} T on a 
boat of the Brooklyn annex furnishes the facts to be considered in 
connection with the map of density of population. The island of 
Manhattan, with its miles of water front, and the several cities grouped 
about the waters of bay, river, and strait are noted. The signs on 
the piers and the flags on the ships show the extent of the commerce. 
Beside the commercial advantages of New York, the conditions of 
manufacturing are also considered to obtain a proper understanding 
of the density of population in manufacturing towns. For this pur- 
pose we select a shoe factory, where the different parts of the article 
are being worked upon by many people. The manager tells us how 
many hands he employs. These facts are afterward considered in a 
conversational lesson, where attention is directed to the many fam- 
ilies dependent upon this factor}' and to the needs of each individual 
thereof. 

Physical Features. — Another excursion up the Hudson to the Pal- 
isades helps to explain the dependence of density upon the physio- 
gra] tliical features. 

The only text book used is Longman's School Atlas. The home 
lessons following the excursions are based upon map 16 of that atlas, 
entitled " Density of Population in United States." The pupils find 
the density in southeastern New York and note other localities having 
similar density- They compare the situation of such places with 
that of New York City, using map 11 for a better understanding of 
the physical features. Then they find on map 16 regions having a 
low density of population and note their physical conditions. 

Composition. — A composition on population based upon the facts 
gathered on the excursion and from the map is next prepared with 
nine]) careful attention and is preserved in the pupil's note book. 
This may be illustrated by pictures collected by the children to show 
conditions of life accompanying the different degrees of density. A 
map colored to -how region of greatest and least density further 
emphasizes the lessons and completes the subject. 



196 APPERCEPTION IN GEOGRAPHY 

Climate. — Lessons upon climate, with experiments and map study, 
follow. The rain gauge is observed and a record of the rainfall is 
made to show how the annual amount of moisture is determined. 
Such observations are accompanied by others on wind, temperature, 
and the up pea ranee of the sky. Alter the pupils have become familiar 
with 3uch fact- as these observations furnish, they extend the bounds 
of their knowledge by the study of climatic maps. 

Rainfall. — On the rainfall map, number 15, the pupils find the an- 
nual precipitation about New York City and select other regions 
having the same amount. By the aid of map 11 a list of cities in 
these regions is made: also the density of population in each region 
i- compared with that about New York City. Regions having less 
rain than New York and those having more are compared with New 
York as to density of population. 

Tt mperalure. — The use of the thermometer is taught hefore the map 
of isotherms is presented. The symbols on the United States weather 
map are used to record the observations, and this map is understood 
before the work on the atlas map is given. After gaining these facts, 
a further comparison is made of places differing in density of popu- 
lation, and reasons for the varying density are deduced from the 
climate and surface of each region. 

Vegetation. — A visit to Washington Park furnishes the first common 
idea- of vegetation. Satisfactory type- of forest, prairie, desert, and 
marsh are all to lie found there, and here also the conifer of the cold 
climate, the palm- of the tropics, and deciduous trees of the temperate 
regions have each a representative. 

In the subsequent lessons "ii vegetation the pupils use ma]) num- 
ber 7. and make lists of the kind- of vegetation found in North Amer- 
ica. They color an outline map of North America to represent the 
vegetation region.-. From other map.- of tin- atlas the pupils discover 
and record temperature, wind.-, rainfall, physical features, and density 
of population in each region of vegetation. 

The first work. then, in map reading i- associated with the pre- 
vious field lesson or experiment. Since the maps and plates of the 
atlas are the medium through which the geographical facts of conti- 
nent- and political divisions are to he gained by pupils, our first 
work in geography, as outlined above, is an introduction to these 
symbols. In this connection I wish to acknowledge the valuable 
suggestions I have received from the teachers' edition of Leete's 
Exercises in Geography, a little hook containing exhaustive material 
tor such map Btudies. 



APPERCEPTION IN GEOGRAPHY 197 

The work of induction is further pursued by means of wall maps 
and pictures. The pilot charts recently distributed by the U. 8. Coast 
and Geodetic Survey of Washington have aided the study of coasts. 
By means of these a comparison of the Atlantic and Pacific coasts 
has been more definiteh' considered. This has been followed by a 
deduction of the facts affecting the conditions of life dependent upon 
each. Such facts are again referred to in connection with coasts of 
other continents. 

Geology. — The geologic map, number 14 of Longman's Atlas, is 
introduced after an excursion to the beach at Coney Island. On 
this trip we consider the aqueous deposit of the shore and the sur- 
rounding topography. On another excursion a cut in the road fur- 
nishes ideas of glacial deposits, and stereopticon pictures afterward 
supplement the results of direct observation. B3 7 means of the geo- 
logic map the pupils are able to distinguish the varying formations 
found in the Atlantic plain. The rock}' coast of the north with its 
phenomena is contrasted with the life and formations of the sandy 
coasts. 

Other Continents. — A thorough acquaintance with home geography 
paves the way for work upon the continents. The idea of distance 
is continually brought out in the map study. By means of the scale 
of miles the extent and area of regions are measured. These ideas 
are made clear by comparison with distances actually traveled. 
Hirt's pictures, a German publication, carefully prepared, show life 
and customs in the geographic regions of the earth. By questioning 
on these pictures the pupils are led to discover many facts. When 
the text-book is presented at the end, to review the facts already 
gained, the pupils read with interest. 

Opportunity for Invention. — The great flexibility of the atlas work 
is apparent whenever an attempt is made to arrange the map lesson 
to meet a different set of facts. Thus, in order to emphasize the de- 
pendence of climate upon topography in the study of Eurasia, the 
east and west trend of the highland area is noted and the climatic 
maps used to discover why vegetation and density of population differ 
from these in the same latitude of the western hemisphere. Here 
the pupil finds a new factor influencing climate and conditions of 
life. Again, special sections are compared by exercises that bring 
together facts regarding their climate and life. The ideas of life on 
the floodplain of the Po are gained from atlas maps and by compar- 
ison with the work of a previous year upon the flooded area of the 



19S APPERCEPTION IN GEOGRAPHY 

Mississippi. The map shows the sand bars, swamps, and lagoon at 
the delta, where the continental shelf is also apparent. Such a region 
had been seen in miniature on the Coney Island beach. The cities of 
Ravenna and Adria, indicated as small towns in the midst of swamps, 
stimulate the pupils to deduce reasons for the scanty population as 
well as for the present location. The situations of towns on the banks 
of the upper Po are contrasted with that of those of the low r er Po 
located a few miles from the river banks. Pictures showing dikes on 
the lower river are presented and similar conditions on the Missis- 
sippi are recalled. The malarial districts and rice-fields shown on the 
map of Italy are facts upon which the ideas of climate, vegetation, and 
occupation are based. The railroads are then located on the atlas 
map and made to furnish data upon which are based the reasons for 
the density of population and the growth of towns and cities. The 
passes in the Alps, the opening on the eastern frontier, and the geo- 
graphical position of Italy are all means by which are deduced facts 
concerning the various invasions of Italy and the subsequent history 
of the Italian people. The plate of Races and Religions (map 8) are 
presented in this history work. 

Home Study. — By continually searching for facts the individual mind 
is stimulated and pleasure is derived from the work. It is the only 
method 1 have found to reach the individual in his home study. 
Bach week papers of questions are presented to the pupils. The an- 
swers are to be found in the maps and plates of the atlas. The ideas 
thus gained by the pupils are used as the topic of the class recitation. 
With pictures and wall maps the thought contained in the pupil's 
notes is discussed before the reading lesson is attempted. The pupil's 
note books contain the original text that has been acquired by means 
of field and atlas work. 

Summary. — Briefly summarized, the work consists of: First, direct 
observation of geographical subject-matter as it occurs in the neigh- 
borhood of the school; second, class-room discussion of the observed 
facts : third, written home lessons on questions based on the previous 
work; fourth, oral and written reproduction ; fifth, reproduction in 
map form. 

And in conjunction therewith a similar sequence of lessons is based 
upon the atlas and other maps, of physical features, temperature, 
winds, rainfall, vegetation, productions, density of population, races, 
and religions. Investigation, adapted to the capacity and develop- 



ICE CLIFFS ON WHITE RIVER 199 

ment of the pupils, is made into the nearer and the more remote 
causes and effects, especially causes. 

The results have been a quickening of interest on the part of the 
pupils, the development of more thorough method on the part of 
teachers, and the elimination of many features of work which had 
hitherto tended to debase 'geography as a study and to blunt the in- 
tellect of the pupil. Self-help through a series of exercises logically 
related and leading to an independent result is perhaps a good epit- 
ome of the plan that we follow. 



ICE CLIFFS ON WHITE RIVER, YUKON TERRITORY 

By C. Willard Hayes and Alfred H. Brooks, 

U. S. Geological Surrey 

The article by Martin W. Gorman on Ice Cliffs on the White River, 
Yukon Territory, published in the March number of the National 
Geographic Magazine, contains several erroneous statements and 
unwarranted conclusions on which Ave want to make some comments, 
not in a controversial spirit, but entirely in the interest of correct 
geographic information. It may be stated at the outset that one or 
both of the writers have examined and mapped the White River from 
its source to its mouth. 

In the first place Mr Gorman's distances are incorrect, the length of 
the White River from where it emerges from the northern lobe of the 
Russell Glacier to its confluence with the Yukon is approximately 
200 miles, instead of " rather more than 300 miles." Instead of 
"crossing White River about 200 miles above the mouth," the point 
reached by Mr Gorman could not have been more than 100 miles 
above the mouth. 

While* it is undeniably true that the maps of White River basin 
leave much to be desired, it seems equally true that Mr Gorman was 
either unfamiliar with the maps which arc available or unable to make 
proper use of them. It appears likely that the Donjeck River was 
mistaken for the main trunk of White River, and the latter for the 
Katrina, an insignificant tributary which enters from the west 7<> miles 

• Compare maps accompanying article entitled "An Expedition Into the Yukon District," 
by e. Willard Hayes, N it. Geo». M m>., \<>i. h . Also map L0 in " Explorations in Alaska, 1898," 
f. S. Geol. Survey, 1899. 



200 ICE CLIFFS ON WHITE RIVER 

below the Donjeck. The Klotassin is not " the chief eastern tributary 
of the White," but is much smaller than either the Klutlan or Don- 
jeck. The latter itself receives an eastern tributary, the Kluantu, 
which is larger than the Klotassin. This confusion in identifying the 
rivers of the region, and the exaggerated estimate of distances, to- 
gether with the air of confidence which pervades the article in ques- 
tion, render it very misleading to the geographic student. 

Coming to the main point of the paper, the alleged ice cliffs, it 
appears that Mr Gorman has mistaken the permanently frozen silt in 
which the river channel is cut for beds of ice, such as were described 
by Cantwell on the Kowak. The frozen silts and subsoils are char- 
acteristic of the Arctic and subarctic regions, and may be observed on 
almost any stream in the Yukon basin. It is difficult to understand 
why a solidly frozen subsoil should be less favorable for the growth 
of forests than a layer of clear ice, and indeed Lieutenant Cantwell* 
describes the ice strata of the Kowak as covered by a few feet of soil 
bearing " a luxuriant growth of mosses, grass, and the characteristic 
Arctic shrubbery, . . . and a dense forest of spruce trees from 
50 to 60 feet high and from 4 to 8 inches in diameter." The "depau- 
perate condition of the trees" described by Mr Gorman must there- 
fore be explained b) r some other cause than the presence of subjacent 
ice -strata or a frozen subsoil. 

On the Lower White, some eight miles from its mouth, one of the 
writers had opportunity to examine a bluff of frozen silt, of which 
some 20 feet was exposed by the cutting action of the river. A dense 
growth of vegetation was found above the frozen silt, including many 
large spruce trees. Even if masses of clear ice were found in that 
portion of the White River Valley visited by Mr Gorman they could 
scarcely be regarded as glacial ice, since the region lies mostly out- 
side the limit of general glaciation and bears few, if any, marks of 
the former presence of local glaciers. It is conceivable that masses 
of glaeial ice might be preserved for an indefinite period in the sub- 
arctic climate of Alaska if covered by a thick layer of insulating 
material, such as moss. It is observed, however, that sand and 
gravel do not form an efficient non-conductor, and that where the 
soil is laid bare by burning off or otherwise removing the moss the 
subsoil thaws out to a considerable depth. Since ice masses at the 
margin of a glacier are at first covered only by sand and gravel, the 
chances of their preservation until covered by vegetation are small. 

* Nat. Geoo. Mag., vol. vii, p. 345. 



ICE CLIFFS ON WHITE RIVER 20i 

If a concise definition of a glacier be accepted, such isolated 
masses of buried ice would hardly be included, being in fact a part 
of and closely related to the frozen subsoil which is found nearly 
eveiywhere in the Arctic province. Moreover, the deposits which 
overlie the ice, as described by Mr Gorman and observed by the 
writers, are soils and silts, and entirely non-glacial. If these ice 
masses were buried remnants of former glaciers, then would be asso- 
ciated with tli em glacial material. 

Speaking of recent volcanic activity in the valley of White River, 
Mr Gorman makes the surprising statement that not a trace of the 
volcanic ash which forms so noticeable a feature at the banks of the 
Yukon is to be seen along the banks of the White, except near the 
mouth. If he had possessed even a slight familiarity with the region 
in question or with the literature* of the subject, he would have 
known that many hundred square miles in the Upper White River 
basin are covered with this volcanic ash, with many local drifts from 
50 to 100 feet in depth. The ash covers both valley bottoms and 
mountain tops. 

The thin stratum shown in the banks of the Yukon is merely the 
attenuated eastern edge of the deposit which reaches its maximum 
in the region from which Mr Gorman says it is entirely absent. We 
entirely agree with his dissent from Heilprin's theory that the ash 
was deposited in a lake bed covering the upper Yukon basin, but on 
quite different grounds from those which he adduces. 

A final case of superficial observation remains to be noted. Mr 
Gorman states that the water of White River is "surcharged with a 
mixture of fine blue clay and granitic sand " which gives it the char- 
acteristic white color from which it derives its name. Many of the 
upper tributaries are glacial streams, and hence carry rock flour and 
glacial pebbles like other streams of similar origin, but this constitutes 
only a small proportion of the sediment. Much the larger part consists 
of the light pumiceous volcanic ash which covers the upper half of 
the basin, as was proven by a microscopical examination of the sedi- 
ments. Being entirely unconsolidated and only in part covered by 
vegetation, it is rapidly eroded, and on account of its low specific 
gravity large quantities of relatively coarse material remain in suspen- 
sion in the water. 

•An Expedition Through the Yukon District, pp. 146-150; Explorations in Uaska, i>. 69. 



A GERMAN ROUTE TO INDIA 

Every move of Russia toward India is watched and studied the 
world over. But another power is aiming eastward, unnoticed — not 
urged by an ambition for territory, but impelled by a desire for com- 
mercial supremacy. 

For ten years the German Emperor has puzzled Christian nations 
by his evidences of brotherly love for the Sultan of Turkey; but 
gradual!} 7 German commerce has invaded the Turkish Empire; Ger- 
man commercial agents are favored everywhere; German capital 
obtains first concessions from the government in mining, for factories, 
in every industry. German bankers have acquired control of the 
main railway lines in Asia Minor, arranged for direct trains daily from 
Berlin to Constantinople, and then sought the right to extend the 
Smyrna-Konieh Railroad to the Persian Gulf. The concession has 
been granted, the route carefully surveyed, and the company guaran- 
tees that the road will be completed within eight years.. 

When the railwaj 7 is constructed Berlin will be within five days of 
the Persian Gulf. German merchandise can then be sent without 
change in freight cars from Berlin across the Bosphorus, through Asia 
Minor to Busra, whence steamers can reach Karachi and the mouth 
of the Indus in 48 hours. 

In a political sense a railway through Asia Minor will not be of 
great immediate importance to German} 7 , but the building Of the road 
by her capital and under her patronage may end in her acquiring a 
commercial port at some point on the Gulf. Probably the main result 
will be the strengthening of the alliance between the Emperor and the 
•Sultan. The purpose of this political friendship is still an enigma. 
but evidently the Emperor aims to obtain for Germany a route to. 
India distinct from either the English or the Russian route. The 
construction of a railway through Asia Minor is an important step in 
this direction. 

The Ottoman Empire will naturally profit from a Line connecting 
its capita] with its richest and most productive provinces. The organ- 
ization of its military forces will be facilitated, as the larger propor- 
tion of the Turkish Soldiers Come from the interior provinces. While 
the new railway will not follow the direction preferred bytheSultan, 
namely, toward Armenia and the Caucasus -a route that would 



204 .1 GERMAN ROUTE TO INDIA 

enable him to concentrate his troops where they could most advan- 
tageously resist a Russian advance — it will enhance his power in 
another direction. Today the Sultan is a negative factor in the con- 
test for influence on the Persian Gulf; hut with a road through Asia 
Minor he will become a considerable, if not prominent, force in any 
partition or settlement of the possession of the Gulf. The road would 
enable him in a few days to mobilize his army of a quarter of a mill- 
ion men either at Constantinople or Busra. 

To England also the German route ought to be an advantage. To 
be sure, it makes Germany her competitor in the Indian markets; 
but this competition is more than balanced by the new demands that 
will constantly be arising. The markets should be large enough for 
both English and German merchants. Politically, however, it will 
be more important for Great Britain to maintain her friendship with 
Germany, and possibly render it advisable for her to endeavor to 
regain the alliance of Turkey. 

That Russia is intensely interested in :t German railway to the 
Persian Gulf has been repeatedly emphasized by the actions of the 
Russian Government since the concession was granted in 1899. 
First, she demanded of Turkey prior railway concessions on all lines 
through Asia Minor to the north of the German concession. Recent 
reliable reports from Constantinople state that the Sultan has been 
rompelled to yield to the demand. This concession includes aline 
from Batum to Constantinople, skirting the shores of the black Sea. 
Second, she has renewed her plans for the continuation of the Trans- 
Caucasian Railway from Kars in a line almost directly southward to 
some point on the Gulf near busra. There i- a probability that this 
railway may be completed before the German road. Third, she is 
pushing across Persia several lines that are also to end at the Persian 
Gulf. The general direction of these roads is indicated on the map 
(page li<»2), and they also will probably be completed before the Ger- 
man road becomes a fact. 

The recent rapid increase of Russian influence in Persia, a striking 
instance of which is the loan to the Shah, has been in large measure 
occasioned by the present inability of England to interfere. Rut the 
prospe.-t of a railway controlled by another power and terminating 
on the Persian Gulf has quickened Russia's ambition to reach the 
Indian Ocean. 

Gilbert H. Geosvenob. 



THE CUBAN CENSUS 




White : native born 1 I 

White : foreign born. I 3 



Negroes i 

Chinese. 



DIAGRAM SHOWING PUI'VI.ATION BY 



Can read but can 
Pj Attended school 



DIAGRAM SHOWING LITERACY I 
THOSE TEJN 1 BARS AND OVER 




The results of the Cuban Census, in many respects unexpected, show on the 
whole a gratifying condition of affairs in the island. The accompanying dia- 
grams emphasize the more impor- 
tant facts. From the relatively 
large proportion of native-born 
whites, 58 per cent of the total 
population, it is evident that the 
administrative control will remain 
in the hands of the native white 
Cuban when the United States with- 
draws from the island. Thus Cuba will not become a second Haiti. 

The right to vote at the municipal election June 
16 — a right gained by the ability to read and write 
or by the ownership of property — is possessed by 
about 140,000 native Cubans. As so many citizen- 
ships were in suspense at the time the census was 
taken, it is impossible to state exactly how many 
Spaniards will also have 
the right to vote, but they 
will not exceed 30,000, if 
they reach that number. 

Of the total population 
of 1,572,797, 1,108,709 are 
single, 246,350 are married, 
and 131,788 live together 
as husband and wife by mutual consent. In justice to the Cuban, however, 
it should be stated that unions formed by mutual 
consent are considered no less binding and are no 
less permanent than those sanctioned by the mar- 
riage ceremony. 
The excessive 
fees charged for 
weddings, per- 
haps, explain the 
frequency of the omission of the ceremony. 

The census returns show the need of a thorough 
system of education. Of pereonsover ten years of age, 
13 per cent cannol read or write, while only 11.4 per 
rent of the children under teli years are attending 

BChool. 



.□ 



Married . . . 
Living togetker 
Widowed 



s husband a~J w.feW 



DIAGRAM SHOWING ' 
CONDITION 




In suspense 
For el gn 
Spani sh 



Not attending school 



in s>.i:.\ M SHOW IM. PROPOR- 

i ins "I I in. -i, i \ DEB i i \ 
..I m.i: All is hi \.. 
gl II 



FRANK HAMILTON CUSHING 

Frank Hamilton Cushing died at his residence in Washington, D. C, on April 
10, 1900. From his boyhood lie had been the friend and student of the Amer- 
ican Indian. In 187"), when only 18 yearsofage, he was commissioned by Pro- 
fessor Baixd, Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, to make collections for 
the National Museum. The years <>f 1879-1885 he lived among the Zuni Indians 
of New Mexico, he learned their language and traditions, and was initiated 
into their esoteric priesthood and elected their war chief. Thus he was able to 
learn the character of Indian secret societies. Mr Cushing discovered the ruins 
of the Seven Cities of Cibola in 1881, and later conducted excavations among 
them and the great buried cities of southern Arizona. In 1895 he discovered 
extensive remains of a sea-dwelling people on the gulf coast of Florida, and the 
following year led an ex pec lit ion thither. At the time of his death he was promi- 
nently connected with the Bureau of American Ethnology. He was the author 
of numerous monographs and papers on the myths and customs of the Zuni 
and the prehistoric races of New Mexico. Arizona, and the Southern States. 



GEOGRAPHIC LITERATURE 

Tin- International Geography. By seventy authors. Edited by Hugh Robert 
Mill. svo. pp. i'i) ; 1088, with 488 illustrations. New York: D. Appleton 

A: Co. 1H0O. S.S.00. 

This book is a terse ami comprehensive description of the earth and of the 
various countries of which it is composed, it is divided into several parts, of 
which the first relates to the earth as a whole, with chapters on principles and 
progress of geography, mathematical geography, maps, plan of the earth, nature 
and origin of land forms, the ocean, atmosphere and climate, the distribution 
of life, and political and applied geography. Succeeding parts are devoted to 
descriptions of continents and countries. These, as well as the chapters of 
Tart 1. were written by different authorities, and tin' result, owing doubtless 
to excellent planning and able editing, is fairly uniform. Here and there the 
personality <>r bias of a writer appears, hut not often or obtrusively. 

The apportionment of space among the various countries is very well arranged : 
To the United States are assigned <>4 pages, to Canada 25, to Great Britain 59, 
to France 22, and to Germany '■">-. The list of authors includes such names as 
Bryce, on Natal, the Transvaal, and Orange Free State; Chisholm, on Europe 
and China; Davis, on North America and the United States ; Keane, Keltic, 
l.apparent. Markham, Murray, Nansen, and Penck. 

The descriptions of countries are brief, succinct, and encyclopedic in form, 
though not in arrangement, and each is followed by tables giving summary 
statistics of areas, population, and industries. As a book of reference this work 
is of great value. 

206 



GEOGRAPHIC LITERATURE 207 

North American Forests and Forestry. By Ernest Bruncken. New York : G. P. 
Putnam's Sons. 1900. 

This book deals more particularly with the relation of the forest problem to 
the natural life of the American people. With this object in view, Mr 
Bruncken's choice of subjects and the .general outlines of his treatment are in 
most respects admirable. After a brief introduction, in which his purpose is 
denned, he begins with a discussion of the North American forests, of the re- 
lation between man and the forests of this country, of forest industries, and of the 
destruction and deterioration of the forests. He is then ready to deal with the 
nature and object-matter of forestry, the finance and management of forest 
lands, the relation of forests to the government, and the difficulties which beset 
the practice of forestry (conservative lumbering) in the United States. A final 
chapter, which will be much read by the numerous young men who are turn- 
ing their attention to this new line of possible work, treats understandingly of 
forestry as a profession. 

Mr Bruncken's book is much better calculated than any other with which I 
am acquainted to convey a correct general idea of the forest problems of the 
United States. He has seized the principal facts in the situation with intelli- 
gence and has set them forth in a way easily understood. If there is to be 
criticism of so useful a book, it should be directed chiefly against the fact that 
the author's conception of the forest problems of the United States is much too 
strictly limited by his acquaintance with those of the white pine states about 
the headwaters of the Mississippi. It is to be regretted also that there is a lack 
of accuracy in detail. For example, the silvicultural notes in the second chap- 
ter are much too frequently based on the facts of European rather than of 
American forests, or upon an imperfect knowledge of the latter. There is a 
similar lack of precision in many parts of the book. However, since Mr 
Bruncken expressly says that his book is not intended for professional foresters, 
the blemish of such misconceptions is less great than it would otherwise be. 
On the whole, Mr Bruncken's book promises well both for its own present 
utility and for the future work of the writer. Giffokd Pinchot. 

Tear and McMurry's Geograpliies. First book. Home Geography and the Earth 
as a AVhole. By Ralph S. Tarr and Frank M. McMurry: Small Svo, 
pp. xv + 279. New York and London: The Macmillan Co. 1900. 60 cents 
This little book, the first of a series of geographical text-books, is an attempt 
to combine the inductive and deductive methods in the teaching of geography. 
The first 107 pages are devoted to developing, from the home surroundings, a 
knowledge of the formation of soils, mountains, valleys, and rivers, the phe- 
nomena of the sea and air, and, finally, industries and government. With all 
this as a preface, the remainder of the book is a description of the earth as a 
whole and of its parts, much as in the older elementary geographies. The style 
throughout is admirably adapted to holding the child's interest, while impaiting 
information. The text is freely supplemented with questions and suggestions, 
and the numerous maps and cuts are very illustrative and finely executed. 

It will he interesting to learn the measure of success attained by this experi- 
ment in geographic text-hooks. If unsuccessful, it will he a failure of the prin- 
ciple, not of the form, for the latter is in all respects nearly faultless. 



GEOGRAPHIC MISCELLANEA 

The Weather Bureau Bervice is to be extended by the establishment of ob- 
servatories in nil Mexican Gulf ports between Tampico and Progreso. Tliey 
will be under the charge of the weather officials at Galveston, Texas. 

The Indian famine has increased to such an extent that it now affects an area 
of territory in which there is a population of over 60,000,000. The government 
gives relief work to about four millions, and food to live millions more. 

Dr Nansen will lead a scientific party to the northern seas this summer for 
the Study of the ocean currents in the vicinity of Iceland. The expedition, 
which is organized under the auspices of the Norwegian government, will re- 
turn in the autumn. 

The work of testing arctic currents by setting wooden casks adrift on the ice 
north of this continent will he continued this year by the < Geographical Society 
of Philadelphia. Each cask contain- a bottle having in it a blank form to he 
filled out by the finder. The work was begun by the Society last year at the 
suggestion of Admiral Melville. 

In view of the imprisonment of General Cronje and other Boer officers at St 
Helena, it may be interesting to know that a submarine cable has been laid 
from Cape Town to the island, where it was landed in November, 1899. The 
present tariff is $1-70 per word, hut on the completion of the line the rate will 

he reduced to '.17 cents to England. 

Mi; Grove Karl Gilbert, of the United States Geological Survey, President 
of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and a frequent 
contributor to the National Geographic Magazine, has been awarded the 
Wollaston Medal for 1899. This medal is given annually by the Geological 
Society of London for the most important geological discovery of the year. 

The number of vessels that passed through the Baltic ( 'anal during the twelve 
in. .lit hs ending March 31, 1899, was 25,816, with an aggregate tonnage of 
3,117,840. This was an increase of 2,708 ships and 648,045 tons over the pre- 
ceding year. The total receipts amounted to $388,000, and while this was an 
increase of 25 per cent over the previous year, it still fell short of the cost of 
maintenance by $103,800. 

Tin: death is announced of Mr Brandt, the chief engineer in charge of the 
work of digging the Simplon Tunnel through the Alps, which will open a new 
route between north and south Europe. Mr Brandt was the inventor of the 
hydraulic rotary drilling machine with which the work is being done, and also 
of an ingenious machine for removing the debris after the blasts. This ma- 
chine throws a powerful stream of water hy jerking impulses into the stones 
loosened by the blast and thereby loosens the dirt. Another invention of Mi- 
Brandt's, a system of ventilation, has been tried in the mines in Spain and has 
proved effective. The excavation of the ArlbergTunnelin 1867, through which 
railroad communication is made between Switzerland and Austria, was directed 
by Mr Brandt. 

208 



NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 



President 
Alexander Graham Bell 

Vice-President 
W J McGEE 

Board of Managers 

1897-1900 1898-1901 1899-1902 

Marcus Baker A. Graham Bell Charles J. Bell 

Henry F. Blount Henry Gannett G. K. Gilbert 

F. V. CoviLLE A. W. Greely A. J. Henry 

S. H. Kauffmann John Hyde David J. Hill 

Willis L- Moore W J McGee C. Hart Merriam 

W. B. Powell f. h. Newell H. S. Pritchett 

Treasurer Corresponding Secretary 

Henry Gannett Willis L. Moore 

Recording Secretary Foreign Secretary 

A. J. Henry Eliza Ruhamah Scidmore 



OFFICES OF THE SOCIETY 

Rooms 107, 108, Corcoran Building, Fifteenth and F Streets N. W., Washington, D. C. 
Office Hours : 8.30 A. M. to 5.00 P. M. Telephone No. 47 1. 

The National Geographic Magazine is sent free of charge to all members of the 
National Geographic Society 

Recommendation for Membership in tie National Geopphic Society. 

The following form is enclosed for use in the nomination of persons for member- 
ship. Please detach and fill in blanks and send to ttie Secretary. 

Dues: Resident, $5 ; Non-resident, $2 ; Life membership, $50. If check be en- 
closed, please make it payable to order of the National Geographic Society, and 3 if at a 
distance from Washington, remit by New York draft or P. O. money-order. 

1900 



To the Secretary, National Geographic Society, 

Washington, D. C. : 

Please pro-pose . 

occupation and address: 



for.- membership in the Society. 



It is understood that persons nominated on this blank have expressed a desire to 
join the Society. 



NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



O 

5 



LU 





&& 1 



CHESAPEAKE &, OHIO RY. 

TTHE F. F. V. LIMITED is one of the finest trains hauled over any railway track in America. It runs 
solid between Cincinnati and New York, the route from Washington being over the Pennsylvania 
system. It has every modern convenience and appliance, and the dining-car service has no superior if 
it has an equal. The road-bed is literally hewed out of the eternal rocks; it is ballasted with stone 
from one end to the other ; the greater portion is laid with one-hundred-pound steel rails, and although 
curves are numerous in the mountain section, the ride is as smooth as over a Western prairie. 

One of the most delightful rides in all the route is that through the New River valley. The 
mountains are just low enough to be clad with verdure to the very top, and in the early spring every 
variety of green known to the mixer of colors can be seen, while the tones in autumn take on all the 
range from brown to scarlet. 

These facts should be borne in mind by the traveler between the East and the West. 

H. W. FULLER, Cenl. Pass. Agent, Washington, D. C. 

The Fastest and Finest Train in the West .... 



.is 




The Overland Limited 



TO. 



y UTAH and CALIFORNIA. 



°'®ScTO^ V 



FROM 16 TO 20 HOURS 
SAVED BY USING 



"TIE ©WWM^&kWW I©ff 

Double Drawing-Room Pullman Sleepers. 

Free Reclining Chair Cars. 

Pullman Dining Cars. 

Buffet Smoking and Library Cars. 



W% 



)* 



tend for Descriptive Pamphlet "49-96,'' 
Folders and other Advertising Matter. 
(Mention thin publication.) 



E. L. LOMAX, 

General Passenger and Ticket Agent, 

OMAHA, NEI 



Please mention this Magazine when writing to advertisers. 



NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



IE CHICAGO, MILWAUKEE AND ST. PAUL RAILWAY 

- - IFLTJINTS - . 

Electric Lighted and Steam Heated Vestibuled Trains between Chicago, Mil- 
waukee, St. Paul and Minneapolis daily. 

Through Parlor Cars on day trains between Chicago, St. Paul and Minneapolis. 

Electric Lighted and Steam Heated Vestibuled Trains between Chicago and 
Omaha and Sioux City daily. 

Through Sleeping Cars, Free Reclining Chair Cars and Coaches between Chicago 
and Kansas City, Mo. 

Only two hours from Chicago to Milwaukee. Seven fast trains each way, daily, 
with Parlor Car Service. 

Solid trains between Chicago and principal points in Northern Wisconsin and 
the Peninsula of Michigan. 

Through Trains with Palace Sleeping Cars, Free Reclining Chair Cars and Coaches 
between Chicago and points in Iowa, Minnesota, Southern and Central Dakota. 

The finest Dining Cars in the World. 

The best Sleeping Cars. Electric Reading Lamps in Berths. 

The best and latest type of private Compartment Cars, Free Reclining Chair 
Cars, and buffet Library Smoking Cars. 

Everything First=class. First-class People patronize First-class Lines. 

Ticket Agents everywhere sell tickets over the Chicago, Milwaukee aud St. Paul Ry. 

GEO. H. HEAFFORD, 

General Passenger Agent, Chicago, III. 



'' WM M^W^W^€WWWWWW^^ 



CALIFORNIA.. 

/"*\F course you expect to go there this Spring. Let 

me whisper something in your ear. Be sure that 

the return portion of your ticket reads via the . . . 

Northern Pacific-Shasta Route* 

Then you will see the grandest mountain scenery in 
the United States, including fit. Hood and fit. Rainier, 
each more than 14,000 feet high, T\t. St. Helens, 
nt. Adams, and others. You will also be privileged 
to make side trips into the Kootenai Country, where 
such wonderful new gold discoveries have been made, 
and to Yellowstone Park, the wonderland not only of 
the United States, but of the World. Close railroad 
connections made in Union Station, Portland, for Puget 
Sound cities and the east, via Northern Pacific. 

CHAS. S. FEE, 

General Passenger Agent, St. Paui, Minn. 
Please mention this Magazine when writing to advertisers. 



X 1 TIONAL GEOGRAPHIC ' MAGAZINE 



"[3EOPLE like to read about the great 
■*■ and wonderful country of the 
Southwest ; of its quaint and curious 
towns, its ancient civilizations, its 
natural marvels. They like to get ac- 
curate information about California 
and the Pacific Coast. This is because 
most people want to some day see these 



s 
I 

s 

> 

> 

\ 
N 
\ 

H things for themselves * 

| ? 

i 
1 

1 

1 

I 
I 

V 

\ 



t^Wfe^W 



s 
\ 

\ 

Southern Pacific Railway p 

a 

and will be sent to any one, postpaid, ' 



A charming book covering these 
facts is issued by the 

PASSENGER DEPARTMENT 

OF THE 



on receipt of TEN CENTS. 



S 



.»- J. -% -^- -% -T. -% -% -,»^ -»- -■% ^J- v». -»- -* 1 - -^ -7- .*.> .T. .*> .T^ jr*. „*> .». A .». .^. ^*. .». .».. .^. -^ A. .^ ^. .^- ^% .*V a ^ 

VVVTTTTTTTVVTTTTTTTTTTTVVVTTTTirVTTTTTT'' 



THE BOOK 15 ENTITLED 



N 

N 

> 
> 



! "Through Storyland 

to Sunset Seas/' 



N 






' 

N 
N 
N 
N 






<c£«s£ 



You can get a copy by writing to 

S. F. B. MORSE, 

General Passenger Agent, 
Southern Pacific, 
^ New Orleans, 

y 

^ and sending 10 cts. to defray postage. 

i 



AND IS A WONDERFULLY HAND- 
SOME VOLUME OF 205 PAGES, 
WITH 160 ILLUSTRATIONS. . . . 
The paper used is FINE PLATE 
PAPER, and every typographical de- 
tail is artistic. It is a story of what 
four people saw on just such a trip as 
you would like to make 



I 

I 
I 

I 
I 
I 
I 
I 

I 
I 



Please mention this Magazine when writing to advertisers. 



NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



Burlington 



Leave BOSTON every Tuesday 
Leave CHICAGO every Wednesday 
Leave ST. LOUIS every Wednesday 



PERSONALLY CONDUCTED 
TOURIST PARTIES TO 

California 

Comfortable and Inexpensive 




CELECT PARTIES leave Boston every Tuesday via Niagara Falls 
and Chicago, joining at Denver a similar party, which leaves St. 
Louis every Wednesday. From Denver the route is over the Scenic 
Denver and Rio Grande Railway, and through Salt Lake City. 

Pullman Tourist Sleeping Cars of a new pattern are used. They are thoroughly com- 
fortable and exquisitely clean, fitted with double windows, high-back seats, carpets, 
spacious toilet-rooms, and the same character of bedding found in Palace Cars. They 
are well heated and .brilliantly lighted with Pintsch gas. Outside they are of the regu- 
lation Pullman color, with wide vestibules of steel and beveled plate glass. Beautifully 
illustrated books on California and Colorado, with maps, train schedules and com- 
plete information can be had from any of the following Burlington Route agents: 



E. J. SWORDS 

370 Broadway 

NEW YORK CITY 

F. E. BELL 

21 1 Clark Street 

CHICAGO, ILL. 



W. J. O'MEARA 

.'{()(> Washington Street 
BOSTON, MASS. 

:. D. HAGERMAN 

70.3 Park Building 

PITTSBURG, PA. 



H. E. HELLER 

f>3ii Chestnut Street 

PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

J. G. DELAPLAINE 

Broadway and Olive Streets 
ST. LOUIS, MO. 



Please mention this Magazine when writing to advertisers. 



NA TIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MA GAZIXE 



M 






:: 

Q 

H 
... 

R 

H 



Shortest Line 



TO 



St. Paul and Minneapolis 



and the Northwest 



7 ^ 

ti 

H 

H 
M 

H 



Chicago 
Great 



Maple 
Leaf 
Route" 



Western 



RAILWAY 



For tickets, rates or any detailed information apply 
to your home' agent or write to 

F. H. LORD, 

Qen'l Pass'r and Ticket Agent, 
CHICAGO. 




H 



X) 



H 



^^^^jj^^jfc^^jfelfe^j^^^^^ji^^jfc^^^^k^^j^ji^^^j^j^g 



« 






-5 



A VITAL POINT 



IMPROVEMENT THE C1DEH OF THE AG 




A TYPEWRITER'S 
PRINTING MECHANISM 

MUST BE SCIENTIFICALLY CON- 
STRUCTED. THIS POINT IS OF 
UTMOST IMPORT FOR 

EASY OPERATION AND 

PERFECT EXECUTION. 

Cbe Smitb.. 



typewriters 



Superior on This Point as Well as on All Others. 



ONLY CORRECT 
PRINCIPLES EMPLOYED. 



The Smith Premier Typewriter Co., 

SYRACUSE, N. Y., U. S. A. 






Catalogues and Information at Washington Office, No. 519 Eleventh Street. 



Please mention this Magazine when writing to advertisers. 



NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE. 



THE AMERICAN 
FORESTRY ASSOCIATION. 

Organized April, 1882, Incorporated January, 1897. 



HRE YOU POSTED ON —~ f^ 

FORESTRY ? 



OF-F-ICE1RS KOR 1SOO: 

President ; Hon. James Wilson, Secretary of Agriculture. 
First / 'ice-Pres.: Dr. B. E. Fernow. Vice-Pres. for District of Columbia: George W. McXanahan. 

Corresponding Sec'y: F. H. Newell. Recording Secretary and Treasurer : George P. Whittlesey. 

The objects of this Association in conserving- the forest wealth of the United States are detailed in 
a pamphlet which will be sent, together with a copy of The Forester^ upon request. 

Patrons, $ioo. Life Membership, $50. Annual Membership, $2. 

American Forestry Association, APPLICATION FOR MEMBERSHIP. 

WASHINGTON, D. C. 

Dear Sir : Please propose my name for membership in THE AMERICAN 
FORESTRY ASSOCIATION. 



{Signed) Name 

P. O. Address 



ALL MEMBERS RECEIVE 



THF FORFSTFR 

THE OFFICIAL MONTHLY MAGAZINE, MIL. I UllLO I Ll\. 

Pertinent papers by forest experts, accurate descriptions of the forests by officials of 
the U. S. Government, scientific forestry at home and abroad, questions of lumbering, 
irrigation, water supply, sheep-grazing, and a keen summary of forest news. 

" ' The Forester' is devoted to the preservation of American forests, which ought to enlist for it the atten- 
tion of every American patriot." — Chicago Advance. 

CORCORAN BUILDING, Washington, D. C. 

WOODWARD & LOTHROP 

invite attention to their selections and importations in desirable 

merchandise for the present season, 

comprising in part 

Paris and London Millinery, Silks, Velvets, 
High-class Dress Goods, Ready-to- Wear 
Outer Garments for Women, Girls and Boys, 
Hand-made Paris Lingerie, Corsets, Infants' 
Outfittings, Hosiery, Laces, Ribbons, Em- 
broideries, Linens, Upholstery Goods, Books, 
Stationery, Card Engraving; also Paris, 
Vienna, and Berlin Novelties in Leather and 
Fancy Goods, Sterling Silver Articles, Lamps, 
Clocks, Bronzes, etc , for Wedding Gifts .... 

10th, llth and F Streets, Washington, D. C. 

Please mention this Magazine when writing to advertisers. 



NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



COMMENCED JANUARY, 1888. TWO VOLUMES PER YEAR, 

"THE AMERICAN GEOLOGIST, 

1900. 



The Oldest Exclusively Geological Magazine Published in America 

TERMS. 

To Subscribers in the United States, Canada and Mexico $3.50 a year 

To other Subscribers in the Postal Union 400 a year 



The AMERICAN GEOLOGIST is issued monthly from the office of publication at Minne- 
apolis, Minnesota, United States of America. Twenty-four volumes are completed; the 
twenty-fifth began with the number for January, 1900. The magazine has received a 
cordial welcome and a generous support from leading geologists everywhere and it is now 
recognized as the exponent of the rapid geological progress that is taking place on 
the continent of North America, including Canada, the United States and Mexico. No- 
where else in the world are geologic phenomena exhibited on a more extensive scale 
and nowhere else are results attained of greater economic and scientific importance. 

The AMERICAN GEOLOGIST lays before its readers from month to month the latest 
results of geological work. In addition to the longer papers it gives synopses of recent 
geological publications and brief notes on current geological events. 

THE GEOLOGICAL PUBLISHING CO., 

Minneapolis, Minn. 

SEND TO THE 

MACMILLAN COMPANY 

For the LATEST TEXT-BOOKS and WORKS OF REFERENCE 

ON EVERY BRANCH OF SCIENCE BY 

LEADING AUTHORS. 



PROF. L. H. BAILEY (Cornell University), 
works on Agriculture and Botany 

PROF. THORP (Mass. Inst. Tech.), on Indus- 
trial Chemistry. $3.50 net. 

PROF. PACKARD (Brown Univ.), on Entomology. 
$4.50 net. 

PROFS. HARKNESS and MORLEY (Bryn 
Mawr and Haverford), Theory of Analytic 
Functions. $3.00 net. 

PROF. DAVENPORT ( Harvard University). 
Experimental Morphology. Vol. I, $2.60; Vol 
II, $2.00. 

PROF. HENRY F. OSBOKN (Columbia Univ.)' 



PROF. NICHOLS and his Colleagues (De- 
partment of Physics, Cornell Univ.), in Physics, 
Electricity, etc. 

PROF. LAMBERT '(Lehigh University), on Dif 
ferenlial and Integral Calculus. J1.50 net. 

PROF. LACHMAN (Univ. of Oregon), The 
Spirit of Organic Chemistry. $1.50 net. 

PROF. TARR (Cornell Univ.), Physical Geogra- 
phy, Geology, etc. 

PROF. COMEY (Tufts College), Dictionary ol 



Editor of the Columbia Biological Series. Chemical Solubilities. 

These are a few only of the names represented in the Catalogue or the New 
Announcement List (sent free). 

THE MACMILLAN COMPANY, Publishers, NEW YORK. 



Please mention this Magazine when writing to advertisers. 



NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



The Leading Scientific Journal of America 

SCIENCE 



A JOURNAL DEVOTED TO THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE. 

PUBLISHED EVERY FRIDAY. 

Annual Subscription, $5.00. Single Copies, 15 Cents. 



From its first appearance, in 1883, Science has maintained a repre- 
sentative position, and is regarded, both here and abroad, as the leading; 
scientific journal of America. 

Its Editors and Contributors come from every institution in this country 
in which scientific work of importance is accomplished, including Harvard, 
Yale, Columbia, Pennsylvania, Johns Hopkins, Cornell, and California 
Universities, among others. 



EDITORIAL COMMITTEE. 

S. Newcomb, Mathematics; R. S.Woodward, Mechanics ; EC. Pickering, Astronomy; 
T. C. Mendenhaix, Physics ; R. H.Thurston, Engineering ; IraRemsen, Chemis- 
try ; J. LE ConTE, Geology ; W. M. Davis, Physiography ; Henry F. Osborn, 
Paleontology ; W. K. Brooks, C. Hart Merriam, Zoology ; S. H. 
SCUDDER, Entomology ; C. E. Bessey, N. L. BriTTON, Botany ; C. S. 
MiNOT, Embryology, Histology ; H. P. BowDiTch, Physiology ; 
J. S. Bilungs, Hygiene ; J. McKEEN CatTEI.Iv, Psychology ; 
J. W. PowEU,, Anthropology. 



NEW AND POPULAR SCIENTIFIC BOOKS. 



MANUAL OF BACTERIOLOGY 

By Robert Muir, M.D.. F.R.C.P., 
Ed., Professor of Pathology, Univer- 
sity of Glasgow, and James Ritchie, 
M.D., Lecturer on Pathology, Uni- 
versity of Oxford. Second edition. 
With 126 illustrations. 

Cloth, Cr. 8vo, $3.25 net. 

OANONQ 

The Teaching Botanist. A Manual 
of information upon Botanical In- 
struction, together with Outlines and 
Directions for a Comprehensive Ele- 
mentary Course. By Wii.ijam F. 
GANONG, Ph.D., Smith College. 

Cloth, i2tno, $1.10 net. 

A manual of information upon botanical in- 
struction, with outlines and directions for an 
elementary course. 



MACBRIDE 

The Slime Moulds. A Handbook of 
North American M)'xomycetes. By 
Thomas H. MacBride, Professor of 
Botany, University of Iowa. 
Cloth,' i2mo. 
A list of all species described in North 
America, including Central America, with an- 
notations. 

5UTER 

Handbook of Optics. For Students 
of Ophthalmology. By Whxiam N. 
SuTER, M. D., National University, 
Washington, D. C. 

Cloth, i2mo, fi.oo net. 

Aims to Rive a clearer insight into the phenom" 
ena of refraction as applied to ophthalmology 
than can be obtained from the usual text-books on 
Refraction of the eye. 



THE MACMILLAN COMPANY, Publishers, NEW YORK. 



Please mention this Magazine when writing to advertisers. 



NA TJOX. 1 L < 7E0GRA I'HIC MA GA ZINE 



APPLETOXS' WORLD SEKIES. 
A New Geographical Library. 



Edited by H. J. MACKINDER, M. A., 

Church, Reader in Geography 
ford, Principal of Reading C< 

12mo. Cloth, $1.50 each. 



Student of Christ Church, Reader in Geography in the University 
of Oxford, Principal of Reading College. 



A COMPLETE ACCOUNT OF THE WORLD, 

The series will consist of twelve volumes, each being an essay descriptive 
of a great natural region, its marked physical features, and the life of its people. 
Together the volumes will give a complete account of the world, more especially 
as tlie field of human activity. 

The series is intended for reading rather than for reference, and will stand 
removed on the one hand from the monumental work of Reclus, and on the 
other from the ordinary text^book, gazetteer, and compendium. 

Each volume is to he illustrated by many maps printed in colors and by 
diagrams in the text, and it will be a distinguishing characteristic of the series 
thai both maps and diagrams will be drawn so that each of them shall convey 
some salient idea, and that together they shall constitute a clear epitome of the 
writer's argument. With a like object, the pictures also will be chosen so as 
to illustrate the text and not merely to decorate it. A detailed announcement 
of this important series will be presented later. 

List of the Subjects and Authors. 

i. Britain and the North Atlantic. By the Editor. 

2. Scandinavia and the Arctic Ocean. By Sir Clements R. Markham, 

K. C. B., F. R. S., President of the Royal Geographical Society. 

3. The Romance Lands and Barbary. By Ellsee Reclus, author of the 

"Nouvelle Geographie Universelle." 

4. Central Europe. By Dr. Joseph Partsch, Professor of Geography in 

the University of Breslau. 

5. Africa. By Dr. J. SCOTT KelTIE, Secretary of the Royal Geographical 

Society ; Editor of " The Statesman's Year-Book. " 

6. The Near East. By D. G. Hogarth, M. A., Fellow of Magdalen Col- 

lege, Oxfonl ; Director of the British School at Athens; Author of "A 
Wandering Scholar in the Levant." 

7. The Russian Empire. By Prince Krapotkin, author of the articles 

"Russia" and "Siberia" in the Encyclopedia Britannica. 

8. The Far East. By Archibald Little. 

9. India. By Sir T. Hungkrford Holdich, K. C. I. E-, C. B., R. E., Su- 

perintendent of Indian Frontier Surveys. 
10. Australasia and Antarctica. By Dr. H. O. Forbes, Curator of the 

Liverpool Museum ; late Curator of the Christ Church Museum, IS. Z. ; 

Author of "A Naturalist's Wanderings in the Eastern Archipelago." 
ii. North America. By Prof. I. C. Russell, University of Michigan. 
12. South America. By l'rof. John C BRANNER, Vice-President Leland 

Stanford Junior University. 

Maps by J. G. Bartholomew. 

D. APPLETON & CO., Publishers, 

NEW YORK. 



Please mention tins Magazine when writing to advertisers. 



NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



IMPORTANT ANNOUNCEHENT! 
THE 

INTERNATIONAL 
GEOGRAPHY. 



The last few years have proved so rich in geographical discov- 
eries that there has been a pressing need for a j'SsitmS of recent ex- 
plorations and changes which should present in convenient and 
accurate form the latest results of geographical work. The addi- 
tions to our knowledge have not been limited to Africa, Asia, and 
the Arctic regions, but even on our own continent the gold of the 
Klondike has led to a better knowledge of the region. The want 
which is indicated will be met by The International Geography, a 
convenient volume for the intelligent general reader, and the librar) r 
which presents expert summaries of the results of geographical sci- 
ence throughout the world at the present time. 

Seventy authors, all experts, have collaborated in the production 
of The International Geography . The contributors include the lead- 
ing geographers and travelers of Europe and America. The work 
has been planned and edited by Dr. H. R. Mill, who also wrote 
the chapter on The United Kingdom. Among the authors are : 

Professor W. M. Davis (The United States), 

Dr. Eridtjof Nansen (Arctic Regions), 

Professor A. Kirchhoff (German Empire), 

Mr. F. C Selous (Rhodesia), 

Professors DE LapparenT and Raveneau (France), 

Sir Clements R. Markham, F. R. S. (Ecuador, Bolivia, and Peru), 

Sir John Murray, F. R. S. (Antarctic Regions), 

Count Pfeil (German Colonies), 

Mr. James Bkyce, M. P. (The Boer Republics), 

Sir H. H. Johnston, the late Sir Lambert Playfair, 

Sir F. J. Goldsmid, Sir Martin Conway, 

Sir George S. Robertson, Sir William MacGregor, 

Sir Charles Wilson, F. R. S. ; the Hon. D. W. Carnegie, 

Mrs. Bishop, Dr. A. M. W. Downing, F. R. S. ; 

Dr. J. vScoTT Kki.tik, and 

Mr. G. G. Curs holm, the editor of the Times Gazetteer. 

The book is illustrated by nearly five hundred maps and diagrams, which 
have been specially prepared. It is designed to present in the compact limits 
of a single volume an authoritative conspectus of the science of geography 
and the conditions of the countries at the end of the nineteenth century. 

D. APPLETON & CO., Publishers, 

72 Fifth Avenue, New York. 



mention this Magazine when writing to advertisers 



NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



NEW BOOKS 



The United States of Europe. W. T. Stead. 

ON THE EVE OF THE PARLIAMENT OF PEACE. 

Mr. Stead's recent talks with the Czar and with all the great European statesmen 
lend much value to this timely review of current politics, written with special reference 
to the Russian Peace Rescript and American "Expansion." It covers such pertinent 
matters as America's task in Cuba and the Philippines, the "Chinese Puzzle," South 
African Problems, the Fashoda Muddle, the Concert of Europe and its work in Crete and 
Candia, and soon, with many suggestive forecasts. 

Size, $% x $>%; pages, 468; over 100 portraits, maps, and illustrations; binding, cloth. 
Price, $2.00. 

Sketches in Egypt. Charles Dana Gibson. 

"Egypt," says Mr. Gibson, " has sat for her likeness longer than any other coun- 
try." The recent important events that have turned all eyes toward the Upper Nile 
have not disturbed in the least the ancient composure and serenity of the Land of the 
Pharoahs, and few countries offer such a tempting field to the artistic pen. Mr. Gibson's 
forceful and suggestive drawings are well reinforced by his written impressions — more 
complete than he has ever before published — and the whole makes up a uniquely in- 
teresting record, from an artist who occupies a peculiar position among us. It is the real 
Egypt from a new standpoint. No pains have been spared to produce a true art work, 
giving really adequate presentations of Mr. Gibson's drawings. 

Size, 7|^xio^; cloth decorated; pages, 150; type, 12 point. Regular edition, $3.00 
net. Edition de Luxe, 250 signed and numbered copies, each accompanied by a portfolio 
containing art proofs of ten of the most important pictures, on Japan silk tissue and 
mounted on plate paper suitable for framing. Price per copy, $10.00 net. 

From Sea to Sea. Rudyard Kipling. 

35th THOUSAND. 

This is an authorized edition of the collected letters of travel which Mr. Rudyard 
Kipling has written at various times between 1889 and 1898, and has just edited and 
revised. It includes hitherto unpublished matter, as well as an accurate text of the 
"American Notes," with " Letters of Marque," " The City of Dreadful Night," "The 
Smith Administration," etc., etc. 

Even Mr. Kipling never wrote anything more entirely irresistible than are, for in- 
stance, his letters on Japan. The ludicrousness of the Japanese "heavy cavalrv," the 
fascinating O-Toyo, the cherry blossoms, and the wonderful art which permeates the 
daily life of natural Japan— all these things become permanent in the reader's mind and 
can never be forgotten; and they show a side of the author which is not at all prominent 
in most of his other work. 

Size, 5x7^; two volumes in box; pages, 860; type, 10 point; binding, cloth. 
Price, $2.00. * 6 JF f , s. 

DOUBLEDAY & McCLURE CO., 

141-155 East 25th Street, New York. 



Please mention this Magazine when writing to advertisers. 



NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



The American Anthropologist. 

The only American magazine devoted to the science of Anthropology ; 
published at the National Capital. No one interested in anthropology in any 
of its branches can afford to be without it. Subscribe today. 



Handsomely Printed and Illustrated. Published Quarterly. Four Dollars a Year. 

Address: THE AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGIST, 

G. P. Putnam's Sons, 27 and 29 West 23d Street, New York City. 




A practical journalist, long a member of the staff of the Washington Evening Star, resigned 
his position to fio to Oiiati-iiial.-i. Hi-fore ho I < • ft. Washington be had been a firm believer in tin- 
medicinal qualities of Ripans Tabules, and took a lot of them with him to Guatemala, where he 
earned the friendship of the captain of the steamer, which sails from San Francisco and stops at 
ports in Central America, by making known to him the marvelous virtues of R-I-P-A-N-3 the 
medical wonder of the oentury. lie often dilates upon the; captain's enthusiasm about the Tabules 
thai the people of the tropics suffer terribly from Indigestion, and that the Tabules 
are now known most favorably throughout Central America, Ripans Tabules quiet the nerves, 
compose the mind, allay Irritation, and ln\ ite reposi , gives relief. 

WANTED :— A case of bad health that R-l P-A-N-8 will not benefit. They banish pain and 
prolong life. One gives relief. Note the word R-I-P-A-N-8 on the package and accept no substitute 
R-l-P-A-N-8. 10 for 6 cents, or twelve packets for is cents, may be had at any drug store Ten 
sample- ana one thousand testimonl tie » ill be mailed to any address foi 5 oents, forwarded to the 
Ripane Chemical I o., No. 10 Spruce St., New York. 



Please mention this Magazine when writing to advertisers. 



NA TIONA L GEO OR A PHIC MA GA ZIXE 



ANNOUNCEMENTS OF THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY. 



All announcements of the Society are published regularly in the National 
Geographic Magazine. 



THE ANNUAL RECEPTION. The Board of Managers has deemed it advisable, in 
view of the proposed excursion to Norfolk, Virginia, on May 27-28, to substitute for the 
formal Annual Reception an informal meeting of the Society, at which eclipse phenom- 
ena and methods of observation will be discussed by well-known astronomers. The 
meeting will be held at National Rifles' Armory Thursday, May 3, at 8 P. M. 

SHORT DISTANCE EXCURSION, SATURDAY, MAY 12 . Persons taking part 
in this excursion will proceed by electric cars to Anacostia and thence on foot to the top 
of Good Hope Hill, thence to Fort Stanton and Congress Heights, returning on the 
electric cars from the latter point. The party will rendezvous at the east end of 
Anacostia Bridge at 2 P. M. 

An account of the physical development of the District of Columbia region, all the 
prominent features of which can be viewed from Fort Stanton, will be given, and atten- 
tion will also be devoted to the historical features. Special invitations for this excursion 
will be extended to teachers of physical geography in the public schools of this city. 
There will be no expenses except for car-fare. Omnibuses will be on hand for the ac- 
commodation of those who do not care to walk up Good Hope Hill. 

SHORT DISTANCE EXCURSION, SATURDAY, MAY 26 . This excursion will 
be a trip to Bladensburg and return. Persons intending to join the excursion will ren- 
dezvous at the corner of 15th and G Streets at 1.30 P. M. This trip promises to be of 
special interest, in view of the historic associations connected with the early historv of 
Bladensburg and vicinity. Attention will be given to the botany, geology, and espe- 
cially the history of the region visited. The expense will be twenty cents for the round 
trip. 

In case of rain on any of the dates above named, the excursions will be postponed 
until the succeeding .Saturday. 

THE ANNUAL FIELD MEETING 

of the National Geographic Society lias been arranged so that the members of the 
Society may have an opportunity to observe the total eclipse of the sun which takes 
place on Monday, May 28. As the center of the belt of totality will pass near 
Norfolk, Virginia, the board of managers of the. Society have made a conditional contract 
with the Norfolk & Washington Steamboat Company for an excursion to that city and 
vicinity. The party will leave Washington by the Norfolk & Washington steamer at 
7 o'clock P. M., Sunday, May 27. Returning, leave Norfolk at C> o'clock Monday afternoon, 
reaching Washington on Tuesday morning in time for breakfast at home. 

The total duration of the eclipse will be 2 hours, 34 minutes, and 6 seconds, of which 
1 minute and 26 seconds will be total. The eclipse will be entirely over at 10:15.6 A. M., 
and from that hour until 6 o'clock the steamer will be at the disposal of the party for a 
cruise around the harbor and visits to the many points of interest around Norfolk, such 
as the Navy Yard, Portsmouth, Newport News, Fortress Monroe, the Indian industrial 
School at Hampton, etc. 

The cost of the round-trip ticket (including transportation and three meals on boat 



NA TIONA L GEOGRA PHIG MA GA ZIXE 



Monday, but not including sleeping accommodations) will be $6. The charge for state- 
rooms, accommodating two persons, will be from $1 to $3 for each person, according to 
location. The larger staterooms can be made to accommodate 3 persons by placing a cot 
therein. A charge of fifty cents will be made in such cases. Cots in the main saloon 
will be charged for at the rate of fifty cents. These rates are for the round trip. 

The number of tickets to be sold is limited to 250, and as there are only 90 state- 
rooms, accommodating 180 persons, on the boat, they will be allotted to members in 
order of their application. Members who desire staterooms or cots should make their 
reservations as early as possible. A guarantee deposit of $2 on each ticket will be re- 
quired when the rooms are reserved. 

A diagram of the steamer showing the location and prices of rooms will be found at 
the Offices of the Society, Rooms 107=108, Corcoran Building, Washington, D. C, 



ESPECIALLY VALUABLE IN 1900. 



"THE MOVEMENTS OF OUR POPULATION," 

By HENRY GANNETT, Geographer of the U. S. Geological Survey, 

IN THE 
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE, Vol. V, No. 2. 



In this article Mr. Gannett shows the numerical increase of the population of the 
United States, its geographic distribution over the country, and its composition as regards 
sex, race, and nativity, not only at present but in past times. Nineteen charts illustrate 
the text, showing the proportion of Germans, French, British, Canadians, etc., to our 
total population, the centers of population during each decade since 1790, the proportions 
of urban and rural population since 1790, and other information valuable in this year of 
the twelfth census of the United States. 

By mail for 50 cents. 

NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE, 

Corcoran Building-, Washington, D. C. 

Henry Romeike's Bureau of Press Cuttings, 

no Fifth Avenue, New York, 

Reads every paper of importance published in the United States, and 
through its European Agencies in London, Paris, Berlin, and Vienna every 
paper of importance published in Europe and the British Colonies. One 
subscription on any given subject will bring notices from the United States, 
and if desired also from the European papers. 

$ WRITE FOR TERMS C 



NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




SOUTHERN RAILWAY 

GREATEST SOUTHERN SYSTEM, 

TO ALL POINTS SOUTH, SOUTHEAST, AND SOUTHWEST. 

Through Pullman Drawing - Room Sleeping - Cars from New 
York and Washington to New Orleans, Memphis, Port 
Tampa, Jacksonville, Augusta, and Intermediate Points — 
First-Class Day Coaches— Dining Car Service. 

Fast Trains for the SOUTH leave "Washington Daily at 11.15 A. M., 6.35 
P. M., 9.50 P. M., and 10.45 P. M. 

Through Tourist car on the 10.45 P. M. Train every Monday, Wednesday, 
and Friday for Texas, Arizona, and California points, without change. 

Direct line to the Summer Resorts in Virginia and the Carolinas and the 
"Winter Resorts of Florida, Gulf Coast, Texas, Mexico, and California. 

Direct Through Car Line to and from Asheville, Hot Springs, and other 
Western North Carolina points— " THE LAND OF THE SKY." 

For Map Folders, Summer Homes Folder, and Book on 'ASHEVILLE 
AND THEREABOUTS" write to— 

A. S. THWEATT, Eastern Passenger Agent, 271 Broadway, New York, N. Y. 
J. C. HORTON, Passenger Agent, 201 E. Baltimore Street, Baltimore, Md. 
L. S. BROWN. General Agent, 705 Fifteenth St. N. W., Washington, 1). C. 
\s . li. BROWN, Passenger Agent, Norfolk, Ya. 

S. H. HARDWICK, Assistant General Passenger Agent, Atlanta, Ga. 

C. A. BKNSCOTER, Assistant General Passenger Agent, Chattanooga, Tenn. 

W. H. TAYLOE, Assistant General Passenger Agent, Louisville, Ky. 

J. M. CULP, Traffic Manager. W. A. TURK, General Passenger Agent, 

Washington. D. C. 

The Mutual Life Insurance Co. 

OF NEW YORK, 

RICHARD A. McCURDY, President, 

Is the Largest Insurance Company in the World. 



The Records of the Insurance Department of the State of New 

York SHOW THAT The Mutual Life 

Has a Larger Premium Income ... ($39,000,000) 

More Insurance in Force ($918,000,000) 

A Greater Amount of Assets - ($235,000,000) 

A Larger Annual Interest Income - - - ($9,000,000) 

Writes More New Business ... - ($136,000,000) 

And Pays More to Policy-holders - - ($25,000,000 in 1896) 

THAN ANY OTHER COMPANY. 

It has paid to Policy-holders since I MQ7 ftft c iqc oq 

its organization, in 1843, f " " *437,UU0,1S».<« 

ROBERT A. GRANNISS, Vice-President. 
WALTER R. GILLETTE. General Manager. FREDERIC CROMWELL, Treasurer. 

'SAAC F. LLOYD, Second Vice-President. EMORY McCLINTOCK, Actuary. 

■WILLIAM J. EASTON. Secretary. 



Please mention this Magazine when writing to advertisers. 



BACK NUMBERS OF THE 

National Geographic Magazine 

The National Geographic Magazine has a few unbound volumes for 
the years 1896, 1897, and 1898. Each volume contains numerous maps and 
illustrations and much valuable geographic matter. It is impossible to give 
the contents of each volume, but the following subjects show their wide 
range and scope : 

Vol. VII, 1896 : Russia in Europe, by the late Hon. Gardiner G. Hubbard ; 
The Scope and Value of Arctic Exploration, by Gen. A. W. Greely, U.S.A. ; Venezuela, 
Her Government, People, and Boundary, by William E. Curtis; The So-called 
Jeanette Relics, by Wm. H. Dall ; Nansen's Polar Expedition, by Gen. A. W. Greely, 
U.S.A.; The Submarine Cables of the World (with chart 49x30 inches); Seriland, 
by W J McGee and Willard D. Johnson ; The Discovery of Glacier Bay, Alaska, by 
E. R. Scidmore ; Hydrography in the United States, by F. H. Newell ; Africa since 
1888, by the late Hon. Gardiner G. Hubbard ; The Seine, The Meuse, and The Moselle, 
by Prof. Wm. M. Davis ; The Work of the U. S. Board on Geographic Names, by Henry 
Gannett ; A Journey in Ecuador, by W. B. Kerr ; Geographic History of the Piedmont 
Plateau, by W J McGee ; The Recent Earthquake Wave on the Coast of Japan, by E. R. 
Scidmore ; California, by Senator Geo. C. Perkins ; The Witwatersrand and the Revolt 
of the Uitlanders, by George F. Becker; The Sage Plains of Oregon, by F. V. Coville. 

Vol. VIII, 1897: The Gold Coast, Ashanti and Kumassi, by Geo. K. French ; 
Crater Lake, Oregon, by J. S. Diller ; Storms and Weather Forecasts, by Willis L. Moore ; 
Rubber Forests of Nicaragua and Sierra Leone, by Gen. A. W. Greely, U.S.A. ; A Sum- 
mer Voyage to the Arctic, by G. R. Putnam ; A Winter Voyage through the Straits of 
Magellan, by the late Admiral R. W. Meade, U.S.N. ; Costa Rica, by Senor Ricardo 
Villafranca ; The National Forest Reserve, by F. H. Newell ; The Forests and Deserts of 
Arizona, by B. E. Fernow ; Modification of the Great Lakes by Earth Movement, by G. K. 
Gilbert; The Enchanted Mesa, by F. W. Hodge; Patagonia, by J. B. Hatcher; The 
Washington Aqueduct and Cabin John Bridge, by Capt. D. D. Gaillard, U.S.A. 

Vol. IX, 1898 : Three Weeks in Hubbard Bay, West Greenland, by Robert 
Stein; The Modern Mississippi Problem, by W J McGee; Dwellings of the Saga-Time 
in Iceland, Greenland, and Vineland, by Cornelia Horsford ; Articles on Alaska, by Gen. 
A. W. Greely, U.S.A., Hamlin Garland, E. R. Scidmore, Prof. Wm. H. Dall, and others; 
on Cuba, by Robert T. Hill, Frank M. Chapman, John Hyde, and Henry Gannett; on 
the Philippines, by Dean C. Worcester, Col. F. F. Hilder, John Hyde, and Charles E. 
Howe; American Geographic Education, by W J McGee; Origin of the Physical 
Features of the United States, by G. K. Gilbert; Geographic Work of the General 
Government, by Henry Gannett ; Papagueria, by W J McGee ; The Bitter Root Forest 
Reserve, by R. U. Goode ; Lake Chelan, by Henry Gannett ; The Geospheres, by W J 
Mc( ice; Sumatra's West Coast, by D. G. Fairchild; The Five Civilized Tribes in the 
Survey of Indian Territory, by C. H. Fitch ; Cloud Scenery of the High Plains, by 
Willard D. Johnson; Atlantic Coast Tides, by M. S. W. Jefferson. 



Each volume may be had for $2.00. To obtain any of the 
above mentioned articles, send 25 cents in stamps, indicating 
merely the title of the article desired. 



107-108 Corcoran Building, Washington, D. C. 



CHART OF THE WORLD 

48x30 INCHES 

Showing all Submarine Cables and the principal 
Connecting Land Lines, and also Coaling, 
Docking, and Repairing Stations. 

No. 3, Vol. 7. By Mail for 25 Cents. 



THE PHILIPPINES 

The Economic Condition of the Philippines. By 
Max L. Toniow, of Berlin and Manila. 

Manila and the Philippines. By Major Von Son- 
nenberg, of the Imperial German Army, late 
military attache at Manila. 
No. 2, Vol. 10. By Mail for 25 Cents. 

The Philippine Islands (with maps). By F. F. Hilder. 
Notes on Some Primitiye Philippine Tribes. By 
Dean C. Worcester. 

Commerce of the Philippine Islands. By the Editor. 
No. 6, Vol. 9. By Mail for 25 Cents. 



THE REDWOOD FOREST 

The Redwood Forest of the Pacific Coast. By 
Henry Gannett. In this article Mr. Gannett 
shows the geographic distribution, the average 
annual cut, and the estimated duration of the 
supply of redwood. 

Is Climatic Aridity Impending on the Pacific Coast? 
The Testimony of the Forest. By J. B. Leiberg. 

No. 5, Vol. 10. By Mail for 25 Cents. 



THE TRANSVAAL 

The Witwatersrand and the Revolt of the Uit- 
landers (1895-6.) By George F. Becker. 
No. 11, Vol. 7. By Mail for 25 Cents. 

NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE, Corcoran Bldg., Washington, D. C. 



JUDD d. DETWEILER, PRINTERS, WASHIINGTON, D. C. 



Vol. XI JUNE, 1900 No. 6 



THE 

NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC 



MAGAZINE 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

THE ROAD TO BOLIVIA WILLIAM E. CURTIS 209 

"With illustrations 

THE COLONIAL EXPANSION OF FRANCE JEAN C. BRACQ 225 

"With map 

THE PREVENTION OF HAILSTORMS BY THE USE OF CANNON... 239 

THE U. S. SIGNAL CORPS IN PORTO RICO 242 

With map 

THE REVOLT OF THE ASHANTIS 244 

GEOGRAPHIC MISCELLANEA 245 



WASHINGTON 
PUBLISHED BY THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 

Fob Sai.k at Bbbntano 
31 Union Bquarb, Nkw Yobk; L015 Pennsylvania Avkntk, Washington; 
218 Wabash Avi.mk. Chicago; •>7 Avbhui kk l'Opbka, Pabu 



Price 25 Cents $2.50 a Year 



inc. 

National Geographic Magazine 

AN ILLUSTRATED MONTHLY 



Editor: JOHN HYDE, 

Statistician of the U. S. Department of Agriculture 

Associate Editors 

General a. W. Greely, Marcus Baker, 

Chief Signal Officer, U. S. Army U. S. Geological Survey 

W J McGee, Willis L. Moore, 

Ethnologist in Charge, Bureau of Chief of the Weather Bureau, U. S. 

American Ethnology \ Department of Agriculture 

Henry Gannett, H. S. Pritchett, 

Chief Geographer, U. S. Geological Superintendent of the U. S. Coast 

Survey and Geodetic Survey 

C. Hart Merkiam, O. P. Austin, 

Chief of the Biological Survey, U. S. Chief of the Bureau of Statistics, 

Department of Agriculture U. S. Treasury Department 

David J. Hill, Charles H. Allen, 

Assistant Secretary of State Governor of Porto Rico 

Eliza Ruhamah Scidmore, Carl Louise Garrison, 

Author of t( fava, the Garden of Principal of Phelps School, IVash- 

the East," etc. ington, D. C. 



Assistant Editor: GILBERT H. GROSVENOR, Washington, D. C. 



The list of contributors to the National Geographic Magazine 
includes nearly every United States citizen whose name has become iden- 
tified with Arctic exploration, the Bering Sea controversy, the Alaska and 
Venezuela boundar}' disputes, or the new commercial and political questions 
arising from the acquisition of the Philippines. 

The following articles will appear in the Magazine within the next few 
months : 

"The Growth of Germany," by Professor J. L. Ewell of Howard University. 

"The Dikes of Holland," by Gerard H. Matthes, U. S. Geological Survey. 

"The Annexation of the West," by F. H. Newell, Hydrographer, U. S. Geological 
Survey. 

"The Growth of England," by Dr Edwin D. Mead, Editor of the New England 

Magazine. 

"The Native Tribes of Patagonia," by Mr J. B. Hatcher of the Carnegie Museum, 
Pittsburg, Pennsylvania. 

"Explorations on the Yangtse-Kiaug, China," by Mr Wm. Barclay Parsons, C. E., 
surveyor of the railway route through the Yangtse-Kiang Valley. 

Entered at tbe Post-office in Washington, D. C, as Second-class Mail Matter. 



THE 



NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 

Vol. XI JUNE, 1900 No. 6 



THE ROAD TO BOLIVIA 
By William E. Curtis 

It takes seven days to make the voyage from New York to the 
Isthmus ; three days from New Orleans, and two from Tampa ; but the 
latter routes are impracticable on account of the quarantine regula- 
tions. There is always more or less fever at the Isthmus. It is dif- 
ficult to keep it away, because Colon and Panama are filled with human 
driftwood and are asylums for refugees from plagues, politics, and 
criminal courts. The last yellow fever was brought to Panama, cu- 
riously enough, by seven friars from the Philippine Islands. They 
are all dead but one. Panama is the home of political exiles, unsuc- 
cessful revolutionists, and banished presidents of the Central and South 
American republics. It has a fine hotel, a number of handsome res- 
idences, and no end of ruins, which have been accumulating since 
the time when the governor of the first colony on the American Con- 
tinent began a history that has no parallel for conspiracy and intrigue 
on the American Continent. 

Usually the voyage from New York is delightful. People always 
expect a little weather off Cape Hatteras, but when you pass that un- 
lucky coast and cross the Gulf Stream you put on lighter clothing and 
rejoice in the trade winds which temper the heat of the tropics. The 
days and nights are of equal length. The sunsets are as gorgeous as 
you see on the Mediterranean, and there is no twilight. The sun rises 
promptly at the time appointed in the almanac, and when his day's 
work is done he drops below the horizon ;is a tired sailor tumbles into 
his bunk. 

As an Irishman would say, the first land you sec is a Lighthouse, 
striped like a stick of candy, that marks Watlings Island, where Co- 
lumbus stumbled upon a new world. There is a little settlement of 
negroes and a white magistrate to represent tli<' sovereignty of Queen 
10 



210 THE ROAD TO BOLIVIA 

Victoria. After leaving Watlings the steamer treads its way through 
the Bahama Archipelago, giving the passengers a panorama of coral 
islands, where the sponge-fishers live, groves of cocoanut trees, and 
lonely lighthouses that guide the ship to Colon, which from the deck 
of a steamer is one of the prettiest towns on the coast, but when you 
get ashore is a disappointment and a delusion. The harbor is in- 
closed with beautiful hills, whose bright-green foliage never fades, and 
groups of palms nod lazil} r to each other as they admire the reflection 
of their own beauty in the water. The palm is the peacock of plants. 
It is the most graceful tree that grows, but you can't help despising 
it for being so vain and conceited. 

The railroad company occupies one end of the town with shops and 
boarding-houses, and at the other end is a group of ornate and elab- 
orate gingerbread villas erected for the comfort of the large and lux- 
urious staff of the canal company. They had clubs, billiard-rooms, 
libraries, hospitals, and everything that a colony of cultured gentle- 
men could desire except churches. The French christened the canal 
company Christo Colombo, but the Americans call it Colon. One of 
the most beautiful and costly and at the same time inappropriate 
statues to the great discoverer overlooks the entrance to the canal. 
It was erected by the ex-Empress Eugenie, and represents Columbus 
in the garb of a student, with a benign expression on his countenance 
and his hands resting on the tresses of a crouching Indian girl. 

A surprising amount of work has been done by the Panama Canal 
Company, contrary to an almost universal misconception that exists 
among the American people. De Lesseps dug two ditches, each about 
L8 miles in length, from Colon and Panama toward the center of the 
Isthmus, which are now partially filled with debris. The new com- 
pany has been working in the interior, cutting through the summit 
of the continental divide, which here rises only ■'>■','■'> feet above the 
sea, and, with one exception, is the lowest point of land between 
Bering Sea and the Straits of Magellan. The great obstacle that 
stands in the way of the Panama Canal is the Chagres River, which 
receives the drainage of a large area and is perhaps the most depraved 
and unreliable stream in existence. There are two seasons, the wet 
and the dry. For five months it rains a torrent every da} r , a rainfall 
of about four feet a month. The remainder of the year there is no 
rain at all. Thus for five months the Chagres River is a Niagara, and 
for seven months a shallow, stagnant stream. The problem is to 
regulate the rainfall so that it will not wash the canal away in the 
wet season and leave the upper levels without water in the dry. 



THE ROAD TO BOLIVIA 



211 




ol'KMNi; TEAK]. llYSTKKS- 



Panama is one of the oldest and quaintest towns in America. 
Santo Domingo antedates it a few years, but it was the first settle- 
ment on tierra firme, and the ruins of the original cit}^ still lie on the 
shore of the hay four miles south as they were left by Morgan, the 
famous buccaneer, who burned and blew up 7,000 houses. The pres- 
ent city dates back to lGTo. In 184'.) it was the principal station on 
the route to California. In 1879 the Frenchmen came with their 
millions, and everybody had money to burn. Then, after a hysterical 
period, Panama settled down to the sleepy existence which it still 
retains. The harbor is beautiful, and a group of islands lying about 
two miles from the city is the headquarters of several steamship com- 
panies which furnish transportation facilities for the west coast of 
America. 

The voyage from Panama south is one of the most fascinating and 
comfortable thai the -alt. water affords. You are always sure of fine 
weather, line ship-, ami a good 9ea. Lt never rains, it never blows, 
and the swell is not heavy enough to make ordinary people seasick. 
Prom Guayaquil to Valparaiso the passengers are almost always in 



212 THE ROAD TO BOLIVIA 

sight of the Andes, whose feet are buried in the' desert lands, whose 
breasts are wrapped in the foamy clouds, and whose peaks are crowned 
with spotless snow. The spectacle of the Chimborazo rising like a 
king among an army of Titans is surpassed by few mountain views, 
and the scenery during the entire distance is always picturesque. 

The temperature south of Panama is much cooler than north of the 
Isthmus, for the heat is tempered by the Humboldt Current, a cold 
stream that comes up from the Antarctic zone to cool the atmosphere 
of the west coast, just as the Gulf Stream brings the warm waters of 
the tropics to moderate the climate of Europe and North America ; 
for you know that if it were not for the Gulf Stream everybody in 
New England would be living like the Eskimo and potatoes would 
not grow in Ireland. 

We crossed the equator at six o'clock, Sunday, July 2, 1899. The 
thermometer stood at seventy-six degrees in the chart-room, on the 
shady side of the ship, and at seventy-eight degrees in the compan- 
ion-way leading to the dining-room. On the "Fourth of Jul}'', three 
degrees south of the equator, it was seventy-six at noon and eighty- 
one at four o'clock. 

From the deck of the steamer in the evening, Guayaquil looks like 
a little Paris. It lies along the bank of the River Guayas, and the 
main street, called El Malecon, stretches for two miles or more from 
a shipyard to a fortress-crowned hill with two decrepit old guns, 
which are supposed to protect the harbor. El Malecon appears to 
be lined with long blocks of beautiful marble and stone, and in the 
evening is brilliantly illuminated. Here appears a row of palaces, 
then a group of clubs, and beyond a series of blazing ball-rooms. 
In the morning from shipboard the illusion is not dispelled, and the 
view is quite as imposing. The architecture is pure and graceful, 
much of the Moorish order, and the rest on more delicate lines— long 
arcades like those on the Rue de Rivoli or the Palais Roy ale of Paris, 
and above them balconies sheltered by blinds and awnings of gay 
canvas have an oriental look. A little railway, with tiny cars drawn 
by diminutive locomotives, carries heavy loads of merchandise, cocoa, 
and sugar between the docks and the warehouses. 

An interesting kind of craft on Guayas River was called caballitos, 
or "little horses," which consists of bundles of rushes and reeds 
lashed together and forming a narrow float or raft that tapers off at 
one end like a gondola. They are as difficult to handle as a canoe T 
and are used chiefly for fishing. The caballitos look very frail and 



THE ROAD TO BOLIVIA 



213 



dangerous when you see them in the water, but it is impossible to 
sink them. 

When you leave the Guayas River to go southward you strike the 
" Zona Seca," the desert coast, as soon as you pass the boundary of 
Peru. The steamer follows the shore as closel} r as safety will allow. 
The surf has pounded it until the soft places have yielded and its pres- 
ent outlines resemble the wind-carved cliffs on the American desert, 
and scattered along are many islands gray with guano, dropped by 
the millions of water birds that make their home along the way-worn 
and forbidding shore. There are a few indifferent harbors, but most 
of the towns lie up- 
on the unprotected 
beach, and commu- 
nication between 
the steamer and the 
shore is carried on 
in large launches, 
made so buoyant 
that they ride safely 
through the surf. 

Like the arid 
lands of Arizona 
and southern Cali- 
fornia, the desert 
coast of Peru is rich 
in vegetable life 
wherever it can be 
moistened. About 
once in a generation 

A CABALLTTOB 

a shower escapes 

from the mountains, and the hitherto lifeless earth is immediately 
illuminated with fruits and flowers whose germs have lain dormant 
from remote cycles. In 18 ( .)2 there fell a series of unprecedented 
rains. The desert was alive with plants and blossoms where nothing 
but Lifeless sand had been before, and where the seeds < -aim- from 
is a question no one has ever been able to answer. 

The steamer stops at every town for an hour or two, Long enough 
to take on and discharge cargo, and the passengers can go ashore and 
enjoy diversions from the voyage, which are always interesting. We 

saw funerals and weddings and busy market- and many queer things 

unique to this locality. 




214 



THE ROAD TO BOLIVIA 







A PANAMA LAUNDRY 



Back of the port of Pacasmayo, across the desert and the first moun- 
tain range, is the town of Caxamarca, where the traveler may still see 
the remains of the palace in which Pizarro and his legions strangled 
Atahualpa, the last of the Incas, and butchered the members of his 
court after he had filled his prison with gold ; and farther down the 



THE ROAD TO BOLIVIA 215 

coast, below Lima, in the midst of the desert, are the ruins of the 
ancient city of Pachacamac, the Rome and the Mecca of the Incas, 
where several square miles of roofless and crumbling walls stand as 
mute but impressive witnesses of the thorough manner in which the 
Spaniards civilized the new world. 

Pachacamac was the Christ of the Incas, sent by his father, the Sun, 
to redeem the world, to give life to mankind and all things necessary 
for their well-being and happiness. But one temple in the entire 
empire was dedicated to that supreme being, to which pilgrims were 
continually coming and going, because it was the duty of every in- 
habitant once in his lifetime to offer sacrifices and worship there ; 
and to be buried in the neighborhood of the temple was the supreme 
ambition-of all believers. Immense buildings, now in ruins, were 
occupied by priests and nuns, who dedicated their lives to the service 
of the god, and surrounding them was an assemblage of spacious edi- 
fices adorned with enormous wealth, which furnished an irresistible 
temptation to the avaricious Spaniard. Francisco Pizarro sent his 
brother Hernando to plunder the city, and amazing stories are told 
of the silver and gold that he carried away. The ruins of Pacha- 
camac remain as he left them, after he despoiled the temples and 
palaces and butchered the inhabitants. They are the most accessible 
as well as one of the most interesting examples of Inca architecture. 

Surrounding the city is a cemetery that extends for many miles, 
where millions upon millions of pious Incas were buried during the 
centuries that preceded the Spanish occupation. The theory of the 
resurrection of the body and the immortality of the soul caused 
them to preserve the dead with great care, and to bury with them the 
utensils and ornaments which they used in life. Taking advantage 
of this custom, archaeologists and treasure-seekers have excavated 
large areas in search of mummies, gold and silver ornaments, and 
other valuable objects that the graves contain. The cemetery has. 
been the scene of such vandalism that it is now a repulsive golgotha, 
covered with skulls and bleached bones, broken pottery, and the 
cerements which have been stripped from the dead. 

At the foot of the hill, where stood the Temple of the Sun, was a 
va.st building, supposed to have been a convent, in which thousands 
of women spent their lives spinning and weaving robes for the royal 
family and vestments for the priests. Its noble walls have made a 
heroic resistance againsl time and decay during the four centuries 
since the Spaniard* stripped them of their treasures. Under their 



216 THE ROAD TO BOLIVIA 

shadows we took our noon-day rest, eating luncheon and talking of 
the wonders and the mysteries of the sacred place, while a daughter 
of the Incas brought a bundle of sugar cane upon her hack to feed 
our horses. 

The west coast of South America has been called a panorama of 
desolation, being a constant succession of barren cliffs, with scarcely 
a lovely thing for 1,500 miles. The town of Mollendo, the terminus 
of the railway that connects Bolivia and the interior of Peru with 
the coast, is built upon a rock that extends into the ocean. Ugly 
looking crags project in all directions and make the landing look 
dangerous, although in reality they are a protection, by breaking the 
force of the surf that rolls in unbroken from the wide Pacific ; for, 
as our captain suggested, what else can you expect when you have 
nothing else but Australia for a breakwater. 

Although Mollendo is the second seaport in importance of Peru, 
the surf is so bad that people cannot always land there. Sometime- 
passengers on the steamers have to continue to the next port and 
remain until the surf subsides. At all times the experience of land- 
ing is not such as to encourage nervous and timid people, although 
it furnishes the passengers who are lucky enough to remain on 
board with some exciting and amusing spectacles. 

The water used by the people of Mollendo is brought 85 miles 
in an 8-inch pipe, which lies partly under ground and partly on the 
surface of the desert, along the line of the railway from the River Chile 
which is tapped in the mountains at a height of 7. '275 feet above the 
sea-level. Farther south, at Iquique, they have a similar pipe, which 
brings the water 148 miles, and that which supplies Antofagasta is 
185 miles long. The water is used both for consumption and irriga- 
tion, and wherever it touches the soil there springs forth 'most luxu- 
riant vegetation. 

For the first ten miles out of Mollendo the railway runs along the 
beach ; then it enters a quedebra or ravine, and begins its weary climb 
up the mountain side. It passes first through a region of rocks and 
sand upheaved by some great cataclysm, and continues to wind like 
a snake in and out of the irregularities of the mountains. There are 
double curves and serpentines and horseshoes, and at places you can 
see three or four levels, one above the other, on the same mountain. 
The first station after leaving the seashore lies at an elevation of 1,000 
feet, and there is an average rise of 800 feet between stations thereafter 
until we reach Arequipa, which is about 8,000 feet above tidewater 



THE ROAD TO BOLIVIA 217 

There are no tunnels and only one bridge the entire distance, but the 
heavy construction is continued, the roadway being actually carved out 
of the rocks with shovels and picks and dynamite. The train creeps 
along at the rate of 10 miles an hour — an engine and two cars, the first 
a combination of second-class and baggage, and the other neatly up- 
holstered for the use of the first-class passengers. At the stations piles 
of freight are awaiting shipment and droves of patient, melancholy 
burros, with monstrous heads and legs like pipestems, gaze indiffer- 
ently at the train, as if unconscious of its competition. 

At every station there is a long wait, and the passengers alight to 
buy food of the Indian women, who cook it on the spot. About half 
way to Arequipa appears a group of splendid mountains — Carachani, 
which is 20,800 feet; Coropuno, one of the highest peaks in South 
America, which measures 22,000 feet, and Misti, a slumbering vol- 
cano that rises from the desert like a stately dome. 

At frequent intervals crosses have been erected where men have 
died, and there is a ghastly shrine hung with ribs, thigh-bones, skulls, 
and other melancholy reminders of the uncertainty of human life 
upon these awful deserts ; some of the victims died of disease during 
the construction of the railway, others perished of thirst or exhaus- 
tion while crossing the pampas ; all of them were once buried in the 
sand, but the wind uncovered their bones, which kindly hands have 
collected and hung about the emblem of the crucifixion. 

Upon the desolate pampas of Peru is found an extraordinary phe- 
nomenon known as medanos — crescent-shaped piles of white crystals 
rising to a height of sometimes twelve and sometimes twenty feet at the 
center of the arc, and molded with perfect symmetry. The arms of 
the crescents are of equal length, and always point to the north. The 
mi da mis move continually, making an average distance of about 10 
feet a month ; but each pile keeps its own sand, and in a mysterious 
manner they never mix, nor do they increase in numbers. Veterans 
who have been passing over the desert for half a century claim that 
the number of medanoa is no greater now than it was twenty-five or 
thirty years ago. 

The valley broadens as you approach Arequipa, and its fertility is 
shown by an emerald ribbon thai illuminates the gloomy grandeur 
of the scenery. Irrigating ditches creep around the mountain sides 
and empty their contents over the slopes. Farmhouses are built of 
Loose boulders, without mortar, and are thatched with roofs of straw 
in the shape of pyramids, over which a coating of clay has been placed 



THE ROAD TO BOLIVIA 219 

to protect them from the rain and wind. On almost every farm is a 
circular corral built of boulders, with a stone floor, in which the 
wheat is trampled out of the straw by the hoofs of the animals ; and 
many other curious and interesting objects are seen on every hand. 

Arequipa is a quaint and queer old town, and has the reputation of 
being the most religious city in the world. Freemasons are not al- 
lowed to live there, Protestants are ostracized, and the people devote 
a great part of their time to religious ceremonies. Again, it is equally 
famous for the purity of its atmosphere. The air is said to be clearer 
and the sky bluer than anywhere else. Being surrounded by deserts, 
every breeze that reaches Arequipa is sapped of moisture. Nothing 
putrefies ; decay is arrested in animate as well as inanimate life, so 
that everything dead dries up and blows away. 

Arequipa has been celebrated, too, for several centuries as a seat of 
learning and a center of literary life. The most influential citizens 
are the monks. It has produced many famous ecclesiastical scholars 
and statesmen, and, although its university is not so much sought by 
students as it used to be, many young men are sent there from all 
parts of South America to be educated. 

Another source of satisfaction is that the old Spanish families have 
kept their blood pure and can trace their pedigree back further, it is 
claimed, than those of any other part of South America. Therefore 
they are proud — very proud — and exclusive. But pure air and pure 
blood are about all they have to brag of, for in the preservation of 
their dignity and the contemplation of their virtues they have little 
time to devote to their other pursuits, and poverty prevails to a most 
painful degree among some of the oldest and most aristocratic fam- 
ilies. The women are beautiful; the men are reserved and austere. 
Progress and modern ideas are looked upon as an evidence of vul- 
garity, and the fact that Arequipa is so slow and old-fashioned is a 
matter of congratulation rather than regret. 

Arequipa is the home of Sehor Don Eduardo Lopez de Romana, 
the second civilian who has been president of Peru. A civil engi- 
neer by profession, he takes little interest in politics, which is a dis- 
tinguishing characteristic in a country where politics has absorbed 
the attention of the people to a degree that has been seriously detri- 
mental to its material interests. But what distinguishes Romana still 
more is that he did not seek the presidency — a fact absolutely unique 
in the history of the South American Republics. 

Because of the arid climate and the absence of clouds, the city of 



220 THE ROAD TO BOLIVIA 

Arequipa was selected as the site of the astronomical and meteoro- 
logical observatories of Harvard University. Observers are engaged 
in making a map of the heavens of the southern hemisphere, the 
elevation and the purity of the atmosphere enabling them to reach 
many stars that are not visible in other localities, while meteorolog- 
ical records of great scientific usefulness are made by automatic in- 
struments on the top of the volcano Misti. 

Passenger trains leave Arequipa for Lake Titicaca on Thursdays 
and Sundays at seven o'clock in the morning. Freight trains run 
every day. The track climbs around the base of the volcano 
Misti. The mountains are bare and seem to be composed of alter- 
nate layers of rock and baked clay. The latter looks like chalk and 
cute like cheese. It was very convenient and useful for grading 
purposes, and on the mountain sides are great cavities, which were 
-hoveled out for this purpose, whose Avails are as regular and ae 
smooth as if they had been done with a carving-knife. At intervals 
of a few miles are lovely valleys, showing where the water has been 
gathered and utilized for irrigation, for the soil is rich and produces 
in a most prolific manner anything that man can plant. Sugar cane 
and wheat grow side by side, cotton and corn intermingle their foli- 
age, and potatoes and melons and ordinary vegetables and fruits 
grow as they <]<> in California. 

We cross the grand divide at Crucero Alto (The High Cross), a 
collection of adobe huts and a well-built station, upon the front of 
which is an inscription to inform the traveler that it is the highest 
point upon the railway and 14,666 feet above the sea. There are 
mining settlements in Peru at a greater elevation, but for many 
years this was the highest point in the world at which steam was 
used for motive power. The highest elevation ever reached by a 
railway is Galera tunnel, on the Oraya road of Peru. 1,5,665 feet. 
The inhabitants are mostly railway men, it being the end of a divi- 
sion, and the families of the shepherds who watch their flocks upon 
the pampas that surround it. 

At Crucero Alto water freezes ever}' night of the year, and the 
thermometer often falls to 6, 8, and 10 degrees below zero. There 
are no facilities for artificial heat, not even fireplaces, and people 
keep themselves warm by putting on ponchos and other extra wraps. 
At noonday the sun is intensely hot, because of the elevation and 
rarity of the atmosphere, and blisters the flesh of those who are not 
accustomed to it. There is a difference of 20 and sometime- ■';<> 



THE ROAD TO BOLIVIA 



221 



degrees in the temperature of the shade and the sunshine. Water 
will freeze in the shade, while in the sunshine twenty feet away men 
may be working in their shirt-sleeves. 

The natives seem to be entirely inured to cold, and go about bare- 
footed and barelegged over the ice and stones, and have a way ol 
heaping blankets on their heads and wrapping up their faces to keep 
the pure air out of their throats and nostrils. The women who herd 
the flocks are often out on the moun- 
tains for weeks at a time without a 
shelter or anything to eat except 
parched corn, strips of dried meat, 
and cocoa leaves, which are the most 
powerful of nerve stimulants. 

From Crucero Alto, the highest 
town in the world, the southern rail- 
road of Peru drops into the Lagu- 
nillas, the lake region of the Cordil- 
lera, where, 14,250 feet above the sea, 
is a group of large lakes of veiy cold 
pure water, without inlet or outlet, 
that receive the drainage of a large 
area and conceal it somewhere, but 
there is no visible means of its escape. 
A fringe of ice forms around the 
edges of the lake every night the 
year round. 

A curious phenomenon about the 
lakes is that they keep the same 
level all the time, regardless of the 
dry and rainy seasons. No amount 
of rain will make any difference in 
their depth, which, however, in the 
center is unknown: and this adds to the awe and mystery with 
which they are regarded by the Indians. There are no boats upon 
the lakes except a few small balsas or rafts made of bundles of straw, 
which keep very close to the shore for fear of being drawn into whirl- 
pools that arc said to exist in the center. There is some foundation 
for this fear, for only two or three years ago a balsa containing five 
men disappeared in the darkness and was never heard of again. 




INFLUENTIAL CITIZEN OF Uir.ijl IPA 



222 THE ROAD TO BOLIVIA 

In the whirlpool near the center of Lake Popo, which receives the 
waters of Lake Titicaca, hundreds of men have lost their lives. 
Boats that are drawn into the current are whirled swiftly around a 
few times and then disappear. For the protection of navigators the 
government of Bolivia has anchored a lot of buoys in Lake Popo, 
and boatmen who observe them are in no danger. 

There is supposed to be an underground outlet from all of these 
lakes into the ocean. Articles which have been thrown into their 
waters have afterward been picked up on the seacoast near Arica, 
and on the beach in that locality are frequent^ found cornstalks, 
reeds, and other debris which do not grow on the coast, but are found 
in great abundance among the interior lakes. 

After crossing the grand divide at Crucero Alto, you enter the great 
basin that lies between the two ranges of the Andes, and is known to 
the natives as Puna, 500 miles in length and from 20 to 300 miles in 
width. Before the conquest it was the most populous and productive 
part of Peru and the center of the great Inca empire. On either side 
this mighty table-land is supported by the buttresses of the Andes 
and the Cordillera, and the ranges of snow-covered peaks can be seen 
to the east and to the west from every eminence, a vast chaos of 
mountains, ranges, and cross-ranges, bleak, barren, and lifeless. 

In no part of the world does nature assume more imposing forms 
or offer more striking contrasts. The deserts and the mountains are 
as bare and repulsive as the Sahara, but the valleys are as luxuriant 
and productive as those of Italy. Eternal summer sits side by side 
with everlasting winter, and the perfume of flowers and fruits is 
borne across repulsive wastes of sand and rock. Under these condi- 
tions the Incas maintained a government, the first known to the world 
in which the equal rights of every human being were recognized ; a 
community that anticipated the ideas of modern socialism; that 
worshipped a god whose instincts and attributes were almost parallel 
with those of Jehovah. Men who have shivered in the snowy moun- 
tains recognized the sun as the source of heat and light, the greatest 
blessing they enjoyed, and gave it the chief place in their pantheon. 

The railway through the mountains of Peru is said to be the best 
in South America. It has a fine track, quite as smooth as any we find 
in the United States. Most of the freight is furnished by the mines — 
silver, copper, and gold ores. A considerable quantity of wool is ex- 
ported ; also a few hides. The inward freight is merchandise for 
Bolivia and Cuzco, and supplies for the mines. The greater part of 



224 THE ROAD TO BOLIVIA 

it appears to have come from Germany, and it is remarkable how 
rapidly the Germans are absorbing the commerce of this country. 

There are fine cattle on all the ranges, much better than on the 
lower altitudes, and as the train approaches the center of the basin 
the population seems to increase and appears more prosperous, until 
we come to Juliaca, where the railroad divides, one branch running 
to the city of Puna, Lake Titicaca, where a line of steamers furnishes 
transportation to Bolivia, and the other to the ancient town of Cuzco, 
the capital of the Inca empire. 

Four hundred years ago Cuzco was the most important city in 
America, with a population of 200,000 or more and a wealth that 
few communities of human kind have ever surpassed. It is now a 
dismal, dirty, half-deserted habitation of from 30,000 to 40,000 igno- 
rant and indolent Indians, with perhaps 500 or 600 whites, who own 
the property and conduct what little business is done there. Cuzco 
was the residence of a long line of kings, who lived in splendid cir- 
cumstances, surrounded by courts of enormous riches, and remark- 
able taste for art and architecture, considering the isolation in which 
they lived and their ignorance of other nations be3 r ond the mountains 
and ocean that confined them. 

Each successive Inca. built a new palace at Cuzco, and several 
erected temples and convents that rivaled the royal residences in 
extent and magnificence. It is almost impossible to believe the nar- 
ratives of writers who went there with Pizarro and witnessed the city 
before it was plundered and destroyed ; but the ruins are mute wit- 
nesses of its former opulence and power. The means of grace are 
abundant — for a population of less than 40,000 there are 30 churches 
and 11 convents and monasteries, which are marvels of architectural 
beauty. The courts and cloisters of the convents are admirable in 
their proportions and challenge admiration with the great cathedrals 
and monasteries of Europe. In La Mercede lie the remains of Juan 
and Gonzalvo Pizarro, the brothers of the conqueror of Peru, and 
those of Almagro, his partner in the conquest. These temples were 
more splendid in their day than anything that existed in the new 
world, but are now the crumbling victims of time and negligence. 

[To be concluded <» tin July number.] 



THE COLONIAL EXPANSION OF FRANCE 

By Professor Jean C. Bracq, 
Of Vassar College 

It was not till the end of the fifteenth and the beginning of the 
sixteenth century that France attained anything corresponding to 
her present extent on the European continent and began seriously 
her extraterritorial expansion. The establishments made by French 
traders upon the Gold Coast and the Ivory Coast, in the fourteenth 
century, and the conquest and conversion of the people of the Canary 
Islands, in 1402, by Jean de Bethencourt, had foreshadowed what 
was to come. But the beginning of real expansion rose upon the 
west coast of France. Basque and Breton fishermen went earl} 7 to 
the distant north, to Iceland and Labrador. It is probable that 
they visited Newfoundland before Cabot, for they fished there at an 
earlier period than the English. Later following the examples of the 
kings of Spain and England, the King of France became interested 
in the exploration of the new world. Verrazano, in the service of 
France, visited the Atlantic Coast of North America in 1523, and 
eleven years later Jacques Cartier, ascending the St Lawrence, opened 
boundless possibilities of expansion for France in the new world. 

MOTIVES ANIMATING THE FIRST FRENCH COLONIES 

Religious considerations predominated over secular ones in many 
ventures made at this time. In view of the precarious situation of 
Protestants, Admiral Coligny wished to establish on the American 
Continent colonies which, in case of need, would be possible places of 
refuge for French religious dissenters. Sixty-five years before the 
sailing of the Mayflower he endeavored to found a colony in South 
America, and six years later one in Florida. The first failed because 
of the inexperience of the colonists, and the second was destroyed by 
the Spaniards because of its Protestant character. 

There are many who are fond of explaining most of the determina- 
tions of French history by racial factors, and erroneous ones at that. 
It is well to remember that though the French are Latins by their 
language and by much of their culture, they are, like the British, 
predominantly Celto-Germanic in blood. They have an ethno- 

17 22fl 



226 THE COLONIAL EXPANSION OF FRANCE 

graphical peculiarity which, in the past, has always 4 fostered colonial 
enthusiasm. They do not easily isolate themselves from society. 
Solitude is not pleasant to them ; they are too communicative for 
that. Their thought more naturally seeks outward expression than 
concentration. An almost irresistible impulse leads them to wish to 
impart to others the principles and ideas which they value for them- 
selves. Touch them strongly with religious emotion and they be- 
come missionaries. Thus France has more Catholic missionaries 
than all the other Catholic countries taken together. One cannot 
speak too highly of their zeal, of their almost complete surrender of 
selfhood, of their devotion, which at times attains the purest forms 
of heroism. 

Though chartered companies were at work, it was predominantly 
a religious motive which led to expansion in Canada. Quebec, ever 
a very religious city, was founded by Cham plain, a very devout man. 
Montreal from the first was a center of missionary and philanthropic 
effort on behalf of the Indians. The missionaries and the courreurs 
de hols radiated in every direction, the former to win souls and the 
latter for the satisfaction of a restless spirit; together they won a 
new empire for France. The loftiest possible aims predominated in 
this movement. Their ideal, to unite the whole Indian population 
into a great Christian confederation, was in perfect keeping with 
Henry IV's dreams of universal peace. 

Meanwhile, under Richelieu and Colbert, expansion was taking 
place in other directions, reaching Guiana, some islands of the West 
Indies, and Senegal and Reunion Island in the Indian Ocean. The 
westward advance of Nicolet was contemporaneous with the first 
possession of Madagascar. While La Salle was working toward the 
Mississippi, France was expanding in India. Now was her golden 
opportunity in North America ; but many causes in no wise con- 
nected with the colonial capacities of the nation were at work to 
prevent her from making the best use of her opportunity. 

REASONS OP 1 THE FAILURE OF FRANCE TO RETAIN HER COLONIES IN 
AMERICA AND INDIA 

Like other nations of the times, France had an inadequate appre- 
ciation of the economic value of colonies. To her North American 
possessions she preferred colonies } r ielding tropical produce and 
spices, like the West Indies. She did not care to encourage the pro- 
duction of articles common to Canada and to France. Then emigra- 



THE COLONIAL EXPANSION OF FRANCE 227 

tion upon any large scale was prevented by the fact that the people 
did not feel the penury of land as in some countries. Another na- 
tional trait worked in the same direction. Love of order, which led 
France to impose rules upon religion, politics, art, and literature, 
brought needless restraints. There were no commercial, no muni- 
cipal, and no provincial liberties. Love of consistency demanded the 
introduction of feudal institutions, some of which have survived to 
this day. The people, suffering at home from them, found no in- 
centive to go to the colonies, where they would still be under the 
same restrictions. The intolerance of the clergy in Canada produced 
similar results. They opposed the advent of Protestants. The whole 
history of America would have been different had the Huguenots 
been allowed to settle in New France. Then, men like Laurens, 
Boudinot, Jay, Marion, De Lancey, De Peyster, De Pew. and thou- 
sands whose virtues and intelligence were so potent in building up 
the best life of this Republic, would have wielded their influence in 
Canada. 

A fact of transcendent importance in determining the fortunes of 
the French colonies was the geographical position of France herself. 
Had she been an island her transatlantic history would have been 
different. She would have kept aloof from those numerous conti- 
nental contentions into which at times she entered on account of the 
necessities of her position, but more often for futile motives and with 
disastrous results. However, the ultimate fact which shaped the 
fate of Canada was the mother country. The expansion of a coun- 
try can go on satisfactorily only in so far as it is supported by a 
sound national life. The reign of Louis XIV was bound to be fatal 
to the colonies because of its abuses and disorders. Nothing could 
have saved finances at the mercy of a personal power surrounded by 
flatterers, courtesans, and mistresses. The ruin of the national 
finances entailed the ruin of the navy. No navy, no colonies. The 
resultant of these causes led naturally to the Treaty of Utrecht in 
lTb'l, the first important colonial collapse of France. 

The reign of Louis XV did not alter for the better the working of 
causes which had proven so fatal. The results of the national life 
led to the Treaty of Paris in 1763, which involved the total surrender 
of Canada and the vast domain of India, to England, and Louisiana 
to Spain— almost the whole colonial domain. The most intelligent 
part of the French population had a very inadequate sense of the 
loss. Arjjenson had already said that if he were the King of France 



228 ' THE COLONIAL EXPANSION OF FRANCE 

he would give all his colonies for a pin's head. Choiseul was glad 
to give Canada to England, because American colonies, delivered 
from the presence of the French, would revolt against their mother 
country. France is not now grateful to him for his practical joke, 
though it was against England. Voltaire refers to the whole Ohio 
basin as " a few acres of snow." Among other things, he expresses 
the very charitable wish " to see Canada at the bottom of the sea." 
The wise Montesquieu is not wiser. " Kings," he says, " should not 
dream of populating great countries by colonies. . . . The ordi- 
nary effect of colonies is to weaken the country whence they are 
drawn without populating those to which they are sent." Econo- 
mists insisted that the process was ruinous. Philosophers and philan- 
thropists objected to colonies because of .the presence of slaves in 
most of them. So indifferent was the French government that, 
before signing an alliance with the American colonists, it made a 
formal renunciation of its North American possessions, and in the 
sweeping arraignments of the Anrien Begiwe not one refers to the 
loss of a vast colonial empire. 

To this blind indifference to transatlantic colonies there were some 
exceptions. Many Frenchmen realized the importance of the New- 
foundland fisheries, and France clung tenaciously to them. Notwith- 
standing the clearness of French rights, Englishmen did their utmost, 
on the morrow of the Treat}' of Paris, to deprive Frenchmen of their 
privileges. This intensified in the French heart the bitterness felt 
against an enemy which, however admirable in some respects, had 
never displayed any generosity in victory and seldom any fidelity to 
its treaties. The hypothetical explanation by Professor Seeley of the 
wars between England and France during 100 years as acorn petition 
for the new world is one of those fascinating generalizations of histo- 
rians which, on the French side at least, has but a slender support. 
Frenchmen, in all the wars of the Revolution and of the Empire, seldom 
thought that they were contending for a vast empire. In their eyes 
it did not appear worth the powder burned. How could the Revolu- 
tionists, busy at home with a program of reforms never attempted 
at one time by any nation, contending against local uprisings and 
against united Europe, think of the colonies that the} 7 had lost? Al- 
though they defended the colonies that were left to them, the solution 
of the problem of freedom upon the continent reacted in some colonies. 
AYhen the Revolutionists decreed the abolition of slavery the San 
Domingo Royalists signed a treaty with England that they might keep 



THE COLONIAL EXPANSION OF FRANCE 229 

their slaves. As to Napoleon, Europe was the field of his ambition. 
If he thought of India, it was that he might strike his enemy at her 
most vulnerable point. Had he cherished the designs ascribed to him 
by Seeley, he would never have sold Louisiana to the United States. 
His wars left France diminished, not only in Europe, but also in other 
parts of the world. The strategic position of the Indian Ocean, the 
, island of Mauritius, was ceded to England, and with it, through the 
astute governor of that island, was raised the problem of Madagascar. 

THE BEGINNINGS OF THE NEWER EXPANSION IN AFRICA AND ASIA 

The Restoration was timid in its defense of French colonial rights. 
Its power, restored by foreign bayonets, was so unsteady at home that 
it conkl do little abroad and cared to do but little; yet it was this 
same Bourbon government that inaugurated the newer expansion, 
which was destined to better fortune. This expansion, unlike that 
of England, was not the result of a well-concerted design, but of imper- 
ative necessity. The Algerians, unmindful of. the lessons which they 
had received in 1815 from Admiral Decatur, and in 1817 from Lord 
Exraouth, were desolating the Mediterranean coasts, and especially 
the coasts of France. France reluctantly took Algiers. The Orleanists 
accepted the campaign in Algeria as a troublesome inheritance, and 
gallantly attempted its never-ending conquest. Here France faced 
some of the most fearless warriors of the world — men whose bravery 
was heightened by religious fanaticism. England has never found 
upon her path such an ethnic and religious barrier. Some public men, 
even as lateas 1845, proposed to abandon the province to its own fate. 
This, fortunately, was not done ; but, on the contrary, the French Hag 
was planted upon French Kongo and Grand Bassam,in Africa, and 
upon important groups of the Polynesian islands. 

During the Second Empire colonial interests did not receive the 
attention which they deserved. Colonial preeminence in distant lands 
demands the preeminence of colonial interests at home. Not art, not 
philosophy, uol science, not social life, but colonial aims, should be 
lir-t in the national thought. This was far from the case during the 

Second Empire. However, the pacification of Algeria, was progress- 
ing and French rule was extending southward. Napoleon encouraged 

the enlargemeni of Senegal eastward and took possession of Obok, 
near t he Red Sea; New Caledonia, in the Pacific, and Cochin China, 

in Asia. 



230 THE COLONIAL EX PASSION OF FRAME 

The Third Republic marks a signal advance. To some, colonies 
seemed poor compensations, but nevertheless compensations for 
Alsace. The brightening of the situation in Algeria was an incentive 
for wider experiments. The consciousness of the growing inferiority 
of France in territorial extent as compared with the great powers of 
the world also encouraged the expansion idea. The objection that 
the stationary population of France is fatal to expansion is rather an 
argument for it. The birth-rate of Frenchmen has always been higher 
in the temperate colonies than at home. In Algeria it is 15 per thou- 
sand higher than in Vermont and 11 higher than in France. In 
Tunis it is double that of Vermont and 14 per thousand higher than 
in France. This, however, is not of much moment, inasmuch as 
most of the French territories cannot become the permanent home 
Of Europeans. 

COLONIES ESSENTIAL TO A GREAT POWER 

Colonies, to many, have appeared necessary to progress, and their 
lack or their subordinate importance as leading to retrogression. 
" Colonization," says M. Paul Leroy-Beaulieu, " is for France a ques- 
tion of life and death." It means self-propagation and self-protec- 
tion. In order not to be behind the great powers, she must share in 
that great movement of territorial enlargement which is a common 
trait of great nations. 

Without the shedding of much blood, France established a pro- 
tectorate over Tunis. Senegal became the starting point of a march 
eastward, continued until the French flag waved over Timbuktu, the 
mysterious city of Tennyson, "shadowing forth the unattainable." 
French Guinea, the Ivory Coast, Dahomey, and the French Kongo 
were extended eastward and northward until they met, and with the 
Sahara, Tunis, and Algeria formed a continuous whole from the Kongo 
River and the Ubangi to Algiers, practically the whole of northwestern 
Africa, with the exception of important territorial indentations on the 
coast held by different European powers and Morocco. 

On the east side of Africa, France endeavored to regain Madagascar, 
whence she had been so cleverly expelled by Lord Farquhar. She 
succeeded in establishing a protectorate, and as the Hovas eluded its 
consequences in 1895, General Duchesne led a brave little army to 
the heights of Emyrnaand seized the capital, Antananarivo. Diplo- 
matic considerations led France to annex the island, though her 
intention was only to secure a real protectorate. 



THE COLONIAL EXPANSION OF FRANCE 231 

At the same period she advanced from Cochin China and Cambodia 
to Anam, Tonkin, and Laos. The whole Mekong Valley thus 
opened to her, and the territories to the east constitute what is now 
known as Indo-China. She is thus well situated for a work of pene- 
tration into China. Indo-China contains about 285,000 square miles, 
and is therefore larger than the South Atlantic States. This makes 
France an Asiatic as well as an African power. 

Her colonies are seventeen times larger than her own European 
territory. Those of Africa are thirteen times her size. After making 
allowances for the worthlessness of a large part of these territories, 
there still remains an empire five or six times as extensive as France, 
with immense economic possibilities. 

THE REACTION OF COLONIZATION ON FRENCH LIFE AND THOUGHT 

This expansion is not only the realization of a national purpose, 
but the outlet of a new life which has arisen during the Republic. 
Some have spoken of the unusual development of the army and 
navy, but this is only a part of a larger movement that has mani- 
fested itself by a corresponding educational, scientific, artistic, in- 
dustrial, philosophical, ethical, and religious development. Even 
though appearances may be to the contraiy, never has France seen 
such a display of national energy. The territorial expansion has 
called for the cooperation of every one of these forces and modified 
them. The army has witnessed its own transformation, not only by 
the introduction of new picturesque African and Asiatic elements, 
but by changing the soldier in the colonies into an overseer, a teacher, 
a gardener, a farmer, or a road-builder ; it is modifying the national 
education. The contact with varied ethnographical types forces 
Frenchmen to reconsider their fundamental conception of man. 

This movement, as well as the development of interest in the 
science of geography, contributed to a vast work of exploration. 
The list of French explorers during the Third Republic is as long as 
it is choice. Galieni, De Brazza, Gen til, Mizan, Monteil, Binger, 
Fonte, and Man-hand are names long to be remembered in Prance 
for their services, no less to their country than to the cause of know- 
ledge. Science, enriched by enormous contributions to geography, 
botany, anthropology, and <-tl graphy, is helping in return. Scien- 
tific literature relating to the colonic- is accumulating. Colonial 
methods have become rationalized, as may be seen in Tunis, Mada- 
gascar, and tndo-China. Fearless and able historians are shedding 



232 THE COLONIAL EXPANSION OF FRANCE 

light upon past colonial error.-. Artist.- are turning to new fields 
with enlarging result.-, and men of letters are beginning to paint the 
life of the new possessions. 

At the same time an important change has been taking place in the 
French mind in reference to colonial life. With the telegraph and 
the newspaper, the Frenchman has no longer the aversion to coloni- 
zation which he had in former day-. Soldiers ask to remain in the 
colonies when their service is at an end. Many are happy in their 
new home beyond the sea. The Comiti Dupleix, in Paris, work- to 
increase their number. The government, with all its changes and in- 
consistencies, has had a definite program to consolidate the different 
parts of French North African possessions into one vast empire. 
Everywhere are springing up schemes for new railroads and for 
the use of watercourses. The railroads of Algeria and Tunis are. ex- 
tending. That hetween the Senegal and the Niger River is advancing. 
Among the schemes most strenuously advocated is the Trans-Saharan 
Railroad, which would take passengers from London and Paris to 
Lake Tchad in less than six days. With the recent conquest of In- 
sala. this road is a colonial necessity. The gradual advance of 
France southward has changed all the conceptions previously enter- 
tained concerning Africa. .So, too. there has heen aroused an ambi- 
tion for a Greater France, extending from Calais to the Kongo Free 
State — a France scarcel}' intercepted by the Mediterranean Sea. with 
Algiers not more distant in time from Paris than Omaha is from New 
York, and with Lake Tchad within as easy access as is the Pacific Coast 
from the same city. This view is not widely entertained, hut it is 
rapidly gaining ground and the people are fast hecoming coloniali.-ti<-. 

Let us now consider the positive, permanent results of French col- 
onization. It is impossible to pass by the French colony of Canada. 
After 137 years of British rule, it is still French and unassimilated 
by its conquerors. In fact, the reverse in some places is true. There 
are names of Anglo-Saxon origin, such as Donaldson and MacGregor, 
borne by men who do not speak English. The French constitute an 
important factor in the destinies of Canada. Their bi-lingual educa- 
tion gives them a great advantage. There are those among them who 
hold high places in literature, some are eminent in the judiciary 
world, some are professors in the universities, and the prime minister 
is a French-Canadian. The population of Mauritius, not unlike that 
of I anada in character and condition, is still very strong in its French 
sympathies. It may he said that if the French of Mauritius remain 




THE. GEOGRAPHIC RELATION OF 

FRANCE 

AND HEIR 

- AFRICAN COLON I ELS 



Cape of Good Hope 



JoA i 8 TcrderC 



234 THE COLONIAL EXPANSION OF FRANCE 

untouched by English institutions, those of Reunion seem to have 
been unaffected by the thought and life of contemporary France. 
The remnants of the old French possessions of India are not of much 
moment. St Pierre and Miquelon, near Newfoundland, generally 
known as St Pierre, are serving an important national purpose. 
They are the center of fisheries so extensive that at least 40,000 per- 
sons in France and in St Pierre depend upon them. They are also 
nurseries of well-trained seamen, indispensable to the French navy. 
It should he remembered that these colonies are but dislocated frag- 
ments of two vast colonial empires, and that their experiences prove 
nothing as to French colonial ability. 

FRENCH COLONIES I.\' ASIA 

Of the newer colonies, there are the Polynesian possessions, which, 
territorially, are not very important, but whose value will be greatly 
affected by the American trans-isthmian canal. The most promising 
is New Caledonia. It has the advantage, which so many French col- 
onies lack, of being very rich in minerals, the extraction of which has 
proven very remunerative. Though a penal colony, it is attracting 
from France new elements, whereby the wealth of the island will be 
developed. 

While making mistakes of policy and of judgment, France has 
achieved many beneficent results in Indo-China. She has introduced 
an order in the country which had never existed before; has organ- 
ized the finances, and instituted regular budgets. That of Indo-China 
in 1898 had a surplus of nine million francs. She has introduced 
the Hat-civil, which is a great instrument of social security and social 
justice. She has established schools, model farms, important rail- 
roads, telegraphs, river navigation, quays, beautiful buildings, and 
extensive public works. Commerce has increased, and a study of the 
number of Frenchmen who have settled in this colony as compared 
with the Englishmen who have settled in India would be to the 
advantage of Indo-China. 

MADAGASCAR, THE SAHARA, AND TUNIS 

Africa seems to be the great sphere of French expansion. On the 
east side she has Obok, close to the southern entrance of the Red Sea. 
Its value is largely strategic. It has a good harbor, good water, and 
the territory is said to contain much coal. 



THE COLONIAL EXPANSION OF FRANCE 235 

Madagascar is one of the most hopeful colonies. The work of 
France here has been both destructive and constructive. She has 
overthrown the despotic Oriental government of the Hovas. The in- 
surrection which followed was not so much the result of French con- 
quest as the continuation of the movement of the Fahanalos, outlaws 
who for many years had been a very disturbing element. General 
Galieni, in a most humane manner, restored order. The island is 
now more pacified than it ever was during the last ten years of the 
Hova government. The tribes are happy to have their own tribal 
chiefs and to be delivered from the former Hova governors, hated by 
all. Slavery has been abolished. State compulsory labor has been 
freed of its worst and more arbitrary features. The state church, with 
its official hypocrisy, has been disestablished. The schools, founded 
by the missionaries before the conquest, have gained in number and 
character. In the province of Emyrna. French Protestant missions 
have 800 schools ; the Catholic, 700; the English and Norwegian mis- 
sionaries, 250, and the government, 150. All fair-minded men must 
recognize that missionaries have never had a truer freedom nor a truer 
security in the island than now. France has constructed important 
public works. She has built roads from the capital to the coast on 
two sides of the island which previously was roadless. Now heavy 
trucks drawn by oxen take the place of men's backs in the transport- 
ation of goods from the coast to Antananarivo, the capital. This 
work will be clone before long by a railroad. Telegraphic lines built 
by France extend in many directions. An extensive agricultural 
development is taking place, and a new life has dawned for that in- 
teresting island. 

The field which is likely to undergo the greatest immediate changes 
is that immense possession south of the Sahara. With the exception 
of Senegal and other establishments upon the western littoral, the 
whole territory is as yet but very imperfectly organized. Vast districts 
have never been explored. Recent applications for concessions have 
been great. Three-quarters of the French Kongo have been leased 
by French companies, forty of which during the. last year have here 
invested no less than $10,000,000. Whatever may be the economic 
future of this section of Africa, some positive results, which cannot 
but be approved by all, are already visible. 

First, there has been an overthrow of the cruel African despots — 
black Caligulas — represented by A.hraadon, Behauzin, and Samoryj 
second, the stopping of the slave trade, with its indescribable horrors ; 
third, the great efforts made to bring back the natives to agriculture, 



236 THE COLONIAL EXPANSION OF FRANCE 

from which they have heen driven by wars or slave trade; fourth, 
the rapid building of roads. One, 560 miles long, binds Timbuktu 
with Dahome} 7 , and another of 500 miles forms the chord of an arc 
described hy the bend of the Niger River. Miss Mary H. Kingsley, 
the remarkable English lady traveler and scientist, has testified to 
the beneficent influence of France upon that part of the Dark Conti- 
nent. When the Senegal-Niger Railroad is finished and the Trans- 
Saharan built, under the blessings of Pax Gallica, a life never dreamed 
of will spring up in these territories. 

Tunis is one of the most successful colonies of the world. The 
following facts concerning the work of France there are indisputable: 
First, she has introduced a security of life never known before; 
second, she has improved the finances; third, she has given a great 
impetus to agriculture and brought Tunis in touch with the markets 
of the world ; fourth, she has greatly ameliorated the administration 
of justice; fifth, she has given a great impetus to education; in 1892 
the budget for that purpose was between 160,000 and 180,000 francs ; 
sixth, over 600 miles of railroad have been built. Roads have been 
constructed upon a large scale. In fact this has been one character- 
istic of the expansion of France in Madagascar, in Senegal, Algeria, 
and Tunis. With the recent stupendous development of the auto- 
mobile and its introduction into the colonies, the building of these 
roads is of the greatest significance. Algeria is the most important 
achievement of France because of the internal development of that 
colony and its organic relations with continental France. Algiers, 
the former stronghold of African piracy, has become safer than Lon- 
don, and Algeria as safe as France. Though colonization in South 
Africa began in 1652, the Dutch and the British have not attracted 
thither many more than 700,000 Europeans. In 70 years France 
has drawn to North Africa 600,000 Europeans ; and if she has had the 
advantage of nearness she has not had that of rich minerals, which 
are such demographic magnets. I have an absolute confidence not 
only in the power of Frenchmen to make the natives accept the pres- 
ent regime as the will of Allah, but in the ultimate reconciliation of 
both races. France has all along shown her genius to win to her 
men of other nations and races. The Navarrese united to France 
are most loyal, while those of Spain are still restless. Alsace, though 
ethnographically Germanic, longs to return to France. Corsica, 
though Italian, is attached to her Gallic conquerors. Savoy, after 
some 40 years of union, displays an unquestionable loyalty. In 
every French colon} 7 one sees signs of the growing attachment of the 



THE COLONIAL EXPANSION OF FRANCE 237 

natives. The English and the Dutch have perhaps secured more 
respect from the inferior races, but the French more love. 

For a long time Algeria had as its governor the distinguished gen- 
tleman who now represents France so ably in the United States, 
M> Jules Cambon. To him more than to any other living man, French 
North Africa owes its encouraging advance. He has helped all to 
secure the best advantages from the juxtaposition of two forms of 
societ} 7 and two civilizations, with their conflicting aspirations. 

ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF FRENCH COLONIZATION 

It is an extraordinary fact that with an energetic utilitarian foreign 
population, which, like all such aggregations, are impatient at any 
obstacle to their gains, the natives in Algeria should have kept to 
this day twelve-thirteenths of their soil. France has protected them 
with a real solicitude. They are ruled by Moslem law and by their 
own judges when they form homogeneous communities. The}' are 
gradually assimilating something of the western spirit, and this to an 
extent of which they are not conscious. The parts which are pre- 
dominantly peopled by Europeans enjoy institutions almost identical 
with those of France. It is her policy to give her colonists the same 
institutional advantages which they would have enjoyed at home. 
St Pierre has all the administrative and educational machinery of the 
mother country. Catholics, Protestants, Hebrews, and Moslems in 
Algeria receive similar state support. The educational machinery of 
France has been extended there ; efficient common schools, academies 
and colleges, schools of law, medicine, pharmacy, science, and belles- 
lettres have been established. Young women have a lycce in Oran, 
and able courses of secondary education are organized for them in 
several cities. 

The economic condition is steadily improving. The railroads 
which at the outset were considered the wildest speculation are fast 
approaching the remunerative point. Rich deposits of phosphates 
have been discovered in southern Algeria and Tunis. It is almost 
certain that there are further south large quantities of nitrates. These 
may prove to be the gold mines of North Africa. 

Algeria and Tunis not only furnish their own food and that of 
the French garrisons, but they have a large export account. In a 
fair year it amounts to 3 or 1 million quintals of wheat, 4 or 5 mil- 
lion hectoliters of wine, more than a million sheep, 60 or 80 thousand 
oxen. 100,000 quintals of wool, large quantities of tobacco, iron, zinc. 



238 THE COLONIAL EXPANSION OF FRANCE 

and lead ores. The neighborhood of Algiers is the winter garden of 
Paris, sending daily during the season steamers to Marseilles loaded 
with garden produce, which is distributed through France. More 
and more a twofold current of life hinds Africa with France and 
France with Africa. French civilization moves southward with its 
imperfections, with the usual concomitants of such movements, hut 
also with blessings unspeakable for the natives. It is not astonish- 
ing then that the north African colonies should excite a very legiti- 
mate enthusiasm among Frenchmen. M. Paul Leroy-Beaulieu says : 
"Algeria and Tunis are and will remain the first European colonies 
of Africa." The late Grant Allen has expressed the desire that in the 
interest of civilization the beneficent French power, as Hamerton puts 
it, might ultimately be permitted to extend over Morocco. 

The natives under France have, as a whole, suffered less from their 
contact with European civilization than those under other great 
powers. Were Parkman still among us, he might repeat, concerning 
the lower races that come in touch with France, what he said of the 
Indian : " Spanish civilization crushed the Indian ; English civiliza- 
tion scorned and neglected him ; French civilization embraced and 
cherished him." 

French expansion should not be judged by its economic results; 
yet even from that point of view it is gradually becoming more satis- 
factory. The trade of the colonies reaches $231,000,000, $160,000,000 
of which is with France. Were she to allow her colonies to levy duties 
upon metropolitan goods, most of them would have a large surplus. 
But even though they are not self-supporting, neither are all the de- 
partments of France. The spirit of national solidarity which em- 
braces poor departments must also prevail in the colonies ; yet it 
must be admitted that the French colonies still cost far too much 5 
and that 85,000,000 francs or $17,000,000 a year is excessive, though 
there are man} r signs that the regular demands upon the budget will 
soon decrease. 

The colonial expansion of France has not only influenced for good 
the peoples whom it has reached and reacted favorably upon the 
French themselves, but it is also working for international enrich- 
ment. Temporarily her fiscal measures, at some particular points, 
may disturb certain old trading establishments of foreign houses, but 
the development of the new countries and the increase of wealth will 
counterbalance these obstacles, and the most intelligent producers 
will have the best economic possibilities, for after all these possibilities 
are " mightiest in the mightiest." 



THfc PREVENTION OF HAILSTORMS BY THE USE OF 

CANNON* 

In 1896 the Honorable Albert Stiger, mayor of Windisch Feistritz. 
in Styria, revived an old custom of the preceding century, usually 
termed " weather firing." Formerly the firing was from ordinary 
mortars, but Mr Stiger introduced several modifications. He found 
that by the use of a funnel attached to the mortar the efficiency of 
the shot could be greatly increased. His machine was constructed 
on the following lines : A heavy block of oak or tough wood was hol- 
lowed out so that it could be fastened securely to the mortar b} r iron 
clamps, and an iron funnel was then screwed to the block of wood. 
The funnel is made of sheet iron 2 millimeters thick and has a 
diameter at the upper opening of 70 centimeters, while at the lower 
opening its width is only 20 millimeters. In 1897 as many as 36 of 
these firing stations were established. 

At first Mr Stiger's experiments were sneered at and made the sport 
both of scientists and of the unscientific. But nevertheless the severity 
of the hail, which every year since the seventies had wrought great 
damage in Styria, ceased in Windisch Feistritz, while in the neighbor- 
ing districts it became even more destructive. Gradually the belief 
in the efficacy of '' weather shooting " as a protection from hail spread 
to the wine-growing districts in the vicinity of Styria. Here also the 
experiments proved a great success, and were then taken up by Lom- 
bard}', Piedmont, and the other provinces to the south. Then the 
Italian deputy, Dr E. Ottaviri, visited Windisch Feistritz and became 
also a convert to Stiger's system of weather shooting. He returned 
to Italy, and under his leadership similar apparatus, called Stiger 
cannon, were rapidly manufactured and set up, especially in Tus- 
cany and Emilia; also an astonishing number of shooting associa- 
tions sprang up, each with its individual station. Jn the summer 
of 1899, tli«- first in which the cannon was used in Italy, no less than 

2,000 stations were equipped on the stiger pattern, and all were very 
active during the season. The Italians in facl became so enthusiastic 
that a congress was sinninoiied ami met November 6-8, L899, in 

*.\n absti "■' "i 'ii article from the Wienm Abendpott, by Dr J, M, Pernter, director "i the 
Imperial Institute of Mel 'ology and Magnetism "i Vienna, 

•j;;:i 



240 PREVENTION OF HAILSTORMS BY USE OF CANNON 

Casale Monferato. At this congress the minister of agriculture was 
represented by the under secretary of state, and the ministries of war 
and the interior also sent delegates. Five hundred participants in the 
congress appeared, some of them the most distinguished scientists of 
Italy. Mr Stiger was elected honorary president, and a committee of 
four eminent professors, representing Styria, Piedmont, and Venice, 
were appointed to report on the results of the Stiger method for pre- 
venting damage from hail. The committee unanimously agreed that 
"if the shooting was commenced in time the damage from the hail 
was always averted." A number of instances were cited showing that 
in the towns where there was no shooting the destructive violence of 
the hail continued unabated, whereas in the districts where the shoot- 
ing was done no hail occurred. 

Mr Stiger. the inventor, however, particularly warns the public 
against being oversanguine, as he asserts that, in spite of the many 
successful results obtained by his process, there is not yet the cer- 
tainty of its effectiveness. 

Every one is naturally asking the question, How can the formation 
of hail be influenced by " weather firing "? I confess that I am not 
able to answer, but I must assert that because we cannot comprehend 
the process we have not the right to deny its existence. In explain- 
ing the action of the cannon, two points are to be considered — the 
effect of the explosion and the force of the vortex ring that rises from 
the gun barrel. In the sultry, distressing calm that precedes violent 
storms it is almost a natural necessity to make a noise, and as loud a 
noise as possible. One feels that from the sultry calm before the 
storm misfortune is to come, and that by disturbing the stillness the 
misfortune may be turned away. Mr Stiger states that he was guided 
by this thought when he began his experiments in 1886. "The ob- 
servation," he says, "that every hailstorm is preceded by an abso- 
lute stillness of the air, accompanied by heavy oppression, suggested 
to me the idea of disturbing this calm which seemed essential to the 
formation of hail, and therefore I tried 'weather shooting,' which 
has been known for centuries." 

That vibrations can destroy the formation of hail has no founda- 
tion in physics. As far as our knowledge reaches, for we do not yet 
understand the hail-forming process, the explosion could not affect 
the process, either through changes in the clouds, or by the prema- 
ture freezing of droplets through concussion, or through a consider- 
able concussion. 



PREVENTION OF HAILSTORMS BY USE OF CANNON 241 

We must therefore turn to the second hypothesis, that the effect 
of the vortex ring from the cannon prevents the formation of hail- 
stones. Mr Stiger has from the beginning ascribed the successful 
results from his machine to the effects of the vortex rings. In an 
official report of an expert from the Imperial Institute, who was 
sent to investigate the experiments made by Mr Stiger in 1897, the 
following statement is made: " It was shown that by the discharge of 
a shot a vortex ring similar to the common smoke ring is produced 
and can be seen in reflected sunlight. The ring rises rapidly with a 
distinct whistling, which is audible at a great distance. Observations 
showed that this whistling could be heard for 13 seconds, and in 
calms for more than 20 seconds." 

A swallow which was once struck by one of these vortex rings fell 
dead, such was its tremendous force. Mr Stiger estimates the effect- 
iveness of the shots and the shooting apparatus from the duration of 
the whistling of the vortex ring. Step by step the size of the mortar, 
the depth and breadth of the bore, the form and height of the barrel, 
the weight of the powder, have been carefully determined by exper- 
iment, until a most effective combination has been attained. In some 
experiments, at which I was present, I saw the vortex ring shoot up- 
ward against the clouds like a shot from a gun barrel, and distinctly 
heard the whistling for 20 to 2S seconds. The astounding force of the 
vortex ring was best demonstrated by the horizontal shot. A series of 
peculiar targets were placed at distances of 40, 60, 80, and 100 meters. 
When the vortex ring struck the targets it threw down poles which 
were braced with heavy linen cloth, burst through paper targets in 
which the paper had a resistance of 12 kilograms, tore loose clam [is, 
and broke one clamp which was 3 centimeters long and 11 centime- 
ters broad. A large bulldog which was in the way of the vortex ring 
was tumbled over twice and lost all desire tor further observation. 

In this mechanical power of the vortex ring we have found the force 
which may possibly influence the process of hail formation. Un- 
fortunately, as I have mentioned before, we know too little of the 
process of hail formation to be able to explain more clearly the action 
of the vortex ring, which certainly exerts a considerable force to a 
height of from 1,500 to 2,000 meters. 



THE U. S. SIGNAL CORPS IN PORTO RICO 

Through the courtesy of General A. W. Greely, Chief Signal Officer, 
U. S. Army, the National Geographic Magazine is enabled to pub- 
lish the accompanying outline map of Porto Rico, prepared by Major 
W. A. Glassford, Signal Officer, Department of Porto Rico. This map 
shows existing railroads, ports of entry, and the telegraphic, tele- 
phonic, and heliographic systems of communication operated by the 
Signal Corps of the Army. 



RUSSIAN RAILWAYS 

The phenomenal growth of Russia in industry and trade during 
the last ten years is in large measure due to the gradual reorganiza- 
tion and rapid extension of her railway lines. Until 1889 the gov- 
ernment was compelled yearly to meet a heavy loss on all rail- 
ways which it had guaranteed, but gradually separate roads have 
been purchased, agreements have been made with a few larger com- 
panies, and new lines have been constructed by the government itself. 
As a result 60 per cent of Russian railways are now entirely in the 
hands of the state, and instead of showing a heavy deficit, yield a 
surplus. During 1899, 75,710,000 passengers were carried on Russian 
roads, which, with only a few gaps, run from the White to the Black 
Sea, and from the Baltic to the Yellow Sea. The rates of fare on 
Russian lines are the lowest in the world. 



hi; II. S. Pritchett, who will assume the presidency of the 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology in the fall, will be succeeded 
as Superintendent of the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey by Mr 
O. H. Tittmann. No man in the United States is better qualified by 
experience and ability than Mr Tittmann to be the head of this im- 
portant scientific bureau. He entered the service in 1867, when a 
boy of seventeen, and lias gradually won his way from the lowest to 
the highest grade. 



THE REVOLT OF THE ASHANT1S 

During the last week of April the Ashanti.- in meat force surrounded Kumassi 
and fiercely attacked the fort. Though they wen; beaten oflf with severe loss, 
they renewed the attack several times during May, and a general state of 
insurrection now prevails in the country. 

Until 1S!»4 Ashanti was a powerful confederation of tribes, which successfully 
withstood subjugation at the hands of the English from the Gold Coast Colony, 
though their capital was conquered and the kingdom much reduced in 1S74. 
In 1895, when the confederation became weakened by the secession of a num- 
ber of tribe-, a permanent English garrison was stationed in Kumassi, and the 
kingdom came in fact within the English sphere of influence. Kumassi is 
about three miles in circumference, of an oval shape, and surrounded by an un- 
healthy swamp. The population probably does not exceed I'D, 000, of whom 
not more than 25 are Europeans. It is stated that the garrison of the fort, 
numbering 358, included only IS Europeans, the rest being native allies, prin- 
cipally, from the Fanti tribes along the coast and .Mohammedan Uausas, who 
have immigrated from the Niger districts of the interior. 




Reinforcements are on the way from Sierra Leone and Lagos, but from the 
coast they have to march 180 miles, for the most part through a wilderness "I 
swamp and virgin forest, before reaching Kumassi. The population of the 
Gold Coast Colony (this does not include the tribes of the Ashanti confedera- 
tion ) is estimated at about 1,500,000, and is friendly to British rule. They could 
not, however, render the English much effectual as.-istance against a determined 
revolt of the Ashanti tribes, as they are of a mild and inoffensive disposition. 
No estimate of the numbers of the Ash an tis in rebellion can be formed, but 
the statement that they muster some 50,000 warriors is not improbable, and 
most of them are armed with old-fashioned percussion-cap guns. 

Ashanti is famous for its gold and goldsmiths, and for skill in the weaving of 
cotton. The climate has the reputation of being the most deadly in the world 
for foreigners of every nationality. 

-Ml 



GEOGRAPHIC MISCELLANEA 

AVbrochure containing every decision of the U. S. Board on Geographic Names 
is now in press and will soon be ready for distribution. The Board, which lias 
recently been enlarged, consists of Henry Gannett, chairman ; Marcus Baker, 
secretary; Andrew H. Allen, Otis T. Mason, H. G- Ogden, A. B. Johnson, 
Harry King, Major James L. Lusk, A. Von Haake, H. T. Brian, and John Hyde. 

Tine Meteorological Chart of lite Great Lakes, which was last year issued monthly 
during the season of navigation by the U. S. Weather Bureau as an experiment, 
will hereafter be a permanent feature of the Weather Bureau work. The chart 
proved so serviceable in 1899 that it is now indispensable to vessels sailing 
between the Lake ports. It is edited by Prof. A. J. Henry and Mr Norman B. 
Conger, of Detroit, Mich. 

Fou the first time in its history the actual sea-levels, mileage, latitudes and 
longitudes of the Mississippi River are being determined. The work is in the 
hands of the Mississippi River Commission, the board of army and civilian 
engineers charged with the duty of improving this vast watercourse. As years 
of experiment and more or less defined effort at improvement have not re- 
sulted in permanent good all along, the commission has wisely decided to 
survey the entire system and triangulate every foot of its course. 

Thk telegraph line begun live years ago to connect Victoria Nyanza with the 
east coast of Africa has been completed. One of the practical uses of the line 
will be to give warning to Lower Egypt of the state of the water on the Upper 
Nile, information that will in some cases be worth millions of dollars to the 
people of Lower Egypt, who depend on the river for their irrigation water. 
The railroad which is being built along the same route is now in operation to 
Kin, about 270 miles inland. To complete the remaining 400 miles will require 
three years. 

The havoc that can be wrought by the hurricanes which periodically devas- 
tate the Greater, and especially the Lesser, Antilles will soon be reduced to a 
minimum, owing to the effective work of the V. S. Weather Bureau. Grad- 
ually meteorological stations are being established at all points on the Gulf of 

Mexico, the Caribbean Sea, and in the West Indies from which advance warn- 
ings can lie cabled. The most recent of these stations is that at Turks Island, 
at the extreme Southeastern end of the Bahamas, where Dr H. C. Frankenlield 
is now engaged in putting in the necessary apparatus. 
Thk concession by the Chinese Goveinmenl allowing steamers of the river 

type to navigate the inland waters of the empire has proved worthless in fact. 

A dispatch to the London Times from shanghai states that the Shanghai cus- 
toms Taotai have refused to permit a British vessel to trade between that city 
and I he ( husan Islands, only a few score miles distant from t he mainland. This 

is only one of many similar refusals, with the result that nearly all the steam- 
er- that w ere specially built and sent to China for coastwise and interior t rade 
either remain tied to their docks or have been sent back lo England by their 
Bril isli owners. 

■ 



246 GEOGRAPHIC MISCELLANEA 

Two phizes, the first of $150 and the second of $75, were offered in 1899 by 
the National Geographic Society for the hest essays on Norse discoveries in 
America. The competition closed December 31, 1890. By the decision of the 
Board of Judges, consisting of Henry Gannett, Geographer of the U. S. Geological 
Survey; Albert Bushnell Hart, Professor of History in Harvard University; Dr 
Anita Newcomb McGee, Acting Assistant Surgeon, U. S. Army; John Bach 
McMaster, Professor of History in the University of Pennsylvania, and Dr 
Henry S. Pritchett, Superintendent of the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, 
the first prize has been awarded to Charles B. Dalton, of New York City, and 
the second prize to Kenton Foster Murray, of Norfolk, Virginia. 

That the ant in the tropics is much more important as a geologic agent than 
the earthworm of temperate regions is maintained by J. C. Branner, Professor 
of Geology in Leland Stanford University. Professor Branner discovered new 
proof in favor of his theory during several months passed in Brazil in 1899, 
which he publishes in the last number of the Journal of Geolmjij. In the city of 
Theophilo Ottoni the streets had been in many places cut down through rock 
which in places was decayed, and in some of the fresh cuts he saw holes made 
by ants penetrating the ground to a depth of ten, twelve, and even thirteen 
feet. Naturally the ants do not bore into the hard undecayed rocks, but the 
opening up of the ground by their long and ramifying underground passages 
hastens decay, and the working over of the soil contributes to the same end. 

The gold-bearing area of Cape Nome and the copper fields in the vicinity of 
Copper River and Mt Wrangell, the most important field for exploration in 
Alaska at the present time, will be carefully surveyed by parties from the U. S. 
Geological Survey during the coming summer. The extent of the gold belt 
that passes through Cape Nome is unknown, but it is believed to cover an area 
of from 3,000 to 4,000 square miles, all of which needs to be mapped and pros- 
pected. Mr Alfred H. Brooks, geologist, who, in company with Mr K. ( '. 
Schrader, visited Cape Nome in 1899, and Mr E. C. Barnard, topographer, will 
direct the geologic and topographic parties at work in this territory, and hope 
to bring back a map of the gold area on the scale of four miles to the inch. 
Another party, led by Messrs W. J. Peters and T. C. Mendenhall, is to trace 
the extension of the gold belt to the northeastward and determine how far it 
penetrates into the interior of Alaska. 

Two billion five hundred million dollars of German capital is invested 
in agricultural, industrial, and commercial enterprises beyond the seas; nor 
does this enormous sum include the foreign securities held by Germans. In 
Mexico German interests are estimated at $95,000,000 ; in Central America and 
the West Indies, $(10,000,000 each ; in the north of South America, $47,000,000 ; 
on the westcoast of South America, $70,000,000 ; on the east coast, $140,000,000 ; 
in Persia, Arabia, and British India, $12,000,000 ; in southeast Asia, $60,000,000 ; 
in east Asia, $17,000,000. In North Africa Germans possess plantations and 
industrial works worth $2,500,000 ; ill West Africa, $1,000,000 ; in Cape Colony, 
$9,000,000; in the Transvaal, $240,000,000 ; in Portuguese Africa, $5,000,000 
In Turkey Germans have invested about $7,000,000 in landed property and 
$00,000,000 in industrial enterprises, mainly railways, not including $05,000,000 
which the Bagdad-Busra Railway will cost. German interests in the United 
States and Canada are estimated at from $1,000,000,000 to $1,250,000,000. 



GEOGRAPHIC MISCELLANEA 



247 



The loss of life from lightning in the United States was greater in 1899 than 
in any other year for which statistics have been compiled. Prof. A. J. Henry, 
in the current number of the Monthly Weather Review, states that 562 persons 
were killed outright or suffered fatal injuries, and 820 persons received injuries 
varying from a slight shock to painful burns and temporary paralysis of some 
part of the body. In fatal cases death was usually instantaneous. The most 
common form of disability resulting from lightning stroke was a partial paralysis 
of arms and legs. The zone of danger from a stroke of lightning is apparently 
larger than the common belief, namely, that in a single discharge from cloud 
to earth or earth to cloud the zone of danger does not exceed a few inches. But 
several instances of death by a lightning bolt would seem to show that the 
influence of a single bolt i.s not so confined. Professor Henry cites an accident 
where a span of horses attached to a wagon and a man in the rear of the wagon 
were killed by a single bolt, while the driver in front was not seriously injured. 

Mecca, the sacred city of the Mo- 
hammedan world, where for centuries 
no Christian has entered except by 
stealth, will soon hear the whistle of 
an American locomotive. A railway 
from Mecca to Damascus is now be- 
ing surveyed by a commission of en- 
gineers appointed by the Sultan, and 
a railway battalion is to be specially 
created by the war office to take 
charge of the work of construction. 
The significance of the road is not so 
much in its commercial importance as 
in the revolution it means to Ottoman 
traditions, and in the fact that the 
Sultan has not been compelled by for- 
eign powers to agree to the construc- 
tion, but is himself its originator and 
promoter. 

Two thousand five hundred miles of telegraph and cable lines are now 
in operation in the Philippines, every mile of which lias been laid or recon- 
structed by the U. S. Signal Corps since the battle of Manila Bay, two years ago. 
Six thousand live bundled messages are flashed over these lines daily, all on 
government business, ciyil or military. Because of the vast volume of official 
business the lines cannot, be used commercially, but such use is hoped for iii a 
few mouths. Many of the lines have had to he rebuilt several times, as in the 
1 1 ion ut ai nous districts the insurgents cut t hem «lo\\ u when t hey raid the valleys. 
A network of wires covers Luzon, with only two gaps. One of these is stra- 
tegically important, as it, prevents the southern half of the island from com in u 
1 1 i < ■ : 1 1 i 1 1 ■_• with Manila. The pusses through which the line would pass are held 

by the insurgents. Panay, Negros, ami Cebu also have the beginnings of a 

similar network, ami t he lirst cable in t he system to connect all t he islands has 




248 



GEOGRAPHIC MISCELLA NEA 



been laid between Cebu and Leyte. Tlie Signal Corps is making the eonnee- 
tions by cable as short as possible, as the frequent earthquakes play havoc with 
submarine lines. 

The grip of the bubonic plague on every continent lias tightened. In San 
Francisco six deaths from the disease have occurred and the board of health 
lias officially proclaimed its existence in the city. Effective quarantine of 
Chinatown and inoculation will probably prevent a further invasion of the 
United States. In India the difficulty of dealing with the disease has been 
greatly increased hy a protest of the Mohammedan population in Bombay 




MCLBOuRne <$ 



IKK KM BK1 "I i ill. Bl BOS (I I-I..M.I \. 
Bv courtesy r.f the \<» Pin ' //■ raid. 



against tlie precautionary measures being taken by the Indian Government. 
At Manila, Philippine islands; Osaka.. Japan: Sydney, Melbourne, and Brisbane, 
Australia, and Auckland, New Zealand, many fatal cases have occurred. At 
each of these cities infected rats were found on the wharves. On the southeast 
coast of Africa, in Mauritius, at Suakin, on the Red Sea, at Cairo, at Port Said. 
at the northern end of the Suez ("anal, and at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, the dis- 
ease is also planted. 

From st Petersburg to Vladivostok by way of the Arctic Ocean is the plan 
of itinerary of an exploring party that early in June leaves the former city on 
the steamer Aurora. Six scientists and twelve sailors, all experienced in Arctic 
travel and led by Baron Toll, make up the party. Their special object is the 
careful exploration of the Arctic regions north of Siberia. After a brief Btop at 
Troinsu, Norway, and at the new Russian port of Catherine Harbor, on the 
Lapland coast, they will proceed to the Tainiur Peninsula, west of the Yenisei 
River, and there establish their winter headquarters. The nei,L r hl>orinL r terri- 
tory is to he explored during the winter of 1900-'01. On the breaking up of 
the ice, about August, 1901, they plan to push on to Sannikoff Land, discov- 
ered by Baron Toll in 1886 ami as yet unexplored, ami later farther northward 
to Bennett ami De Long Islands, following the routes of the Jeannetie in 1881 and 
of the Ffiim. The winter of 1901— '02 will he devoted to determining whether 
this group of islamls extends to the Pole. When the water route reopens in 
L902 they will resume their voyage to Bering Strait and reach Vladivostok in 
the fall of the same year. 



NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 



President 

Alexander Graham Bell 

Vice-President 

W J McGEE 

Board of Managers 

1897-1900 1898-1901 1S99-1902 

Marcus Baker A. Graham Beee Charees J. Beee 

Henry F. Blount Henry Gannett G. K. Gilbert 

F. V. Coyille A. W. Greely A. J. Henry 

S. H. Kauffmann John Hyde David J, Hill 

Willis L. Moore W J McGee C. Hart Merriam 

W. B. Powell F. H. Newell H. S. Pritchett 

Treasurer Corresponding Secretary 

Henry Gannett Willis L. Moore 

Recording Secretary Foreign Secretary 

A. J. Henry Eliza Ruhamah Scidmore 



OFFICES OF THE SOCIETY 

Rooms 107, 108, Corcoran Building, Fifteenth and F Streets N. W., Washington, D. C. 
Office Hours : 8.30 A. M. to 5.00 P. M. Telephone No. 471. 

The National Geographic Magazine is sent free of charge to all members of the 
National Geographic Society 

RecomneMation fir Membership in lie National GeoppMc Society. 

The following form is enclosed for use in the nomination of persons for member- 
ship. Please detach and Ml in blanks and mid to the Secretary. 

Dubs: Resident, $5 ; Non-resident, $2 ; Life membership, $50. If check be en- 
closed, please make it payable to order of the National Geographic Society, and, if at a 
distance from Washington, remit by New York draft or P. O. money-order. 

1900 



To the Secretary, National Geographic Society, 

Washington) D. C. 

Please propose ., — .' 

occupation and address : - - 



for.. .membership in tfie Society. 



It is understood thai persona nominated on this blank nave expressed a desire to 
join t lie Society. 



NA Tiny, i /. G EOt ? RA I'lIK ' M. I <:. I ZINE 



6 l 





CHESAPEAKE <&, OHIO RY. 

TTHE F. F. V. LIMITED is one of the finest trains hauled over any railway track in America. It runs 
solid between Cincinnati and New York, the route from Washington being over the Pennsylvania 
system. It has every modern convenience and appliance, and the dining-car service has no superior if 
it has an equal. The road-bed is literally hewed out of the eternal rocks; it is ballasted with stone 
from one end to the other ; the greater portion is laid with one-hundred-pound steel rails, and although 
curves are numerous in the mountain section, the ride is as smooth as over a Western prairie. 

One of the most delightful rides in all the route is that through the New River valley. The- 
mountains are just low enough to be clad with verdure to the very top, and in the early spring every 
variety of green known to the mixer of colors can be seen, while the tones in autumn take on all the: 
range from brown to scarlet. 

These facts should be borne in mind by the traveler between the East and the West. 

H. W. FULLER, Gent. Pass. Agent, Washington, D. C. 

The Fastest and Finest Train in the West . . , , 



.IS 




The Overland Limited 



TO. 



k UTAH and CALIFORNIA. 



°'®P^TO^ V 



FROM 16 TO 20 HOURS 
SAVED BY USING 



44 TWM OTIEIAHI l@lTE, n 

Double Drawing-Room Pullman Sleepers. 

Free Reclining Chair Cars. 

Pullman Dining Cars. 

Buffet Smoking and Library Cars. 



tend for Descriptive Pamphlet "49-96," 
Folders and other Advertising Matter. 
(Mention thia publication.) 



E. L. LOMAX, 

General Passenger and Ticket Agent, 

OMAHA, NEB 



Please mention this Magazine when writing to advertisers. 



X 1 TIOX. 1 L GEOGRA PHIC M. 1 GA ZIXE 



THE CHICAGO, MILWAUKEE Al ST. PAUL RAILWAY 

- - DFLTTHSTS - - 

Electric Lighted and Steam Heated Vestibuled Trains between Chicago, Mil- 
waukee, St. Paul and Minneapolis daily. 

Through Parlor Cars on day trains between Chicago, St. Paul and Minneapolis. 

Electric Lighted and Steam Heated Vestibuled Trains between Chicago and 
Omaha and Sioux City daily. 

Through- Sleeping Cars, Free Reclining Chair Cars and Coaches between Chicago 
and Kansas City, Mo. 

Only two hours from Chicago to Milwaukee. Seven fast trains each way, daily, 
with Parlor Car Service. 

Solid trains between Chicago and principal points in Northern Wisconsin and 
the Peninsula of Michigan. 

Through Trains with Palace Sleeping Cars, Free -Reclining Chair Cars and Coaches 
between Chicago and points in Iowa, Minnesota, Southern and Central Dakota. 

The finest Dining Cars in the World. 

The best Sleeping Cars. Electric Reading Lamps in Berths. 

The best and latest type of private Compartment Cars, Free Reclining Chair 
Cars, and buffet Library Smoking Cars. 

Everything First=class. First-class People patronize First-class Lines. 

Ticket Agents everywhere sell tickets over the Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul Ry. 

GEO. H. HEAFFORD, 

Genera/ Passenger Agent, Chicago, III. 



CALIFORNIA.. 

C~}F course you expect to go there this Spring. Let 

me whisper something in your ear. Be sure that 

the return portion of your ticket reads via the . . . 

Northern Pacific-Shasta Route* 

Then you will see the grandest mountain scenery in 
the United States, including fit. Hood and fit. Rainier, 
each more than 14,000 feet high, Ht. St. Helens, 
fit. Adams, and others. You will also be privileged 
to make side trips into the Kootenai Country, where 
such wonderful new gold discoveries have been made, 
and to Yellowstone Park, the wonderland not only of 
the United States, but of the World. Close railroad 
connections made in Union Station, Portland, for Puget 
Sound cities and the east, via Northern Pacific. 

CHAS. S. FEE, 

General Passenger Agent, St. Paui, Minn. 
Pleaae mention this Magazine when writing to advertisers. 



NA TIOXA L GEOGRA PHIC MA GA ZINE 



T3EOPLE like to read about the great 
* and wonderful country of the 
Southwest ; of its quaint and curious 
towns, its ancient civilizations, its 
natural marvels. They like to get ac- 
curate information about California 
and the Pacific Coast. This is because 
most people want to some day see these 

things for themselves •. 

I 

♦♦♦♦.♦♦♦♦•♦.v.*. 

v ♦ ♦ • ♦ 



ts£«c§5 



A charming book covering these 
facts is issued by the 

PASSENGER DEPARTMENT 

OF THE 

Southern Pacific Railway, 

and will be sent to anyone, postpaid, 
on receipt of TEN CENTS. 



«^w«^5 






♦"♦♦"♦"♦ 



N 



^ 



I 

I 
I 



> 



> 

N 
v 



fcAAAAAAA AAAAA A a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a A A A A A AAAA 



^ 



THE BOOK IS ENTITLED 

Through Storyland 
to Sunset Seas/' 



^»vj* 



You can get a copy by writing to 

S. F. B. MORSE, 

General Passenger Agent, 
Southern Pacific, 

New Orleans, 
and sending 1 cts. to defray postage. 



fe^Wfe^W 



m 

I 
i 

1 

I 
I 
I 






V 



s 



♦ ♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ * %*** * * • * * » ♦ • ♦* ♦* •* » * * ♦* * » 



AND IS A WONDERFULLY HAND- 
SOME VOLUME OF 205 PAGES, 
WITH 160 ILLUSTRATIONS. . . . 
The paper used is FINE PLATE 
PAPER, and every typographical de- 
tail is artistic. It is a story of what 
four people saw on just such a trip as 
you would like to make 



s 

I 

N 

N 

N 

\ 
\ 

\ 
\ 



Please mention this Magazine when writing to advertisers. 



NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



Burlington 



Leave BOSTON every Tuesday 
Leave CHICAGO every Wednesday 
Leave ST. LOUIS every Wednesday 



PERSONALLY CONDUCTED 
TOURIST PARTIES TO 

California 

Comfortable and Inexpensive 




QP^LECT PARTIES leave Boston every Tuesday via Niagara Falls 
and Chicago, joining at Denver a similar party, which leaves St. 
Louis every Wednesday. From Denver the route is over the Scenic 
Denver and Rio Grande Railway, and through Salt Lake City. 

Pullman Tourist Sleeping Cars of a new pattern arc used. They are thoroughly com- 
fortable and exquisitely clean, fitted with double windows, high-back scats, carpets, 
spacious toilet-rooms, and the same character of bedding found in Palai e Cars. They 
arc well heated and brilliantly lighted with Pintsch gas. Outside they arc of the regu- 
lation Pullman color, with wide vestibules of steel and beveled plate glass. Beautifully 
illustrated books on California and Colorado, with maps, train schedules and com- 
plete information can be had from anv of the following Burlington l'< nts: 



E. J. SWORDS 

I57!» Broadway 

NEW YORK CITY 
F E. BELL 

21 1 Clark Street 

CHICAGO ILL. 



W. J. O'MEARA 

:s<M» WaxhinRton Street 
BOSTON, MASS. 

C. D. HAGERMAN 

To:! Park Building 

PITTSBURG, PA. 



H. E. HELLER 

<•:«!» Chestnut Street 

PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

J. G. DELAPLAINE 

Broadway and Olive Streets 
ST. LOUIS, MO. 



Please mention this Magazine when writing to advertiser! 



NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



\\ 

\ \ 

•• 

u 

M 

... 
••• 

>) 

M 



< 

n 
M 



Shortest Line 



TO 



St. Paul and Minneapolis 



and the Northwest 



Chicago 
Great 



Maple 
Leaf 
Route" 



Western 



RAILWAY 



For tickets, rates or any detailed information apply 
to your home agent or write to 

F. H. LORD, 

Gen'l Pass'r and Ticket Agent, 
CHICAGO. 



I 
H 



H 



M 

Oj 
H 

M 



13 




jHtolHtotjtofciMHMHfcifr^^ 



^ 



A VITAL POINT 



IMPROVEMENT THE CIDER OF THE AG .• 




A TYPEWRITER'S 
PRINTING MECHANISM 

MUST BE SCIENTIFICALLY CON- 
STRUCTED. THIS POINT IS OF 
UTMOST IMPORT FOR 

EASY OPERATION AND 

PERFECT EXECUTION. 

Cbe Smith.. 
Premier 
typewriters 



Superior on This Point as Well as on All Others. 



ONLY CORRECT 
PRINCIPLES EMPLOYED. 



The Smith Premier Typewriter Co., 

SYRACUSE, N. Y. , U. S. A. 



Catalogues and Information at Washington 0ffic6, No. 519 Eleventh Street. 



Please mention this Magazine when writing to advertisers. 



NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE. 



THE AMERICAN 
FORESTRY ASSOCIATION, 

Organized April, 1882. Incorporated January, 1897, 



AKt YOU fOSTEB ON " ^y 

FORESTRY ? 



OFFICERS FOR 1SOO: 

President : Hon. James Wilson, Secretary of Agriculture. 

First Vice-Pres.: Dr. E. E. Fernow. Vice-Pres. for District of Columbia: George \V. McLanahan. 

Corresponding Sec'v: F. H. Newell. Recording Secretary and Treasurer : George P. Whittlesey. 

The objects ofthis Association in conserving: the forest wealth of the United States are detailed in 
a pamphlet which will be sent, together with a copy of The Forester, upon request. 

Patrons, $ioo. Life Membership, $50. Annual Membership, $2. 

American Forestry Association, APPLICATION FOR MEMBERSHIP. 

WASHINGTON. D. C. 

Dear Sir : Please propose my name for membership iu THE- AMERICAN 
FORESTRY ASSOCIATION. 

(Signed) Name 

P. O. Address 



ALL MEMBERS RECEIVE 



jup FORFSTFR 

THE OFFICIAL MONTHLY MAGAZINE, MIL. T \J I I L.O I L. I 1 . 

Pertinent papers by forest experts, accurate descriptions of the forests by officials of 
the U. S. Government, scientific forestry at home and abroad, questions of lumbering, 
irrigation, water supply, sbeep-graziug, and a keen summary of forest news. 

" ' The Forester' is devoted to the preservation of A merican forests, which ought to enlist for it the atten- 
tion of eveiy American patriot.'" — Chicago Advance. 

CORCORAN BUILDING, Washington, D. C. 

WOODWARD & LOTHROP 

invite attention to their selections and importations in desirable 

merchandise for the present season, 

comprising in part 

Paris and London Millinery, Silks, Velvets, 
High-class Dress Goods, Ready-to-Wear 
Outer Garments for Women, Girls and Boys, 
Hand-made Paris Lingerie, Corsets, Infants' 
Outfittings, Hosiery, Laces, Ribbons, Em- 
broideries, Linens, Upholstery Goods, Books, 
Stationery, Card Engraving; also Paris, 
Vienna, and Berlin Novelties in Leather and 
Fancy Goods, Sterling Silver Articles, Lamps, 
Clocks, Bronzes, etc , for Wedding Gifts .... 

10th, 11th and F Streets, Washington, D. C. 

Please mention this Magazine when writing to advertise 



NA TIONA L GEOGRA PHIC MA GA ZINE 



COMMENCED JANUARY, 1888. TWO VOLUMES PER YEAR. 

^nffillERICAN GEOLOGIST, 

1900. 



The Oldest Exclusively Geological Magazine Published in America 

TERMS. 

To Subscribers in the United States, Canada and Mexico $3.50 a year 

To other Subscribers in the Postal Union 400 a year 



The AMERICAN GEOLOGIST is issued monthly from the office of publication at Minne- 
apolis, Minnesota, United States of America. Twenty-four volumes are completed; the 
twenty-fifth began with the number for January, 1!)00. The magazine has received a 
cordial welcome and a generous support from leading geologists everywhere and it is now 
recognized as the exponent of the rapid geological progress that is taking place on 
the continent of North America, including Canada, the United States and Mexico. No- 
where else in the world are geologic phenomena exhibited on a more extensive scale 
and nowhere else are results attained of greater economic and scientific importance. 

The AMERICAN GEOLOGIST lays before its readers from month to month the latest 
results of geological work. In addition to the longer papers it gives synopses of recent 
geological publications and brief notes on current geological events. 

THE GEOLOGICAL PUBLISHING CO., 

Minneapolis, Minn. 

seivjd to the: — 

MACMILLAN COMPANY 

For the LATEST TEXT-BOOKS and WORKS OF REFERENCE 

ON EVERY BRANCH OF SCIENCE BY 

LEADING AUTHORS. 

PROF. L. H. BAILEY (Cornell University), PROF. NICHOLS and his Colleagues De- 

works on Agriculture and Botany partment of Physics, Cornell Univ.), in Physics, 

PROF. THORP (Mass. Inst. Tech.), on Indus- Electricity, etc. 

trial Chemistry. $3.50 net. 

PROF.PACKARD (Brown Univ.), on Entomology. 
$4.50 net. 



PROF. LAMBERT (Lehigh University), on Dif 
ferential and Integral Calculus. $1.50 net. 



PROFS. HARKNESS and MORLEY (Bryn pRQF LACHMAX ( Univ . of Oregon), The 

Mawr and Haverford), Theory of Analytic Spirit 0/ Organic Chemistry. J1.50 net. 

Functions. $3.00 net. 

PROF. DAVENPORT (Harvard University). PROF. TARR (Cornell Univ.), Physical Geogra- 

Experimental Morphology. Vol. I, $2 60 ; Vol Mr, Geology, etc. 

II, $2.00. 

PROF. HENRY F. OSBOKN (Columbia Univ.)> PROF. COMEY (Tufts College), Dictionary ol 
Editor of the Columbia Biological Series. Chemical Solubilities. 

These are a few only of the names represented in the Catalogue or the New 
Announcement List (sent free). 

THE MACMILLAN COMPANY, Publishers, NEW YORK. 



Please mention this Magazine when writing to advertise) s. 



XATIOXAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



The Leading Scientific Journal of America 

SCIENCE 



A JOURNAL DEVOTED TO THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE. 

PUBLISHED EVERY FRIDAY. 

Annual Subscription, $5.00. Single Copies, 15 Cents. 



From its first appearance, in 1883, Science has maintained a repre- 
sentative position, and is regarded, both here and abroad, as the leading: 
scientific journal of America. 

Its Editors and Contributors come from every institution in this country 
in which scientific work of importance is accomplished, including Harvard, 
Yale, Columbia, Pennsylvania, Johns Hopkins, Cornell, and California 
Universities, among others. 



EDITORIAL COMMITTEE. 

S. Newcomb, Mathematics ; R. S.Woodward, Mechanics ; E-C. Pickering, Astronomy; 
T. C. Mendenhael, Physics ; R. H.Thurston, Engineering ; IraRemsen, Chemis- 
try ; J. LE Conte, Geology; W. M. Davis, Physiography ; Henry F. Osborn, 
Paleontology; \V. K. Brooks, C. Hart Merriam, Zoology; S. II. 
Scudder, Entomology; C. E. Bessev, N. L. BriTTON, Botany; C. S. 
MlNOT, Embryology, Histology ; H. P. BowdiTCH, Physiology ; 
J. S. Billings, Hygiene ; J. McKEEN Catteee, Psychology ; 
J. W. Powell, Anthropology. 



NEW AND POPULAR SCIENTIFIC BOOKS. 



MANUAL OF BACTERIOLOGY 

By Robert Muir, M.D., f.r.c.p., 
Ed., Professor of Pathology, Univer- 
sity of Glasgow, and James Ritchie, 
M.D., Lecturer on Pathology. Uni- 
versity of Oxford. Second edition. 
With 126 illustrations. 

Cloth, Cr. Svo, $2 2 5 " ,/ - 
GANONG 

The Teaching Botanist. A Manual 
of information upon Botanical In- 
struction r with Outlines and 
Directions 1' r a Comprehensive Ele- 
mentary By William v. 

JONG, Ph.D., Smith 

Cloth, 1 :mo, 5 1 • '" >"/■ 
a manual of in format ion upon botani 
stniction. with oiillinea hikI > ! i r ■ . 1 i ^ , 1 1 , 
elementary course. 



MACBRIDE 

The Slime Moulds. A Handbook of 
North American Myxomvcetes. By 
Thomas H. MACBRIDE, Professor of 
Botany, University of Iowa. 
Cloth,' 1 21110. 
A list of all species described in North 
America, including Central America, with an- 
notations. 

5UTER 

Handbook of Optics. For Students 
of Ophthalmology. By William N. 
SuTER, M. I)., National University, 
Washington, n. C. 

1 loth, 1 -Miio, J1.00 net. 

Aims in •■!- insight into the phenom" 

r,, 1 ,,! 1 1.1 ophl tial " 

111 be obtained fri 'in tin- usual 1 
I urn ..I the 1 



THE MACMiLLAN COMPANY, Publishers, NEW YORK, 



Please mention thie Magazine when writing to advertisers. 



XATIOXAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



APPLETONS' WORLD SERIES. 

A New Geographical Library, 



Edited by H. J. MACKINDER, M. A., 

Church, Reader in Geography 
ford, Principal of Reading C< 

12mo. Cloth, $1.50 each. 



Student of Christ Church, Reader in Geography in the University 
of Oxford, Principal of Reading College. 



A COMPLETE ACCOUNT OF THE WORLD, 

The series will consist of twelve volumes, each being an essay descriptive 
of a great natural region, its marked physical features, and the life of its people. 
Together the volumes will give a complete account of the world, more especially 
as the field of human activity. 

The series is intended for reading rather than for reference, and will stand 
removed on the one hand from the monumental work of Reclus, and on the 
oilier from the ordinary text-book, gazetteer, and compendium. 

Each volume is to be illustrated by many maps printed in colors and by 
diagrams in the text, and it will be a distinguishing characteristic of the series 
that both maps and diagrams will be drawn so that each of them shall convey 
some salient idea, and that together they shall constitute a clear epitome of the 
writer's argument. With a like object, the pictures also will be chosen so as 
to illustrate the text and not merely to decorate it. A detailed announcement 
of this important series will be presented later. 

List of the Subjects and Authors. 

i. Britain and the North Atlantic. Ity the Editor. 

2. Scandinavia and the Arctic Ocean. By Sir Clements R. Markham, 

K. C. B., F. R. S., President of the Royal Geographical Society. 

3. The Romance Lands and Barbary. By Elisee Reclus, author of the 

" Nouvelle Geographic Universelle." 

4. Central Europe. By Dr. Joseph Partsch, Professor of Geography in 

the University of Breslau. 

5. Africa. By Dr. J. SCOTT KELTiE, Secretary of the Royal Geographical 

Society ; Editor of " The Statesman's Year-Book. " 

6. The Near East. By D. G. Hogarth, M. A., Fellow of Magdalen Col- 

lege, Oxford ; Director of the British School at Athens; Author of "A 
Wandering Scholar in the Levant." 

7. The Russian Empire. By Prince Krapotkin, author of the articles 

"Russia" and "Siberia" in the Encyclopedia Briiannica. 

8. The Far East. By Archibald Little. 

9. India. By Sir T. Hungerford Holdich, K. C. I. E-, C. B., R. E., Su- 

perintendent of Indian Frontier Surveys. 

10. Australasia and Antarctica. By Dr. H. O. Forbes, Curator of the 

Liverpool Museum ; bite Curator of the Christ Church Museum, N. Z. ; 
Author of "A Naturalist's Wanderings in the Eastern Archipelago." 

11. North America. By Prof. I. C. RUSSELL, University of Michigan. 

12. South America. By Prof. John C. Hrannek, Vice-President Leland 

Stanford Junior University. 

Maps by J. G. BARTHOLOMEW. 

D. APPLETON & CO., Publishers, 

NEW YORK. 



Please mention this Magazine when writing to advertisers. 



XATIOXAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



IMPORTANT ANNOUNCEHENT 2 

THE 

INTERNATIONAL 
GEOGRAPHY. 



The last few years have proved so rich in geographical discov- 
eries that there has been a pressing need for a risumi of recent ex- 
plorations and changes which should present in convenient and 
accurate form the latest results of geographical work. The addi- 
tions to our knowledge have not been limited to Africa, Asia, and 
the Arctic regions, but even on our own continent the gold of the 
Klondike has led to a better knowledge of the region. The want 
which is indicated will be met by The International Geography, a 
convenient volume for the intelligent general reader, and the library 
which presents expert summaries of the results of geographical sci- 
ence throughout the world at the present time. 

Seventy authors, all experts, have collaborated in the production 
of The International Geography. The contributors include the lead- 
ing geographers and travelers of Europe and America. The work 
has been planned and edited by Dr. H. R. Mill, who also wrote 
the chapter on The United Kingdom. Among the authors are : 

Professor W. M. Da vis (The United States), 

Dr. Fridtjof Nansen (Arctic Regions), 

Professor A. Kirchhoff (German Empire), 

Mr. F. C Selous (Rhodesia), 

Professors DE Lapparent and Raveneau (France), 

Sir OvKMKNTS R. Makkham, F. R. S. (Ecuador, Bolivia, and Peru), 

Sir John Murray, F. R. S. (Antarctic Regions), 

Count Pfeie (German Colonies), 

Mr. JAMES Bryce, M. P. (The Boer Republics), 

Sir H. H. Johnston, the late Sir Lambert Playfair, 

Sir F\ J. Goedsmid, Sir Martin Conway, 

sir George s. Robertson, sir wim.iam MacGregor, 

Sir CHARGES Wii.son, P. R. S. ; the Hon. I). W. CARNEGIE, 
Mrs. Bishop, Dr. a. m. W. Downing, F. R. S. ; 

Dr. J. Scott Kki.tik, and 

Air. G. G. Chishoem, the editor of the- 'Units Gazetteer. 

The book is illustrated by nearly live hundred maps and diagrams, which 
have been specially prepared. It is designed t>> present in the. compact limits 
of a single volume an authoritative conspectus of 1 1 1 < science oi geography 
and the conditions of the countries at tin- em 1 of the nineteenth century. 

D. APPLETON & CO., Publishers, 

72 Fifth Avenue, New York. 



Please mention this Magazine when writing to advertisers. 



NA TIONA L G EOG II A PHIC M. I 0. 1 ZINE 



Our Book Department 



The United States of Europe. W. T. Stead. 

ON THE EVE OF THE PARLIAMENT OF PEACE. 

Mr. Stead's recent talks with the Czar and with all the great European statesmen 
lend much value to this timely review of current politics, written with special reference 
to the Russian Peace Rescript and American "Expansion." It covers such pertinent 
matters as America's task in Cuba and the Philippines, the "Chinese Puzzle," South 
African Problems, the Fashoda Muddle, the Concert of Europe and its work in Crete and) 
Candia, and so on, with many suggestive forecasts. 

Size, $% x 8*4; pages, 468; over 100 portraits, maps, and illustrations; binding, cloth. 
Price, $2.00. 

Sketches in Egypt. Charles Dana Gibson. 

" Egypt," says Mr. Gibson, " has sat for her likeness longer than any other coun- 
try." The recent important events that have turned all eyes toward the Upper Nile 
have not disturbed in the least the ancient composure and serenity of the Land of the 
Pharoahs, and few countries offer such a tempting field to the artistic pen. Mr. Gibson's 
forceful and suggestive drawings are well reinforced by his written impressions — more 
complete than he has ever before published — and the whole makes up a uniquely in- 
teresting record, from an artist who occupies a peculiar position among us. It is the real 
Egypt from a new standpoint. No pains have been spared to produce a true art work, 
giving really adequate presentations of Mr. Gibson's drawings. 

Size, 7)4 x IO 'A', cloth decorated; pages, 150; type, 12 point. Regular edition, $3.00 
net. Edition de Luxe, 250 signed and numbered copies, each accompanied by a portfolio- 
containing art proofs of ten of the most important pictures, on' Japan silk tissue and 
mounted on plate paper suitable for framing. Price per copy, $10.00 net. 

From Sea to Sea. Ruclyard Kipling. 

35th THOUSAND. 

This is an authorized edition of the collected letters of travel which Mr. Rudvard 
Kipling has written at various times between 1SS9 and 1898, and has just edited 'and 
revised. It includes hitherto unpublished matter, as well as an accurate text of the 
"American Notes," with " Letters of Marque," " The City of Dreadful Night," "The 
Smith Administration," etc., etc. 

Even Mr. Kipling never wrote anything more entirely irresistible than are, for in- 
stance, his letters on Japan. The ludicrousness of the Japanese " heavy cavalry " the 
fascinating O-Toyo, the cherry blossoms, and the wonderful art which 'permeates the 
daily life of natural Japan— all these things become permanent in the reader's mind and 
can never be forgotten; and they show a side of the author which is not at all prominent 
in most of his other work. 

Size, 5x7^; two volumes in box; pages, 860; type, 10 point; binding, cloth. 
Price, $2 00. 

McCLURE, PHILLIPS & CO., 
141-155 East 25th Street, New York, 



Please mention this Magazine when writing to advertisers. 



NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



Our Book Department. 



Conan Doyle — New Stories 

THE GREEN FLAG, and other Stories of War 

and Sport. 

Dr. Doyle, as all his readers know, delights in strong men, placed in strange situa- 
tions, and "coining out in a masterful way. In this volume we have modern officers 
and soldiers, old time pirate skippers, veterans of the Napoleonic wars, and other high, 
heroic fellows cutting their way handsomely through a series of engaging adventures. 
The stories are far, however, from being all of one kind ; with unfailing strength and 
interest, they still present abundant variety. 

Special coyer design and frontispiece; l2mo ; size, §\ by 7| inches. Price, $1.51). 

Drummond and Moody. 

DWIGHT L. MOODY. Some Impressions and Facts. 
By Henry Drummond. 

For over twenty years Professor Drummond was, perhaps, Mr. Moody's closest 
friend : no one else knew him as well. They worked together and visited together, in 
this country and in England. Feeling that, for all of his fame, the real man Moody was 
to many people practically unknown, Professor Drummond, shortly before his death, 
turned from other work and wrote out these intimate impressions and recollections. 
They show Mr. Moody sympathetically in all his phases. They are in some sense a 
revelation even to persons who followed Mr. Moody closely in his public work ; for those 
to whom he was only a name they create anew personage — one that by his extraordinary 
qualities cannot fail to interest them. 

In large type, with ornamental headpieces and initial letters, anda phologravun frontispiece; 
J .'inn : size, ftj by 7| indies. Price, $1.01). 

Booth Tarki no-ton, 

A uthor of " The < rentleman from Indiana." 

MONSIEUR BEAUCAIRE. 

In this -torv. Mr. Tarkington proves again his ability to create character* that grip 
the reader's interesl and sympathy at first sight and never for an instant lose their hold 
until the last word is said, and even then linger long as an engaging memorv. 
Monsieur Beaucaire, with his courage and honor, his smiling cleverness and finesse, and 
his readiness and skill with his sword in a proper cause : and Lady Marv Carlisle, with 
her high, proud, brilliant beauty, that will not always hide for her, though she strives 
hard to make it, the tender flutterings of her woman's hear! are people thai one follows 
breathlessly through all their fortunes and recalls afterwards with the utmosl fondness. 

.1 beautiful volume with decorative title-page and six full-pagt illustrations in color; Ifrno' 
rize, •">! by 7| inclus. Price, $!.-.*>. 



These books can be had of any bookseller or by diiect oider from the publishers 

McCLURE, PHILLIPS cK; CO., 

141-155 East 25th Street . . New York City, N. Y. 

Please mention this Magazine when writing to advertisers. 



NA TIONA L G E( )GRAPHIC M. IGA ZINE 



>*,jR^ 




RIPAN 



A practical journalist, long a member of the staff of the Washing- 
ton Evening Star, resigned his position to go to Guatemala. Before 
he left Washington- he had been a firm believer in the medicinal quali- 
ties of Ripans Tabules, and took a lot of them with him to Guatemala, 
where he earned the friendship of the captain of the steamer, which 
sails from San Francisco and stops at ports in Central America, by 
making known to him the marvelous virtues of R-I-P-A-X-S, the 
medical wonder of the century. He often dilates upon the captain's 
enthusiasm about the Tabules and asserts that the people of the tropics 
suffer terribly from indigestion, and that the Tabules are now known 
most favorably throughout Central America. Ripans Tabules quiet 
the nerves, compose the mind, allay irritation, and invite repose. One 
gives relief. 

WANTED :— A case of bad health that R-I-P-A-X-S will not 
benefit. They banish pain and prolong life. One gives relief. Note 
the word R-I-P-A-X-S on the package and accept no substitute. 
R-I-P-A-X-S, 10 for 5 cents, or 12 packets for 48 cents, may be had 
at any drug store. Ten samples and one thousand testimonials will 
be mailed to any address for 5 cents, forwarded to the Ripans Chemical 
Co., Xo. 10 Spruce St., Xew York. 

Please mention this Magazine when writing to advertisers. 



NA TIONA L G EO GiL 1 I'll I < ' M. IGAZIN E 



The American Anthropologist. 

The only American magazine devoted to the science of Anthropolog)' ; 
published at the National Capital. No one interested in anthropology in any 
of its branches can afford to be without it. Subscribe today. 



Handsomely Printed and Illustrated. Published Quarterly. Four Dollars a Year. 

Address: THE AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGIST, 

G. P. Putnam's Sons, 27 and 29 West 23d Street, New York City. 



ESPECIALLY VALUABLE IN 1900. 



THE MOVEMENTS OF OUR POPULATION," 

By HENRY GANNETT, Geographer of the U. S. Geological Survey, 

in the; 
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE, Vol. V, No. 2. 



In this article Mr. Gannett shows the numerical increase of the population of the 
United states, its geographic distribution over the country, and its composition as regards 
s.-x. race, and nativity, not only at present hut in past times. Nineteen charts illustrate 
the text, showing the proportion of Germans, French, British, Canadians, etc., to mir 
total population, the centers of population during each decade since 17!)0, the proportions 
of urban and rural population since 1790, and other information valuable in this year of 
tin- twelfth census of the United states. 

By mail for 50 cents. 

NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE. 

Corcoran Building, Washington, D. C. 

Henry Romeike's Bureau of Press Cuttings, 

no Fifth Avenue, New York, 

Reads every paper of importance published in the United States, and 
through its European Agencies in London, Paris, Berlin, and Vienna every 
paper of importance published in Europe and the British Colonies. ( >ne 
subscription on any given subject will bring notices from the United States, 
and if desired also from the European papers. 

:> WRITE F"OR TERMS C 



NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



ȣk- SOUTHERN RAILWAY 

^ GREATEST SOUTHERN SYSTEM. 

TO ALL POINTS SOUTH, SOUTHEAST, AND SOUTHWEST. 

Throujrh Pullman Drawing Room Sleeping- Cars from New 
York and Washington to New Orleans, Memphis, Port 
Tampa, Jacksonville, Augusta, ami Intermediate Points— 
First-Class Day Coaches— Dining Car Service. 

Fast Trains for the SOUTH leave "Washington Daily at 11.15 A. M., 9.50 
P. M., and 10.45 P. M. 

Through Tourist car on the 10.45 P. M. Train every Monday, "Wednesday, 
and Fiiday for Texas, Arizona, and California points, without change. 

Diiect line to the Summer Resorts in Virginia and the Carolinas and the 
"Winter Resorts of Florida, Gulf Coast, Texas, Mexico, and California. 

Direct Through Car Line to and from Asheville, Hot Springs, and other 
"Western North Carolina points— " THE LAND OF THE SKY." 

For Map Folders, Summer Homes Folder, and Book on "ASHEVILLE 
AND THEREABOUTS" write to— 

A. S. THWEATT, Eastern Passenger Agent, 271 Broadway, New York, N. Y. 
J. C. HORTON, Passenger Agent, 201 E. Baltimore Street, Baltimore. Md. 
L. S. BROWN. General Agent, 705 Filteenth St. N. \V., Washington, I). C. 
W. B. BROWN, Passenger Agent, Norfolk, Ya. 

S. H. HARDWICK, Assistant General Passenger Agent, Atlanta, Ga. 

C. A. BKNSCOTER, Assistant General Passenger Agent, Chattanooga, Tenn. 

W. H. TAYLOE, Assistant General Passenger Agent, Louisville, Ky. 

J. M. CUI.P, Traffic Manager. W. A. TURK, General Passenger Agem, 

Washington. I). C. 

The Mutual Life Insurance Co. 

OF NEW YORK, 

RICHARD A. McCURDY, President, 

Is the Largest Insurance Company in the World. 



The Records of the Insurance Department of the State of New 
York SHOW THAT The Mutual Life 



($39,000,000) 

($918,000,000) 

($235,000,000) 

($9,000,000) 

($136,000,000) 



Has a Larger Premium Income 

More Insurance in Force - 

A Greater Amount of Assets - 

A Larger Annual Interest Income - 

Writes More New Business 

And Pays More to Policy-holders - - ($25,000,000 in 1896) 

THAN ANY OTHER COMPANY. 

It has paid to Policy-holders since I _ _ $437) 005,195.29 
its organization, in 1843, j vwi,vw,*«w.«w 

ROBERT A. GRANNISS, Vice-President. 
WALTER R. GILLETTE. General Manager. FREDERIC CROMWELL, Treasurer. 

ISAAC F. LLOYD, Second Vice-President. EMORY McCLINTOCK, Actuary. 

WILLIAM I. EASTON, Secretary. 



Please mention this Magazine when writing to advertisers. 



BACK NUMBERS OF THE 

National Geographic Magazine 

The National Geographic Magazine has a few unbound volumes for 
the years 1896, 1897, and 1898. Each volume contains numerous maps and 
illustrations and much valuable geographic matter. It is impossible to give 
the contents of each volume, but the following subjects show their wide 
range and scope : 

Vol. VI [ f 1896: Russia in Europe, by the late Hon. Gardiner G. Hubbard; 
The Scope and Value of Arctic Exploration, by Gen. A. W. Greely, U.S.A. ; Venezuela, 
Her Government, People, and Boundary, by William E. Curtis; The So-called 
Jeanette Relics, by Win. H. Ball; Nansen's Polar Expedition, by Gen. A. W. Greely, 
U.S.A.; The Submarine Cables of the World (with chart 49x30 inches); Seriland, 
by W J McGee and Willard D. Johnson ; The Discovery of Glacier Bay, Alaska, by 
E. R. Scidmore; Hydrography in the United States, by F. H. Newell; Africa since 
1888, by the late Hon. Gardiner G. Hubbard ; The Seine, The Meuse, and The Moselle, 
by Prof. Wm. M. Davis; The Work of the U.S. Board on Geographic Names, by Henry 
Gannett; A Journey in Ecuador, by W. B. Kerr; Geographic History of the Piedmont 
Plateau, by W J McGee; The Recent Earthquake Wave on the Coast of Japan, by E. R. 
Scidmore; California, by Senator Geo. C. Perkins; The WitWatersrand and the Revolt 
of the Uitlanders, by George F. Becker; The Sage Plains of Oregon, by F. V. Coville. 

Vol. VIII, 1897: The Gold Coast, Ashanti and Kumassi, by Geo. K. French; 
Crater Lake, Oregon, by J. S. Diller ; Storms and Weather Forecasts, by Willis L. Moore ; 
Rubber Forests of Nicaragua and Siena Leone, by Gen. A. W. Greely, U.S.A. ; A Sum- 
mer Voyage to the Arctic, by G. R. Putnam; A Winter Voyage through the Straits of 
Magellan, by the late Admiral R. W. Meade, U.S.N. ; Costa Rica, by Sehor Ricardo 
Villafranca; The National Forest Reserve, by F. H. Newell ; The Forests and Deserts of 
Arizona, by B. E. Fernow ; Modification of the Great Lakes by Earth Movement, by <t. K. 
Gilbert; The Enchanted Mesa, by F. W. Hodge; Patagonia, by J. B. Hatcher; The 
Washington Aqueduct and Cabin John Bridge, by Capt. D. D. Gaillard, U.S.A. 

Vol. IX, 1898: Three Weeks in Hubbard Bay, West Greenland, by Robert 
Stein; The Modern Mississippi Problem, by W J McGee ; Dwellings of the Saga-Time 
in Iceland, Greenland, and Vineland, by Cornelia Horsford ; Articles on Alaska, by Gen. 
A. W. Greely, D.S.A., Hamlin Garland, E. R. Scidmore, Prof. Wm. IT. Dall, and others; 
on Cuba, by Robert T. Hill, Frank M. Chapman, John Hyde, and Henry Gannett; on 
the Philippines, by Dean C. Worcester, Col. F. F. Hilder, John Hyde, and Charli 
Howe; American Geographic Education, by W J McGee; Origin of the Physical 
Features of the L'nited States, by G. K. Gilbert; Geographic Work of the General 
Government, by Henry Gannett; Papagueria, by W J McGee; The Bitter Root Forest 
Reserve, by It. U. Goode ; Lake Chelan, by Henry Gannett ; The Geospheres, by VV J 
McGee; Sumatra's West Coast, by D. G. Fairchild; The Five Civilized Tribes in the 
Survey of Indian Territory, by C. H. Fitch; Cloud Scenery of the High Plains, by 
Willard D. Johnson; Atlantic Coast Tides, by M. S. W. Jefferson. 



Each volume may be had for $2.00. To obtain any of the 
above mentioned articles, send 2 5 cents in stamps, indicating 
merely the title of the article desired. 



107-108 Corcoran Building, Washington, D. C. 



CHART OF THE WORLD 

48x30 INCHES 

Showing all Submarine Cables and the principal 
Connecting Land- Lines, and also Coaling, 
Docking, and Repairing Stations. 

No. 3, Vol. 7. By Mail for 25 Cents. 



THE PHILIPPINES 

The Economic Condition of the Philippines. By 
Max L. Tornoiu, of Berlin and Manila. 

Manila and the Philippines. By Major Von Son- 
nenberg, of the Imperial German. Army, late 
military attache at Manila. 
No. 2, Vol. 10. By Mail for 25 Cents. 

The Philippine Islands (with maps). By F. F. Hilder. 
Notes on Some Primitiye Philippine Tribes. By 
Dean C. Worcester. 

Commerce of the Philippine Islands. By the Editor. 
No. 6, Vol. 9. By Mail for 25 Cents. 



THE REDWOOD FOREST 

The Redwood Forest of the Pacific Coast. By 
Henry Gannett. In this article Mr. Gannett 
shows the geographic distribution, the average 
annual cut, and the estimated duration of the 
supply of redwood. 

Is Climatic Aridity Impending on the Pacific Coast ? 
The Testimony of the Forest. By J. B. Leiberg. 
No. 5, Vol. 10. By Mail for 25 Cents. 



THE TRANSVAAL 

The Witwatersrand and the Revolt of the Uit- 
landers (1895— '6.) By George F. Becker. 
No. 11, Vol. 7. By Mail for 25 Cents. 

NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE, Corcoran Bldg., Washington, D. C. 



JUDD <t DETWEILER, PRINTERS, WASHINGTON, D. C. 



Vol. XI JULY, 1900 No. 7 



THE 

NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC 



MAGAZINE 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

PORTRAIT OF G. K. GILBERT Frontispiece 

THE EXPANSION OF ENGLAND EDWIN D. MEAD 249 

THE ROAD TO BOLIVIA WILLIAM E. CURTIS 264 

THE CHINESE BOXERS LLEWELLYN JAMES DAVIES 281 

NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 288 

OUTLINE MAP OF THE FAR EAST 290 

THE TSUNG-LI-YAMEN 291 

■With plan of Pekin 

MAP SHOWING THE COUNTRY FROM TA-KU TO PEKIN. 292 

GEOGRAPHIC NOTES 293 



WASHINGTON 
PUBLISHED BY THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 

Fob Sale at Bkkntano's: 

31 Union Sviuakb, Nkw Yokk ; 101.") Pknnsyi.vania Avknuk, Washington; 

216 Wabahic Avknub, Chicago; 37 Avknuk dk l'Opkka, Pakis 

Price 25 Cents $2.50 a Year 



inc. 

National Geographic Magazine 

AN ILLUSTRATED MONTHLY 



Editor: JOHN HYDE. 

Statistician of the U. S. Department of Agriculture 

Associate Editors 

General a. w. Greely, Marcus Baker, 

Chief Signal Officer, U. S. Army (J. S. Geological Survey 

W J McGee, Wiu.is L. Moore, 

Ethnologist in Charge, Bureau of Chief of the Weather Bureau, ('. S. 

American Ethnology Department of Agriculture 

Henry Gannett, H. S. Pritchett, 

Chief Geographer, U. S. Geological Superintendent of the U. S. Coast 

Survey and Geodetic Survey 

C. Hart Merriam, O. P. AUSTIN, 

Chief of the Biological Survey, U. S. Chief of the Bureau of Statistics, 

Department of Agriculture U.S. Treasury Department 

David J. Hill, Charles H. Allen, 

Assistant Secretary of State Governor' of Porto Rico 

Eliza Ruhamah Scidmore, Carl Louise Garrison, 

Author of "Java, the Garden of Principal of Phelps School, Wash- 

the East," etc. ington, D. C. 



Assistant Editor: GILBERT H. GROSVENOR, "Washington, D. C. 



The list of contributors to the National Geographic Magazine 
includes nearly every United States citizen whose name has become iden- 
tified with Arctic exploration, the Bering Sea controversy, the Alaska and 
Venezuela boundary disputes, or the new commercial and political questions 
arising from the acquisition of the Philippines. 

The following articles will appear in the Magazine within the next few 
months : 

"The Growth of Germany," by Professor J. L- Ewell of Howard University. 

"The Dikes of Holland," by Gerard H. Matthes, U. S. Geological Survey. 

*' The Manila Observatory," by Jose" Algu£, S. J., Director of the Manila Observatory. 

"The Annexation of the West," by F. H. Newell, Hydrographer, U. vS. Geological 
Survey. 

"The Native Tribes of Patagonia," by Mr J. B. Hatcher of the Carnegie Museum, 
Pittsburg, Pennsylvania. 

"Explorations on the Yangtse-Kiaug, China," by Mr Win. Barclay Parsons, C. E., 
surveyor of the railway route through the Yaugtse-Kiang Valley. 



Entered at the Post-office in Washington, D. C, as Second-class Mail Matter. 



NAT. GEOG. MAG. 



VOL. XI, 1900. PL. 7 





- 




N » 




ML 












: iS&k i : ;. 




THE 



NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 

Vol. XI JULY, 1900 No. 7 



THE EXPANSION OF ENGLAND 

By Edwin D. Mead, LL.D., 
Editor of tlie New England Magazine 

The name and fame of Sir Walter Raleigh are perpetuated in the 
name of the capital of one of our states — a state which I wish Lore the 
name of Roanoke instead of North Carolina, that a douhle historical 
lesson might be taught. I wish that there might stand in the center 
(•!' the city of Raleigh, which perpetuates this historic name, a worthy 
monument to the great movement for the English colonization of 
America. The central figure of that monument would he Sir Walter 
Raleigh. At Worms, on the banks of the Rhine, where Luther made 
his great protest against the Empire and the Church, is that greatest 
and most distinguished of all monuments, as it seems to me. The 
figure of the great reformer is Burrounded by the forms of Wyclif, 
Savonarola, 1 1 uss, Melancthon, the Elector, and the various men who. 
in the political and intellectual advances of the time, and the preced- 
ing time, were cooperators with him in that great movement which we 
call the Reformation ; so 1 wish that this great movement for the col- 
onization of the New World by our English race, one of the most 
momentous chapters in history, might have a similar commemoration: 
Surrounding the central figure of Sir Walter Raleigh should be Drake, 
I lawk ins, Frobisher, Davis, Capt. John Smith, Bartholomew Gosnold, 
and dear Richard 1 [akin vt. 

In thai notable time there is no figure bo romantic as his. There 
was no oiher mind bo generous and so capable, of so greal compre- 
hension and scope, as his concerning the opening of this New World, 
lie it was who. in the pressure and the dangers of thai time, most 
clearly discerned thai it was from America thai Spain derived so 



250 THE EXPANSION OF ENGLAND 

much of her wealth and power. He became inspired by the desire 
that England should have a foothold here, and that she should sup- 
plant Spain in the New World ; and at last, after the failure of all the 
colonies which he sent out, one following another, to occupy new 
ground here — at the last, toward the close of life, the great prophet 
and believer said, "America will yet become an English nation.'' All 
honor to the prophet ! 

M'hen we study the expansion of England we should remember 
that that work in its beginning was a chapter in the history of 
America. 

THE FIRST EXPANSIONISTS — HAWKINS, DRAKE, AND FROBISHER 

It was not until j584 that Raleigh established his first colony at 
Roanoke, and just before that the activities of that adventurous set of 
men began who conferred so much glory on the age of Elizabeth. A 
score of years before, when Elizabeth became Queen, the fortunes of 
England were never at so low an ebb. For five centuries before that 
England had claimed portions of France, and her kings and queens 
had been crowned kings and queens of France as well as of England. 
It was at that very time that England lost her last hold upon the con- 
tinent, and the England which Elizabeth came to rule was the smallest 
England in history for centuries, } r et it was the period that began with 
her reign which was the most glorious in the history of England. 

In a certain sense, the expansion of England — at any rate, of English 
thought of the world — had its beginnings with Alfred the Great. 
Alfred loved geography, and his mind went out from the little island 
which he ruled to the great world outside. The few writings of Alfred 
are most interesting ; his books adorn the libraries still, and the most 
interesting chapters of them all ore on geography. He was the first 
influential Englishman who had what Ave may call a geographic im- 
agination ; but he did little for the expansion of England. It was 
the Elizabethan age that began that work, and it began in ways that 
seem a little queer to us with our somewhat different notions of 
political morality. 

Sir John Hawkins was one of the first English adventurers who 
sailed the sea to some purpose for Elizabeth. It is a familiar story 
how he sailed out from Plymouth with ships named " John the Bap- 
tist " and other pious names to carry slaves from the east coast of 
Africa to the West Indies and compel the Spaniards to buy them 
of him at the cannon's mouth, for there was a law in Spain that her 






THE EXPANSION OF ENGLAND 251 

colonies should buy slaves onh r from Spanish ships. Sir John Hawk- 
ins would have none of this, and her colonists bought them at the can- 
non's mouth. While they were on this business these pious people 
seem to have had little idea what sort of business it was. The chap- 
lain of one of the ships on that slave business thanks God for send- 
ing a calm to " save his elect " from the waves in a storm. He prays 
Him not to let his elect suffer ; and so, he says, there was a great calm. 

The boldest and most ambitious of these adventurers was Sir Francis 
Drake, sailing out from Plymouth for the circumnavigation of the 
world. He had sailed on daring voyages before that. I think there 
are few scenes in that Elizabethan time more interesting than that of 
Francis Drake climbing to the top of a tree on the Panama mountains 
from which he could look east to one ocean and west to another, with 
heart full of longings to sail those Pacific seas. One thrills at the 
thought of his sailing in his few ships, scarcely larger than our little 
coasters, pushing through Magellan Strait, along the west coast of 
the continent, and over the Pacific to the Philippines and other 
places which the history of these last two years has made so familiar 
to our own students of geography. Occasionally, when he had a 
chance to put in a fight with a Spanish ship, he " annexed " goods ; 
and finally, after all his incredible adventures, he got back to Ply- 
mouth. It is a great story. 

We might follow Davis and Frobisher in their efforts to push up to 
Greenland and through to India by the northwest passage, for that is 
one of the most interesting moments in this early history of English 
expansion. But little came of it. There is a certain poetic fitness in 
Drake and Hawkins sailing together and both finding their deaths in 
the West Indies — one at Porto Bello and the other at Porto Rico — 
where the English rivalry with Spain had been so long and violent. 

What was the result of all these adventurous sailings of the sea? 
At the end of the reign of Elizabeth not one inch of settled territory 
in the New World remained in the possession of England. But this 
was accomplished by it : These wonderful dare-devil adventures of 
Hawkins and Drake and the rest were great training experiences 
whereby Drake, Hawkins, and the rest were fitted t;> face Spain, and 
to face Spain successfully, by and by, when the Armada came, and to 
crush that power forever as the great foe of liberty in the north of 
Europe. That the English came out of that conflict as conquerors 
was due to the fact that by all these adventures, many of them so 

questionable, they had been trained, and that their navy had been 



252 THE EXPANSION OF ENGLAND 

built up to a degree commensurate witb the responsibility they had 
to face. 

THE BEGINNING OF THE DEFINITE EXPANSION OF ENGLAND WAS THE 
DEFINITE EXPANSION OF AMERICA 

It was not until 1606, the Roanoke colonies having been failures, 
that the definite expansion of England, which was the definite expan- 
sion of America, began in the first Virginia charter. It is an interest- 
ing thing, however, going back through the century before, when, one 
after another, five or six nations, in one way or another, were strug- 
gling for this New World — Portugal and Spain having it all divided 
between them at one time — to find that there breaks, little noticed, 
into the midst of the commotion of all these powers one little English 
squadron. In 1497, on the coast of Newfoundland, Ave find John 
Cabot, sailing out under English auspices and under English orders. 
As one of our historians has well said, the appearance, in the midst 
of all the noise and ambition, of the little English fleet, just for a mo- 
ment, was like one of the musical motifs suddenly appearing in the 
midst of one of the dramas of Wagner. By and by with its reappear- 
ance we see that its first appearance was a prophecy of what was to 
come, and by and by again it grows and becomes the dominant note, 
controlling all the rest. So it is that the appearance for a moment, in 
the midst of the squadrons of Spain and Portugal, of that little English 
fleet was a new motif. It was a prophecy of the time when that English 
motif should be dominant and England should be the controlling 
power upon this continent. 

The great men of England, the rulers of England, thought little of 
the events from which have sprung such great results. In our own 
time our American poet has written, in his essay upon '• New England 
Two Centuries Ago," of the little company who came out of England 
:iiid landed at Plymouth, that they were destined to influence, beyond 
any others, the future of the world. That in truth was to be the 
work of the Puritan. Not a man of high place at the beginning of 
that seventeenth century realized the significance of that coming. It 
was an event destined to shape human history, to alter the whole 
course of affairs in the world ; yet I suppose few things at that time 
happening in England attracted less attention. 

On the last day of the sixteenth century, December 31, 1600, some- 
thing else happened, of a very different kind. On that day Elizabeth 
set her name to the charter of the East India Company. Those who 



THE EXPANSION OF ENGLAND 253 

are familiar with the many efforts in the years before that to push 
English trade into the East remember of the founding of the Muscovy 
Company in 1555 and the amazing stories told by adventurous English- 
men who pushed through Russia and Persia and so found a way to 
the East. From papers which Sir Francis Drake captured from 
Spanish ships, he learned for England the methods of a different trad- 
ing system with India; but it was not until that last day of the cen- 
tury that the East India Company was actuall} 7 founded. Some may 
remember the story of the first little fleet. In Malakka Strait the 
three or four ships fell in with a great Portuguese ship and fight 
was at once opened. It was the habit in that day to open fight with 
almost any ship that had plunder. It Avas in 1601, almost a score of 
years before Bradford, Brewster, and Carver sailed from Plymouth 
near by. that this first East India Company's fleet sailed from Tor 
Bay — the place, it is worth remembering, where, in 1688, a king was 
to land in England from Holland to supplant the last of the race of 
Stuarts. We see the beginning, in that little piece of piracy, as we 
should call it, in Malakka Strait, of the East India Company's work. 

THE TWO CONTRADICTORY ELEMENTS OF ENGLISH EXPANSION — THE SPIRIT 
OF LAWLESS ADVENTURE AND PIRACY AND THE LOVE OF FREEDOM 

In these two instances — in the silent, unobserved coming of the men 
of Plymouth, an event calculated, as our poet has truly said, to work 
a revolution hardly second to that wrought by the men who went up 
out of Eg} r pt, and in the piracy of the East India Company — we have 
an illustration of the two forces and qualities which we have to keep 
in mind as we survey the great work of English expansion, the growth 
of the English empire in the world. A great race, indeed, is this 
English race — the best race in the world, it seems to me — but a race 
whose blood has ofttimes been altogether too red, and which, in the 
great fight for freedom, has itself always had to fight with the bad 
elements in its midst — those elements so inconsiderate of the rights 
of other men. which have so often brought disgrace upon the English 
race and which every one of us should always remember with shame 
.Hid with misgivings and apprehension. These two strains we find 
running side by side in all this great history. We find in the era of 
colonization the spirit of lawless adventure and piracy running side 
by side witli the love of freedom and the devotion to godliness. ( )ur 
poet has Baid again of the Puritan colonists, the nun who came to 



254 THE EXPANSION OF ENGLAND 

Plymouth and Boston and Hartford, that they were " the first colonists 
in history who went out not to seek gold, but God." We shall find, 
as we study English colonization, that.it is always the former of these 
elements, the gold-seeker, that has started the fighting, and that the 
freebooting colony has by and by come to grief, sowing the seeds of 
quarrels from which they reaped such a tragical harvest for England 
and for the world. 

With this epoch of colonization England became more than the 
people of the little island — England became a world people ; and we 
in America remember that it is as she has become what she is that we 
have become at all ; and as we come back to this seventeenth century, 
which was the great century of the expansion of English freedom — 
the century in which Englishmen declined to allow that an English 
king could rule by divine right, but decreed that he was " as much a 
creature of law as the pettiest tax-gatherer in the realm " — it is impor- 
tant to remember that the great Puritan movement which accom- 
plished this was a movement on both sides of the Atlantic. It brought 
in the Commonwealth in England, and Oliver Cromwell and Sir Harry 
Vane worked for the same things for which our fathers were working 
here — for the true expansion of England. Freedom was worked out 
in America and England alike; each side reinforced the other. Jt 
was precisely at that time of the Commonwealth that English power 
was felt as it had never been felt before in the affairs of Europe. If 
there was wrong— sufficient wrong — the power of Oliver Cromwell 
would be felt in Italy, in France, and among the Alps, as well as in 
England itself. The English navy took its definite shape and became 
a power in the world during the Commonwealth. 

THE EXPANSION OF ENGLAND IN AMERICA IN THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 
A MATTER OF CHANCE AND NOT OF FORESIGHT 

We have been reading, the last fifteen years, the brilliant work by 
Professor Seeley, who was one of the most learned professors in Cam- 
bridge twenty-five years ago, when I had the good fortune to be there, 
and who possessed one of the most comprehensive and acute minds 
which have dealt with modern histoiy. His book upon the expan- 
sion of England has almost given us a new definition of English his- 
tory in the eighteenth century and since. The main thesis of his book 
is that as the seventeenth century had been the century which ex- 
panded and upheld English freedom, the eighteenth century marked 
the era of English expansion and empire; that the wars of the eigh- 



THE EXPANSION OF ENGLAND 255 

teenth century, which otherwise perplex us, were really waged to plant 
English power permanently in America and other lands; that they 
were not waged primarily for continental purposes, but were waged 
for America and for the expansion of England. 

I think that Professor Seeley, with his vivid imagination, goes a 
little too far in that book. He is in danger of ascribing to England 
that which England only blundered into. He does not bring out 
adequately, what I think the historical scholar must in the end de- 
clare, that the wars in the eighteenth century — the wars which we 
have named after King William, Queen Anne, and King George — 
were not waged for America and the expansion of England. England 
struck here and France struck here because it was a convenient way 
in which to strike for home purposes. As a matter of fact, all these 
colonial enterprises served for the expansion of England, and English- 
men were carrying them out; but the significance of America was 
something hard to grasp by England as a nation. As we study that 
century the thing that impresses us is the indifference of England to 
these colonies — the failure to apprehend what America meant and 
what the possibilities of English expansion were. 

The one man of that eighteenth century who understood in some 
measure the meaning of that word America was William Pitt, the Earl 
of Chatham. When he first said, in 1755, concerning the Seven Years' 
War, that it was being waged in behalf of the despised and neglected 
colonies, he said something that few men in England could even 
understand. I have stated that I should like to see rise in the city of 
Raleigh a monument to English colonization. We also need a mon- 
ument to William Pitt, the first great Englishman to realize what 
America was to be. We have, indeed, named one of our cities after 
him, and it has become a great city. Never was a city more fortu- 
nately named than Pittsburg, standing on the site chosen by Wash- 
ington himself as a key to the situation in the struggle in the West 
in that great campaign of England for North America. 

As we go on to the next century, the most eventful year is 17~>'.>, 
the year of the capture of Quebec by Wolfe. That event was signif- 
icant because it settled finally that England, and not France, should 
control this rout incut. When, on the evening of that September day, 
under the stars, Wolfe and his gallanl men climbed the banks that 
led to the heights of Quebec— on thai September night the great West, 
the Mississippi Valley, dotted with its forts and garrisons, was in the 
possessi i Prance. That great country from Nova Scotia to the 



256 THE EXPANSION OF ENGLAND 

Mississippi passed, as a result of the battle of Quebec, from the pos- 
session of France to that of England. New France on the morning 
of that day was a thing of the past. • New England was simply a little 
strip along the shore. It was a great day — more significant even 
than the day of the Declaration of Independence — because it settled 
that England, the Anglo-Saxon race, should be the dominant force on 
this continent. When the shades of evening fell on that eventful day 
the dying Wolfe murmured, " I die happy " ; but he could not know 
how much he had done. Montcalm said, with true divination, that 
he had struck a greater blow at his conquerors in their victory than 
he could have done in their defeat, for he foresaw that the English 
race on this side of the Atlantic would not remain in subjection to the 
mother country. As one of our historians has truly said, there is no 
event in modern history more significant, more fraught with great 
consequences, than the capture of Quebec. We speak of the great 
significance of the War of the Revolution ; we speak of the significance 
of our Civil War ; but the greatest war ever waged here was the war 
which ended in the triumph of Wolfe upon the plains of Quebec, and 
which determined that this America should be forever New England 
and not New France. 

With the victory of Wolfe upon the heights of Quebec, says an 
English historian, the history of the United States began. Mont- 
calm knew well that the only thing that could keep these English 
colonies a part of England was the danger which they were in from 
Canada, and he knew that when Canada passed into English control 
the feeling of independence among these Englishmen was such that 
they were sure in time to have their separate national existence. 

GEORGE WASHINGTON THE EXPANDER OF ENGLAND 

With the victoiy at Quebec truly the history of the United States 
began. The American Revolution was thus assured. What was the 
American Revolution? It was a movement which gained us our 
independence; but it was more than that. We have noticed that 
Puritanism was English and American. The movement which we 
call our Revolution had its two parties alike, one on one side of the 
ocean and one on the other, and Chatham and Burke and their asso- 
ciates in all that conflict stood shoulder to shoulder with George Wash- 
ington and Sam Adams. Edmund Burke did not find it difficult to 
see that the men behind the redoubt at Bunker Hill were the true 



THE EXPANSION OF ENGLAND 257 

representatives of the English idea ; that Sam Adams was a true 
Englishman when England set a price upon his head, and George 
Washington, hombarding the English army out of Boston. England 
lost America because England at that time had one of those spasms 
of folly which she has once in about so often. 

There are two Englands, I have said — one that always stands for 
that which is true and progressive and liberal, and the other which 
is always kicking against the pricks and standing in the way of pro- 
gress. England has been one of the greatest of nations, the English 
race one of the greatest races in the history of the world ; but from 
the beginning down to this time England has again and again been 
up to her knees in wickedness. Through the efforts, the energetic 
criticism and rebukes of earnest Englishmen — such as, in our time, 
Cobden, John Bright, and Gladstone, Bryce, and Morley — there has 
alwa3's been reaction from the foll # y and always hope of progress, and 
so we trust it may prove today. 

Freeman, the great English historian, toward the end of his life 
wrote an essay upon George Washington as the Expander of England. 
It seemed to some of us here in America, at first, a rather startling 
designation. We had not thought of him as an expander, but rather 
as a contractor, of England ; but the title was correct and the histo- 
rian's insight true. George Washington was the expander of England 
because he first taught England that her power, that the English em- 
pire, could grow only as England everywhere did justice, and that 
everywhere when she did injustice and struck down the freedom and 
the rights of men, there her empire was in danger. George Washing- 
ton drastically taught England that lesson, though she did not learn 
it immediately. He taught it to us, though it may take us time to 
learn it. He was the expander of America, and in all the talk of the 
expansion of the English race let us never think of this as coincident 
simply with the history of the British empire. We of English blood 
here in America are as truly a part of the English race as Canada. 
Our growth has been so great that perhaps we are today the more 
powerful part of the race. Our growth has been a part of English 
expansion. That expansion here went on the faster through our 
independence. It is a question whether the independence of ( lanada 
tomorrow might not mean the expansion of England in that quarter 
from that time on more rapidly and wholesomely than expansion has 
gone "ii there in the lasl century. 



258 THE EXP AS SIGN OF ENGLAND 

THE MOVEMENT FOR THE POSSESSION OF INDIA AND THE DISCOVK1! Y 
OF AUSTRALIA AND NEW ZEALAND COINCIDENT WITH THE LOSS OF 
HER AMERICAN COLONIES 

I mentioned the coincidence of the planting of Plymouth and the 
organization of the East India Company. I note another coincidence. 
Washington began his work as the expander of England in that great 
struggle of England for North America. In 1753 was his first expe- 
dition beyond the upper Potomac to the site of the present city of 
Pittsburg. His report of that expedition, when he came back to Vir- 
ginia, was his first appearance in print. The next year it was reprinted 
in London. Copies of that book by George Washington, printed by 
somebody in Fleet street, I think, are to be found in the libraries. 
I love to think that into that little book shop in Fleet street, or wher- 
ever it was, there may have strolled one day two very different men, 
because they were both in London in that same year, 1754, to pick up 
that book. One of them was a young Irish lawyer who had just come 
to London and was busy paying attention to almost everything but 
the law. I love to think how that young Irish lawyer, Edmund 
Burke, may have come into that little bookshop; and of another 
man, of about Edmund Burke's age and of about George Washing- 
ton's age, who came back to England that year from India, where he 
had entered upon one of the most eventful careers in modern times. 
It was in 1754 that Robert Clive, who had begun his work in India 
just as George Washington began his work, came back on his first 
visit to London. In that London book shop they might also have 
read of the Congress at Albany, New York, at which Benjamin 
Franklin submitted his plan for the union of the colonies for the pur- 
pose of defense — a noteworthy utterance of that idea of federation 
destined to play so considerable a part in the expansion of England. 

The movement for the possession of India by England was a move- 
ment precisely coincident with the loss of her colonies herein America. 
Clive was horn in 1725. and died in 1774, just the year before our 
Revolution broke out. Macaulay compared Clive to Napoleon as a 
military genius, and said that if Robert Clive had not died in England 
and had come over here, instead of Howe and Burgoyne and Clinton. 
we might have had a harder job in getting our freedom. It is worth 
remembering here that Cornwallis, who, so disastrously to England, 
surrendered in America, became afterward Governor-General of India 
and a successful administrator there, as in Ireland. It was under 
Clive that the foundations were laid of the great British Indian em- 



THE EXPANSION OF ENGLAND 259 

pire. His history reads like a romance. With a few men he was able 
to crush entirely the French power in India. It seemed in 1755 as if 
France was much more likely to stay in India than England, but 
France lost India just as she lost America. The great battle of Plassey, 
fought by Olive just after the tragedy of the Black Hole of Calcutta 
and other battles almost miraculous in their results, by which Clive 
laid permanently the foundations of the British empire in India, is 
familiar history. Warren Hastings succeeded Clive. He was the 
first real Governor-General of India, and whatever criticisms may 
be brought against him, he was one of the most efficient administrators 
the modern world has seen. 

Precisel} r coincident with the capture of India by England and the 
rise of the United States of America was the great career of Captain 
Cook, which more than anything else gave England her great southern 
possessions in Australia and New Zealand; and now the history of 
England in South Africa begins. Captain Cook sailed those southern 
seas, and his reports startled England with a sensation hardly less 
than that with which Columbus startled Europe. In July, 177<>, 
the same month as that of our Declaration of Independence, Cook 
sailed on his last voyage. Australia, New Zealand, and the great 
southern colonies of England have all grown up within the century. 

IMPROVEMENT OF THE GOVERNMENT OF THE COLONIES COINCIDENT 
WITH THE GREAT REFORMS AT HOME 

I mentioned Washington as the expander of England. He taught 
England the great lesson necessary to her expansion. He first taught 
it, but it was only under Lord Durham that she truly learned it. 
Lord Durham was one of the greatest Englishmen in the whole history 
of the expansion of England. He was a modern Englishman, who 
stood shoulder to shoulder with Peel in the great effort for reform in 
1831. It was full of the spirit of that great reform movement that he 
came out as Governor-General of Canada. He found still a central 
government, almost as tyrannical as thatof the old riginh which Park- 
man has exposed to us. He said, and said in a way that made Eng- 
land see and believe it, that if she would hold her colonics she must 
give them peal self-government, and give up that habit of over-govern- 
ing which had cost France her American possessions. Lord Durham's 
career in Canada was a short one, hut Lord Elgin took up his work 
and carried it on. Lord Durham's idea spread, and England has con- 
tinued to hold her vasl possessions, and has found them loyal and 



260 THE EXPANSION OF ENGLAND 

enthusiastic helpers. She made her colonies self-governing colonies. 

This movement for the improvement of the government of the 
colonies was precisely coincident with the great reforms at home. 
This is a thing directly concerning the expansion of England itself 
which all must remember : her great advances were all along the line — 
at home and abroad together. We talk of England learning the lesson 
of honest civil service from the Indian service. The improvement at 
home and in India went together. Constitutional reforms at home 
and a true civil service have grown steadily. Coincident with her 
advance in democracy at home, as illustrated in the time of Lord 
Durham and Peel, as illustrated in the civil service and in other move- 
ments of these threescore years, has come whatever is praiseworthy 
in the great movements abroad. 

In the work of her great colonial administration England has shown 
us some of the noblest statesmen of modern history, men who have 
done more almost than any others to make this world more orderly 
and a better place to live in. Sir George Grey was a typical man in 
this age of expansion, with whose life we ought to be familiar. His 
life, beginning in 1812, almost spans thecentury. He died two years 
ago. He was the son of one of Wellington's colonels, and early in 
life, after work in the exploration of Australia, he was appointed 
governor of South Australia. He was one of the first governors of 
New Zealand, and one of the first governors of Cape Colony. There 
is no chapter in his biography more didactic and wholesome than 
that on his government of Cape Colony, especially that portion show- 
ing his judgment of all those movements which, culminating this last 
year, have brought England to the melancholy pass which we see in 
South Africa. Most wholesome is the exposure of the futility and 
fatality of the effort to manage colonial details from Downing Street. 
Men like Sir George Grey, by the great reform measures for which 
they strove in New Zealand and Cape Colony, have helped England 
toward the things which might so easily save her from such foil}- and 
sin as this war in South Africa today. It was an Englishman who 
well said that what South Africa needed at this time was rest and not 
a surgical operation. 

WHEREIN THE MIGHT OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE RESTS 

The British empire is an empire today greater than four Europes. 
Britain has more than half of the trade of the world. Do we realize 
what a factor the British em [tire is in the world ? The four great facts 



THE EXPANSION OF ENGLAND 261 

of this century are the expansion of the British empire, which a cen- 
tury ago had hardly begun at all ; the building up of this English 
America, which a century ago was merely a little strip of land along 
the coast, which has extended westward from the Atlantic to tbe 
Rockies, to the Pacific Ocean, to the Orient, until it stands the com- 
panion of the British empire; the industrial development of Ger- 
many, which has taken place with amazing rapidity, and the immense 
development of Russia. The great development of the British em- 
pire, the real development of the British empire, does not lie in the 
fact that there are three hundred millions in India under her control. 
It is that in Australia, in New Zealand, in Canada, are great nations 
of Englishmen growing up strong, with power to stand on their own 
feet, a masterful race of men, destined to occup}" those fresh, green 
places of the earth. 

As to India, it is exceedingly doubtful whether she has been a source 
of power at all to England, and not rather a source of weakness and 
danger. No people can be kept permanently in leading strings. A 
policy which leads to that is a policy which leads to ruin. More and 
more India is being filled with educated men. They are anxious to 
take a part in the great life of the world. I talked with one the other 
day from Calcutta. He said that it seemed to him that America 
understood India better and was fitted to help her more than Eng- 
land. An Englishman never looks at an Indian without looking 
down. Americans seem to sympathize with them and look them in 
the face. He told me the story, so well known in its outlines, of the 
great development of the Indian National Congress, and of those 
various movements which are begetting in India a national self-con- 
sciousness. The presence of England in India has doubtless been a 
good tiling, on the whole. All the well educated Indians with whom 
I have discussed it feel that. They sa} r that this is what has opened 
up the world to them, and that the unity which, along with whatever 
wrongs. England has brought was necessary. But the British presence 
there can have a true outcome only as it regards itself as a great school 
and political training place for those millions of men. It is the 
greatest problem which ever confronted the English empire. It is 
only as she looks forward to self-government that India, can fare well 
or England's rbgimem India be true to the traditions of England itself. 
French political philosophers used to say thai therecould never be 
a large democracy, that tin; public spirit and unity necessary to a 
republic could never extend over a large area. They said it because 
they could nol see what the developments of the century would be; 



262 THE EXPANSION OF ENGLAND 

because they knew nothing of the railroad or the telegraph or the 
modern newspaper. The United States, as we know it, is, for polit- 
ical purposes, a vastly smaller thing than the United States which 
elected George Washington President. The occurrences of the last 
two years have taught us much geography and some new things about 
politics. The} 7 have not alwa}\s kept at the front, 1 fear, the one great 
principle of our Monroe doctrine, that important side of it which com- 
mands that this republic should stand for democracy throughout this 
hemisphere. That shipwreck of this principle of friendship for self- 
government has so often been made for political purposes is indeed 
to be regretted ; but the vicissitudes of the last two years have taught 
us in America that there are no longer for political purposes two 
hemispheres, but only one* round world. In 1823 the ocean was a 
barrier; today it is a bridge. America today has no responsibilities 
and no rights in Bolivia or Venezuela that she does not have in Hol- 
land, in Japan, or in the islands of the Pacific. That is one great lesson 
that is being taught us in this day. We hear a great deal of a feder- 
ated British empire. Such a federation as that of the United States 
today would have seemed impossible to the founders of the republic. 
The thought of a federated empire, in whose parliament represent- 
atives from Canada and Australia should sit side by side with the 
representatives from London and Liverpool and Birmingham, would 
have seemed impossible to Sir George Grey in his earlier life ; yet it 
is a thought which became familiar to him and is now dawning upon 
England. Such a federation is one great thing to which we look for- 
ward. It may be that it is not important. If the British empire goes 
to pieces, the great work of the English race will go on much the 
same. The independence of Canada, of Australia, and of South Africa 
may come as the independence of the United States came. 1 confess, 
however, that I should like to see a federation of the British empire. 
I think it might be a forerunner of that federation of the world of 
which the poet dreams. By virtue of the universal order, whose com- 
ing that might promote, the banners shall be furled and the war drums 
cease to throb. 

Amidst all the wonderful expansion of territory, amidst all the 
grasping of filibusters all the way from Sir John Hawkins down to 
Jameson, the vision in English minds of freedom, of independence, 
and of an orderly world has been the great and real expander of 
England, the source of that in English growth which is most welcome 
and which we most love to consider. A great Swiss scholar, in the 
home of Calvin, has written better than any Englishman or American, 



THE EXPANSION OF ENGLAND 2G3 

■of whom I think, of modern democracy. He showed us that it was 
out of the bosom of our English race, out of the Puritanism of Eliot 
and Hampden and Hooker and Vane, and not out of the French rev- 
olution, that the democratic tendencies of the modern world had their 
rise. England has gone on developing that democracy, but it has 
been slowly. England has become an enfranchised nation only in our 
time. When Gladstone, in 1866, championed the first bill for the ex- 
tension of the suffrage, England had only a little over one million 
voters in a total of over five million male adults. It was only in 1885 
that England really became an enfranchised nation. At that time 
there were over three millions of " outlanders " in England! and the 
party which fought the efforts of all those years to make England a 
true democracy was that very party that in the last two years has 
been so anxious for the suffrage for certain English gold-miners in 
distant Africa ! 

England is in many respects, let us be quick to acknowledge, a more 
democratic nation than we are. The will of her Parliament is always 
the mirror of the will of her people. In the wonderful extent to which 
her people are doing things upon a cooperative basis, in their munic- 
ipal achievements, the operation of street railways, and the doing of 
other things by the people for the people, England is making herself 
a truer commonwealth than our own. She is cumbered by her mon- 
archy and hereditary aristocracy, and needs republican forms. We 
are thankful for anything in which she outstrips us, as we are thankful 
for anything in which we outstrip her. We have done wrong, even 
as she has done wrong, and we both sadly need purgation today ; but 
the English race here and there, through the centuries, has been work- 
ing for freedom, for the extension of edifying political ideas, and for 
better things. 

As the American walks the corridors at Westminster, his heart does 
not beat fastest when he sees the painted kings upon the painted win- 
dows of the House of Lords, nor even when he stands by the white 
form of Hampden at the Commons 1 door; it beats fastest when, in 
the great series of pictures of English history, he looks on that of the 
Pilgrim Fathers leaving England to plant New England. England, 
who hurried them out, will not let that scene go today as a part of 
American history only, but claims it as one of the proudest scenes in 
her own history, too. It is a grateful thing. May the mother coun- 
try and the daughter country stand shoulder to shoulder —never when 

either lapses into Bill and does the deed of shame, hut always when 

either is devoted to whatever makes for the peace and freedom of the 
world. 



THE ROAD TO BOLIVIA 
, By William E. Curtis 

{Continued from the June number) 

Ninety per cent of the population of Cuzco are pure Indians, and 
the Quichua language, spoken by the Incas, is still in common use. 
The whites, who are comparatively few, are priests and monks, gov- 
ernment officials, haciendados, and a few foreign shop-keepers, mostly 
Germans. The old families still retain ancestral homes filled with 
massive furniture, gilded mirrors, and costly hangings brought to 
Peru 250 years ago, when it was the richest and most extravagant 
country on earth and when the nobility and wealth were concentrated 
at Cuzco. Most of these houses are in a state of advanced decay, for 
their proprietors are suffering from hereditary and incurable diseases 
called pride and poverty. Their estates have been ruined by neglect 
and devastation of revolutionary armies, their mines are no longer 
profitable because of the low price of silver, and now nobody knows 
and many people wonder where they find the means of sustenance. 
Their pride will not permit them to work, and their poverty makes 
it impossible for them to develop the natural resources that lie dor- 
mant in their property. If their ancestors had shown as much en- 
ergy in that development as they displayed in searching the Incas' 
ruins for treasure, there would have been permanent prosperity. Even 
now, after 350 years' digging for secret places of concealment, the 
Spanish inhabitants can always raise money somehow to pa} 7 theex- 
penses of further excavations. 

For more than three centuries the inhabitants of that region and 
the speculators of Europe have been plunging year after year into the 
icy waters of Lake Urcos to recover a golden chain of the Inca Huaina 
( lapac, which was thrown there to spite the Spaniards. It was of pure 
gold, wrought into links about one foot in length and as large as a 
man's arm, and long enough to stretch twice around the grand plaza 
in Cuzco, which is nearly 'as large as Lafayette Square, in the city of 
Washington. At one time a syndicate was organized, with a capital 
of $5,000,000, to bore a tunnel to drain the lake. After spending a 
large sum of money it was found that the mountain was Composed 
almost entirely of living rock, so that the enterprise was abandoned. 

264 



THE ROAD TO BOLIVIA 



265 




DKSrKNDANTS OF T1IK INl'AS 



It was at Cuzco, more than a hundred years ago, that Tupac Amaru, 
'• the Last of the Incas", a descendant of Huascar, organized an uprising 
of the [ndiana to exterminate the foreign invaders of Peru ; but lie was 
betrayed and taken prisoner, and, after being compelled to witness 
the execution of his wife and son, was himself " quartered " by wild 
horses in the greatsquare of Cuzco, under the walls of three churches 
dedicated to a merciful God. [ron rings were forged upon the wrists 

and ankles of the young Inca, to which lour chains were attached, 

and each chain was hitched to a restive; and powerful horse. When 
the cruel arrangements were completed the master of ceremonies 



266 THE ROAD TO BOLIVIA 

cracked his whip at the frantic animals, and each horse started in a 
different direction, tearing the body of Tupac Amaru into four pieces. 

C'uzco is 11,380 feet above the sea, and occupies one of the most 
beautiful sites ever selected for a city, which, according to tradition, 
was chosen by Manco Capac and Mama Occlo Huaco, those mys- 
terious beings who taught the arts and industries t< » the savage Indians 
of the Andes and founded a dynasty that grew in power until it 
dominated half the continent of South America. The climate is sa- 
lubrious and healthful. Within 20 miles down the valley all the 
semi-tropical fruits and vegetables are produced, and. although the 
soil has been cultivated for centuries, it still yields harvests of all the 
staples of the temperate zone. 

On a hill known as Sacsahuaman the first Inca built his palace, 
which was surrounded by temples, convents, and fortifications. The 
nuns of St Catalina now occup}' the restored ruins of the palace of the 
Virgins of the Sun. The friars of Santo Domingo occupy a magnifi- 
cent and extensive monastery, rebuilt from the walls of the Temple 
of the Sun, which was perhaps the most extensive and imposing 
building in America. The accounts of its splendor and riches that 
have come down to us from those who destroyed it are beyond belief. 
They said it was four hundred paces square, and inclosed courts, 
gardens, shrines, and various other apartments decorated with gold 
for religious sacrifices and ceremonies. The cornices were of solid 
gold, and at the eastern end of the great courtyard a massive plate 
of gold, representing the sun, spread from one wall to the other. 60 
feet in diameter. The walls of a dozen other temples, palaces, con- 
vents, and fortresses still are utilized, so that it is easy to define the 
outlines of the ancient city, and if the stories that its conquerors told 
are only half true they sheltered an accumulation of riches whose 
value is beyond computation. 

There is little of interest to the modern traveler outside the ruins 
and the ecclesiastical edifices which the Spaniards erected upon them. 
The market-place, particularly on Sunday morning, is worth visiting ; 
but the Indians are a sullen, reticent race and lack the dramatic and 
picturesque characteristics that make the Amayras of Bolivia so at- 
tractive. A few Americans live in Cuzco — two Protestant mission- 
aries, a dentist, a miner or two, and the men who are building a stage 
road to connect with the railway. 

One day in a country village we got a glimpse of a curious custom 
among the peasants. Squatting in the churchyards, in a row, were 



THE ROAD TO BOLIVIA 



267 



ten or twelve women from the mountains, w r hile opposite and facing 
them were an equal number of surly looking men. Between the two 
was a rude cross, held upright by a few stones laid against its base 
and trimmed with artificial flowers. The alcalde explained that the 
men had been brought there for discipline. They were charged by 
their wives with drunkenness, abuse, neglect, and improvidence, and 
the village priest would hear the evidence, render judgment, and ad- 
minister correction the next morning at 8 o'clock. When asked what 
sort of correction would be administered, he shook a stout stick, and 




AN IMA CEME1 'KKY 



remarked that he would lay that on the backs of the worst ones, 
while the otliers would be sentenced to various forms of penance. 

Before the railway wus built it was a journey of 30 days from 
Cuzco across the desert to Bolivia, and even now some people prefer 
to '_ r o that way. Thousands of burros and llamas are still engaged in 
competition with the railways transporting ores, wool, hides, and 
carrying back into the mountains cotton goods, hardware, and other 
merchandise. 

The arrerios are usually accompanied by their entire families, and 



2GS THE ROAD TO BOLIVIA 

as their lives are spent coming and going across the burning sands of 
the desert, it is a matter of indifference how Long the journey lasts. 
The animals are the capital of the arrerio. The desert is his hoi in-. 
His wife helps in the driving and sleeps by. his side on the sand. 
They have no shelter, but wrap their ponchos around them and lie 
down to pleasant dreams with their bare feet and legs exposed while 
ice forma in little streams around them. As the camel to the people 
of the deserts of Asia.. so is the llama to those who dwell ill the Andes. 
a faithful and enduring beast, without which they would be helpless, 
for mules and horses cannot endure the rarefied atmosphere. Even 
the burros have their nostrils slit in order to breathe. When a horse 
is fii>t brought into the high altitudes of the Andes, the blood drips 
from his month, ears, and nose. M ules are more enduring, and burros 
are better still, but the llama is native to the snow-clad peaks and 
thrives best where other animals find existence impossible. 

This mysterious region is the most elevated of human habitations 
excepting Tibet, which is known to Asiatic geographers as the " dome 
of the world.'' The latter represents only mountain pastures, but the 
great Andean basin supports towns and cities, affords food for herds 
of cattle, llamas, vicunas, and sheep, and produces annual harvests. 

Here, at a mean level of 12. bio feet above the sea. is a lake almost 
as large as Lake Erie, the highest navigable water, of immeasurable 
depth. The fossils upon the mountains that inclose it leave no room 
to doubt that within a recent geological period it formed a vast in- 
land sea, extending possibly over the entire basin between the two 
ranges of the Andes, whose waters now have no visible means of escape. 
The eastern boundary is formed by the loftiest mountains of the Amer- 
ican continent and the greatest continuous snow range in the world. 
Nowhere else within human vision can such a battalion of monsters 
be seen, and in sunshine they remind one of a procession of mighty 
icebergs, rising with majestic dignity behind a screen that is formed 
by the intervening foothills. 

A curious phenomenon is that metal never rusts in the waters of 
Lake Titicaca. You can throw in a chain, anchor, or any article of 
ordinary iron and let it lie for weeks, and when you haul it up it will 
be as clean and bright as when it came from the foundry; and, what 
is stranger still, rust that has formed upon metallic objects elsewhere 
will peel off when immersed in its waters. 

The greatest interest centers in the Island of Titicaca, the Eden and 
Nazareth of the Inca traditions, where appeared their Adam and Eve, 



THE ROAD TO BOLIVIA 269 

the children of the Sun, to redeem and regenerate. Early in the 
Christian era a man and a woman appeared one morning in the pres- 
ence of the astonished natives on the Island of Titicaca, who said that 
they had been sent by the Great Creator, the father and ruler of all 
things, who inhabited the sun, to lead them into a better life, to teach 
them the knowledge of useful things and improve their condition. 
Previous to the arrival of these mysterious missionaries the Peru- 
vians were divided into rude and warlike tribes, ignorant of useful 
industry and culture, knowing no law and no morals. 

The Island of Titicaca is now the property of Mr Miguel Garces, 
of Puno. A village of 700 or 800 Indians are living in mud huts 
and raising wheat, barle} 7 , and potatoes among the remnants of the 
earliest culture of America. . The island lies a mile or so from the main 
shore, from which it is, separated by a bottomless channel. The 
nearest port is the little town of Calle. There is no communication 
except by balsas, the curious craft that are older than history, and 
were used by the Incas, as they are used by the Indians today, for 
transportation. The} r are built of barley straw, tied together in 
bunches, and then bound by wisps in the shape of a double or treble 
gondola. 

The Indians who inhabit the island are usually docile and indus- 
trious, for they are compelled to wring a scanty living from the un- 
willing soil, and are assiduous in their religious duties at a little chapel 
attended by a native priest, although they still retain many of the 
rites of their aboriginal religion. 

The ruins of the palaces and temples which formerly covered this 
sacred place have been the object of investigation by archaeologists for 
nearly four centuries — ever since they were destroyed by the Spanish 
invaders — and much of the materia] used in their construction has 
been carried away for building purposes, both upon the island and 
the mainland. It is remarkable that even one stone should be left 
upon another during the 360 years since the conqvUtadors invaded 
the peaceful precincts of the place, for they destroyed and plundered 
everything of value, and those who have been searching for the secrets 
of the extinct civilization have overturned nearly everything that the 
Spaniards left. Among the best preserved of the ruins are the royal 
bathe of marble, as sumptuous as those of I taly or < J recce at a similar 
period. The bottoms were carefully covered with a mosaic of small 
stones, and the water was received through the throats of the eagles, 
condors, and serpents wrought in gold and silver. 



270 



THE ROAD TO BOLIVIA 




Upon the Island of Coati, six miles from Titicaca, was the harem 
of the Inca, where the remains are much hetter preserved than those 
upon the Island of Titicaca, and the principal walls are almost intact. 
This island was dedicated to the moon, and in the convent were many 
concubines selected for their beauty and their blood. 

The little port of Chillilaya lies at the southern extremity of Lake 
Titicaca, and is reached by a weekly steamer from Puno, the terminus 
of the southern railway of Peru. La Paz, the actual capital and com- 
mercial metropolis of Bolivia, is 45 miles further on, reached by a road 
almost level at an elevation of 12,500 feet above the sea. The stage- 
coach, drawn by eight mules, is driven by a jehu whose language and 



THE ROAD TO BOLIVIA 271 

gyrations are calculated to excite alarm among nervous people who 
do not know that mule-drivers in South America alwa} 7 s act that way. 
Beside his long whip, which is handled with great skill and accuracy, 
he carries a bag full of small stones, and shies them with an aim that 
David himself could not have excelled. Indeed, he can touch the tip 
of the ear of the leader of his eight-mule team nine times out of ten 
with a pebble not larger than a pigeon's egg. The road is covered 
with boulders that vary in size from a baseball to a washtub, round 
and smooth, and they are strewn from one end of the journey to the 
other. It seems as if all the boulders in the world had been collected 
and dropped into the roadway. 

Like the rest of the great plateau that lies between the two ranges 
of the Andes, the area from Lake Titicaca to La Paz is divided into 
a few enormous farms, dotted with groups of stone huts that have been 
occupied for generations, and even centuries, by the ancestors of the 
tenants who till the ground and herd the sheep and cattle. The rela- 
tions between the landlord and tenants are similar to those of the old 
feudal times in Europe. The former exercises patriarchal authority 
over the Indians that live upon his lands, and the}'' serve him with 
loyalty as long as he allows them a measure of independence. The 
haciendas seldom change hands. The property is inherited by one 
generation from another, and the customs of the country are so fixed 
and rigid that they are seldom violated by either employer or employed. 

The stone huts of the tenants are usually found in little groups or 
villages, and occasionally among them you find a little chapel which 
is attended by a padre,, who exercises an influence among his parish- 
ioners even greater than that of the haciendado. In addition to his 
spiritual ministrations, the cure is expected to maintain a school for 
the children of the parish, but in most cases these duties are purely 
theoretical and the Indians remain untaught. 

As the journey to La Paz approaches its end, the traveler enjoys a 
startling surprise. The highway across the plateau leads to the brink 
of a canon 1,100 feet deep, whose walls are almost perpendicular, and 
which in color and topography resembles the Grand Canon of the 
Colorado. At the foot of this mighty gorge lies the capital of Bolivia. 
The first glance shows a vast expanse of red-tiled roofs, occasionally 
broken by bunches of foliage or graceful spires, and a river tumbling 
down from the mountains is crossed by picturesque bridges of massive 
masonry centuries old. 

Rome, you know, sat upon -even hills, ami if that is an advantage, 



272 THE ROAD TO BOLIVIA 

La Paz is more notable than the Eternal City, for it covers forty hills 
and hollows. Two or three of the main streets that lie along the 
ridges are reasonably level and wide enough to accommodate the 
traffic of a population numbering 60,000 or 70,000. There has never 
been a reliable census. Fine houses of heavy walls of stone or adobe 
are painted in giddy colors — blue, green, pink, purple, or orange — 
and often embellished with fantastic designs that are very much 
admired by the Bolivians, who love gay color, music, and motion; 
but most of the streets are narrow and steep like stairways, with side- 
walks, except the plaza and the principal trading streets, and payed 
with small cobblestones, with the sharp ends up, so as to lessen the 
danger of slipping in damp weather. The best hotel we have ever 
found in South America occupies the palace of the former viceroy. 
The unfinished cathedral, which adjoins the government " palace ", 
where the president resides and the heads of the executive depart- 
ments have their offices, is an enormous structure, large enough for a 
city of ten times the size of La Paz. The brick walls, eight or ten 
feet thick, are veneered with dressed stone, and some of the carving 
is beautiful. 

Other cities in Bolivia are not so far advanced as La Paz. Most of 
them still adhere to the antiquated manners and methods which 
their ancestors brought from Spain. There is certainly no part of 
America — I think it safe to say that there is no spot in the civilized 
universe — that is so far behind the age or where the modes of the 
Middle Ages prevail as they do in Bolivia. 

The plaza, which is overlooked by the windows of the hotel, is a 
pretty place, has a fountain from which the poorer families draw 
their daily supply of water, and a number of well-kept plants. 
Every alternate evening, at eight o'clock, a military band plays, and 
the entire population turn out to promenade. It is almost their 
only social diversion, as opera and theatrical companies seldom take 
the trouble to go so far as La Paz, and the exchange of hospitality is 
limited chiefly to the men. On the other nights the band plays in 
the Almeda, a handsome promenade shaded by eucalyptus trees 
and furnished with rows of iron benches. 

At the elevation of 12,500 feet above the sea the atmosphere is so 
rare that breathing is difficult, and people afflicted with heart disease 
or weak lungs or a superabundance of flesh must avoid exertion as 
much as possible The veins in your head feel as if they were about 
to burst. Yon pant like a tired hound as you climb the steep -treets 




imi ill i;i M i m\\ i i; mm: i \ k i TITK'AI 



L'74 THE ROAD TO BOLIVIA 

of the city or the stairway of the hotel, and are compelled to stop 
every few moments to recover your breath. There are sharp pains 
in the lungs, a drowsiness about the head and eye's, and when you lie 
down to sleep at night your heart will thump against your ribs like 
a pile-driver. 

The temperature reaches 80 at noonday and falls to 24 degrees at 
night in winter. During the summer months the extremes are almost 
the same. The lowest record for 1899 was 19 degrees above zero. 
The maximum was 84. The temperature often varies 50 degrees in 
24 hours. The extremes are less inside the walls of the houses, which 
are so thick that the heat does not penetrate them. It always seems- 
colder indoors than out, and, as there is no way of warming the houses 
by stoves or furnaces or fireplaces, it is very uncomfortable. We lit 
all the lamps we could get, regardless of the extravagance, for the 
hotel-keeper charged, 60 cents a night extra for each of those luxuries 
and 25 cents for candles. We put on overcoats and hats, wrapped 
our legs in fur robes, and huddled around a center table, trying to be 
amiable and happy, but it was no use. The only warm place was 
the bed between the blankets. There is only one stove in La Paz, 
and that warms the office of the American legation. Mr Bridgman T 
our minister, brought it from New Jersey and had a ton of coal 
shipped from Australia through the railway people at Arequipa. 

The natives are short, stocky fellows, beardless and broad-shoul- 
dered, with great powers of endurance and a courage and stoicism, 
similar to that of the North American Indian. Their ancestors 
finned a part of the Inca Empire, having been subjugated by the 
Peruvians 200 or 300 years before the [Spanish invasion. Their food 
consists chiefly of beans, dried peas, parched corn, dried potatoes, and 
cocoa, while they chew coca constant^'. The coca habit among the 
Bolivians is as general as the opium habit with the Chinese or smok- 
ing among the Irish. 

A very interesting character frequently met with in the Andes is 
the Callaguaya or Indian doctor, as he is familiarly known. You find 
him everywhere — resting upon the benches of the plazas in the city, 
tramping over the mountain trails, sunning himself against the wall 
of a cabin by the railway station, drinking chica in the market place, 
inspecting cattle in the corral of the hacienda, and curing the sick per- 
sons in their mud huts. You find him in the railway cars and among 
the deck passengers on the coast steamers, where he pays his way by 
practicing his profession. With no wardrobe but the clothes upon 



THE ROAD TO BOLIVIA 275 

his back and a bright-colored poncho, he travels barefooted from 
the Isthmus of Panama to Magellan Strait, carrying a pack filled 
with dried herbs done up in neat paper packages, cheap jewelry, 
pocket handkerchiefs and ribbons, watches and other articles for per- 
sonal adornment, knives, forks and spoons, scissors, small mirrors, 
combs and brushes, and other small merchandise, which he sells for 
cash or trades for eggs and poultry, chocolate, beans, and cocoa, to be 
exchanged at the next town for more portable property. 

The Indian women are ingenious and industrious, and have re- 
markable taste in colors and designs. They love gay tints and em- 
broideries and wear quantities of adornments. They have a distinct- 
ive costume of home manufacture, which the dealers in imported 
goods fortunately have not been able to disturb. They usually wear 
a little Panama hat, braided of soft white fiber, with a black band, 
perched jauntily upon their abundant black hair-, which hangs in two 
long braids down their backs. Their dresses resemble those worn by 
the peasants in the Tyrol. The short skirts of gay colors hang above 
the shoe tops, and reveal gay hosiery and native shoes of bright- 
colored leather, with long laces and high French heels. Sometimes 
the shoes are white, sometimes yellow, red, or purple — the brighter 
the better — and any color except black. Under the skirt are an in- 
definite number of white petticoats, elaborately embroidered and 
edged with lace. The waists are made of bright-colored calico, vel- 
veteen, and other fabrics, and around their shoulders they wear light 
shawls or scarfs, called rebozos. 

The men go barefooted and barelegged and wear short, wide trousers 
of dark woolen cloth that are slit up the back as far as the knee, "so 
as to give their legs free action in climbing the mountain trails. Under 
these trousers they have white cotton drawers, which always seem to 
be clean and well laundered. Upon their heads they wear close- 
fitting caps or hoods of knitted work or some dark woolen cloth that 
fit closely down over the ears and the neck like the hoods children 
wear in cold weather in New England. Upon this they wear hats of 
straw or felt, while their bodies are protected by the inevitable poncho, 
which is their coat by day and their blanket by night, a compre- 
hensive as well as comfortable garment. 

Colonel Jose Manuel Pando, the successful leader of the late revolu- 
tion in Bolivia, chief of the liberal party and President of the Republic, 
resembles General Grant in appearance and manners. He is a stub- 
born man, so self-contained, silent, and immovable that they call him 



276 THE ROAD TO BOLIVIA 

the Sphinx: Short, solid, athletic, without an ounce of surplus flesh, 
accustomed to hardships, fond of frugal living, with a great capacity 
for physical endurance, he has spent the major portion of his life 
campaigning in the mountains and exploring the wilderness on the 
east slope of the Andes. 

A celebration of the feast of the Asuncion occurred in a plaza in 
the northern part of La Paz. It is one of the most popular festivals 
in the calendar, and called in from the country several thousand 
Indians, who took possession of the town from noon of the day pre- 
ceding the anniversary until toward night of the day following. 

Along about two o'clock in the afternoon began the dances and 
other ceremonies which have Been inherited from the days of the 
Incas, and which are said to be of serious significance, like the ghost 
dances of the Sioux, the corn dance of the Navajo, the snake dance 
of the Moki, and similar rites practiced by the red men of North 
America. Each group of dancers was attended by a band of musi- 
cians playing native instruments. There were some modern drums 
imported from Europe, but more of native manufacture, made of 
hollow segments of trees covered with gnat skins; native guitars and 
mandolins, rude pipes of bamboo, and long trumpets of reeds. The 
music had no harmony or melody and was all in the minor key. 
Those who were not singing or dancing kept up a continuous chant 
in dreary monotones, and the leaders moved among them, gesticulat- 
ing violently with their heads and arms. 

At intervals the music and motions would cease and the performers 
would refresh themselves with copious draughts of chica and alcohol. 
The dancing and drinking continued all the afternoon and far into 
the night, until everybody was in a distressing state of intoxication. 
The pavement was covered with the bodies of men and women who 
were unconscious from drink and fatigue and the remainder were 
howling in the streets. 

Not far from the Island of Titicaca a narrow peninsula projects into 
the lake, on which is a small town of great fame — the residence of the 
patron saint of Bolivia. Here in prehistoric times was the seat of a 
celebrated oracle, with an extensive group of temples and monasteries 
and the place of assembly of princes, priests, warriors, notables of the 
empire, as well as the common people, for the spring festivals which 
took place every year. The only ruin of importance which remains 
is a series of thrones upon the slope of a hill near Copacabana, which 
were evidently '" the seats of the mighty ", from which the Incas or the 



THE ROAD TO BOLIVIA 277 

priests addressed the people and witnessed the festivals. Some scien- 
tists hold that their age is greater than the Inca dynasty, and that they 
were the seats of judgment from which earlier monarchs pronounced 
decrees and proclaimed edicts. However that may be, they are among 
the most extraordinary relics of an extinct civilization. The early 




llol.IYIAN BOLD] KE6 



Catholic missionaries did not resist the native customs of the Indians, 
but with exceeding skill amalgamated the most important of them 
with the authorized festivals of their own church. Upon the ruins of 
tin- pagan temples and with the same material of which they were 
built they erected at ' lopacabana a magnificent edifice, and upon the 



THE ROAD TO BOLIVIA 279 

•oracle seated an image of the mother of Christ, more renowned than 
any other effigy in America, and made her shrine the scene of the 
annual festivals which called together the inhabitants of the entire 
Andean region. Farmers, merchants, and manufacturers for hun- 
dreds of miles take advantage of the gathering to drive in llama 
trains laden with merchandise of all sorts. The people of the north 
exchange products with the people of the south, and the barter 
amounts to hundreds of thousands of dollars every year. 

The great church, built earl} r in the seventeenth century, must 
have been a beautiful structure when new, and even in its present 
state of deca} T and neglect it is imposing and attractive. Before each 
altar is a table with a tin receptacle for candles, the smallest offering 
that a poor devotee may make to his patron saint, and thousands of 
them are constantly burning during the festival week. Here and 
there is a pathetic evidence of penitence in the form of wild flowers 
laid by the hand of some maiden upon the altar of the Holy Mother. 

The image of the Virgin of Copacabana, the patron saint of Bolivia, 
stands upon an altar in a little chapel reached by a narrow stairway. 
The hollows in the steps tell of the millions of feet that have turned 
that way during the centuries she has been enthroned there, and her 
immense wardrobe, including many rare examples of embroidery and 
lace, and her large collection of jewels indicate the value placed upon 
her blessing. One of her rubies, fully an inch and a half long by an 
inch in thickness, curiously enough, was presented by a Turk who 
spent some years in Bolivia. It is said to be one of the finest rubies 
in the world. She has also a valuable collection of pearls. The 
image is about three feet in height, and, with the exception of the 
face and hands, is covered with embroidered robes and decorations 
of gold and silver of elaborate and artistic designs. The crown of 
gold, heavily set with jewels, is an elaborate piece of work, and the 
halo of the same metal, at least a foot in diameter, is encircled by 
ten diamond stars. In her hand the Virgin holds a candlestick and 
her arm supports a basket of gold filigree work, which is filled with 
costly jewels. The buckle of her belt is a cluster of large diamonds 
and her robe sparkles with other gems. 

The peculiarity of the image, winch is considered proof of its 

miraculous origin and attributes, is its power to emit light. I was 

not there in the evening and cannot bear personal testimony as to 

the oh en oin ei ion ; but Professor Bandelier and others entirely worthy 

. of confidence declare that after dark the little chapel is always 



280 THE ROAD TO BOLIVIA 

diffused with light, which proceeds from no fixed .source, but is always 
sufficient to distinguish the outlines of articles upon the altar and 
objects upon the walls, and my informants were unable to detect any 
evidences of trickery. The image is said to have been carved in the 
sixteenth century by an ignorant Indian, to whom the Holy Mother 
herself sat as a model. 

Persons who desire to receive the blessings of the Virgin pay a fee 
to a monk in the cloister of the adjoining convent^ and are allowed 
to pass into the little chapel, where service is continuous night and 
day during the time of the festival. Bearing lighted candles in their 
hands, they approach the altar-rail and kneel. A bridal wreath is 
suspended by long strips of broad white ribbon in the center of the 
chapel. In a little gallery over the entrance is a band of music, with 
a, cabinet organ, two horns, a flute, a 'cello, and a native instrument 
made of reeds. Behind the altar-rail stands a monk, assisted by two 
barefooted acolytes. As the devotees approach the altar, the acolytes 
take the candles from their hands and place them in the rack pre- 
pared for that purpose. The} 7 then kneel as closely together as pos- 
sible in front of the altar, and a robe of white satin embroidered in 
silver, formerly worn by the image, is spread over their heads. The 
officiating monk moves his hand rapidly over the mantle and utters 
a blessing. The robe is then lifted and the worshipers depart with 
precious consolation. 

In these few pages we have been able to see but little of that strange 
land where the sun shines in the north and Christmas comes in mid- 
summer, but I hope that the little glimpse I have been able to give 
will induce many to make the journey thither. The compensations 
are greater than those offered by most of the countries to which our 
tourists go. The voyage, after you pass Panama, is the most delightful 
that the ocean offers, and the opportunities for investment are sur- 
passed nowhere else. It is unfortunate that we know so little of the 
South American republics when they offer so much of value to us. 



THE CHINESE "BOXERS" 
By Llewellyn James Da vies 

The society or league which is now turning China upside down and 
forcing the attention of. the whole world is known by various names. 
The one most commonly seen in the American papers is the " Boxers " 
or " Spirit Boxers." The origin of this name is to be found in the 
gymnastic exercises which constitute the drill of the society and in 
the mysterious incantations used. In the Shan-tung Province the 
society is commonly called the " Ta Tao Hui," or " Great Sword 
Society.'' This is one of the names used by the society itself, and 
is a general name. On the cards and posters issued by the society 
other names occur, which I understand to be of local use. 

The " Boxer" society is one of the many secret societies of China, 
and, as is usual with such societies, has both a political and a relig- 
ious significance. It is said to be of ancient origin. One Chinese 
tells me that it had its origin in opposition to the " Manchu dynasty ", 
which has ruled China for the past two hundred and fifty years. 

Whatever may have been its past history, the society has now col- 
lected its forces against the foreigners within the Chinese Empire. It 
has been preparing for this present outbreak for several years. About 
three and a half years ago I learned from Chinese friends that such 
a society was being organized, and that it was growing rapidly. Its 
anti-foreign purpose was known distinctly at that time. It was said 
to be spreading from the south toward the north. Those favorable 
to governmental reform and to foreign influences in the districts now 
overrun by these marauders felt and reported what may be called 
the ground-swell of the storm which has now so furiously burst upon 
them. Chinese Christians were told, " Well, you will soon have a 
chance to enjoy the heaven of which you talk; " and, "Soon, soon ; your 
time is coming soon." Shortly before the outbreak it was frequently 
and plainly said that at no very distantdate all foreigners and foreign 
sympathizers would be killed. 

In organizing this movement the leaders established at convenient 
centers what were called " ying," or " encampments." The members 
of the society living in the neighborhood met to drill and recite their 
incantations at these places, and here new members were initiated. 



282 THE CHINESE "BOXERS" 

Each encampment had, of course, a leader who was responsible to the 
higher officers. A card sent to each of these encampments, naming 
the place of the proposed attack and stating the number of men re- 
quired from each, called out a party of such size as the leaders desired. 

The vast majority of the Chinese are entirely ignorant of the sim- 
plest facts of natural science. To them the earth is still flat, and the 
sun is said to pass around behind a mountain in moving from west 
to east. The more superstitious worship the spirits, which are sup- 
posed to abide in or have charge of their spinning-wheels, hand-mills, 
stables, wells, manure heaps, street gates, and many other things. I 
know one man who is said to have worshipped thus over thirty 
spirits, believed to reside in various parts of his three-roomed hovel. 
Occultism and spiritism are rife. 

The organizers of the ' ; Boxers" have used this superstitious dis- 
position for the furtherance of their ends. They have confidently 
asserted that those properly initiated into the mysteries of this cult, 
and whose " Kung Fu " or exercise of its rules was perfect, would by 
virtue of this practice become invulnerable, and thus be protected 
against all bullets or knives. This was not left to future test entirely. 
Several intelligent Chinese have told me that they had themselves 
seen advanced members of the society strike different parts of their 
bodies with sharp knives and swords with no more effect upon the 
skin than is produced by the wind. The members of the society 
believe implicitly in this invulnerability, and the people at large are 
convinced that the claim is well founded. No difficulty is found in 
explaining the death of society members in battle. In one instance, 
occurring early last fall, 30 or 40 miles from Tsi-nan-fu, 10 or 12 
'" Boxers " were killed by Catholics whom they had attacked. It was 
then discovered that on the evening before or on the morning of the 
battle these men had broken the rules of the society by eating certain 
proscribed articles of food. In this way their death but strengthened 
the faith of those remaining. 

It was proposed at first to use no fire-arms in the extermination of 
foreigners, but to trust to the sword alone. Great reliance was placed 
on certain calisthenic exercises and posturings which were expected 
to hypnotize or terrify the enemy. 

The " Boxers " are a patriotic party. Whether this means loyalty 
to the present dynasty or not is questioned. The Chinese have never 
forgotten that their rulers are foreigners. Manehu and Chinese are 
still distinct in dress and customs. The feeling seems to be quite 



THE CHINESE " BOXERS" 283 

general among the people that the " Ta Ch'ing," or " Great Clear," 
dynasty has about run its course, and there is said to be in one of their 
sacred books a prophecy the fulfillment of which in the displacing 
of the reigning family is looked for at any time. Outwardly at least 
the '" Boxers " are loyal to the Manchu dynasty. Their motto, seen 
on cards left by them with Christians whom they had robbed, is " Pao 
Ch'ing mieh yang." Literally this means, " Protect the Clear (pres- 
ent dynasty)* exterminate the foreign." In idiomatic English it is, 
" Death to foreigners ! China for the Chinese." From the beginning 
of the outbreak the avowed object of the society has been the expul- 
sion from the country of all foreigners. This is no sudden turn in 
affairs, but rather a natural outgrowth of the general anti-foreign feel- 
ing. In a recent issue of the Philadelphia Press a prominent Chinese 
is reported to have said, " Foreigners of every nation are objectionable 
to a large majority of Chinamen, and when they see Europeans and 
Americans coming there, getting valuable concessions and preparing 
to cut up the country with railroads, they fear the invasion will 
eventuate in the extinction of sacred customs, and that the white man 
will rule the country." This statement expresses very fairly the mind 
of the Chinese people. They look down on every foreigner as a bar- 
barian, and, since they have learned something of the power of Euro- 
pean arms, to the contempt is joined fear. To this may perhaps be 
added a sense of injustice, resulting from the treatment received 
recently from more than one of the European powers. For example, 
both official and non-official people of Shan-tung complained bitterly 
of Germany's injustice in seizing Kiao-chau, and, whether rightly or 
wrongly, believed that the imperial German government had but used 
the murder of the German missionary priests to further its prearranged 
political plans. 

From these three elements — contempt, fear, and sense of injustice — 
has been developed in the anti-foreign Chinese party a spirit of bitter 
animosity. The "Boxer" movement is but an expression of this 
hatred. It must be borne in mind, however, that economic condi- 
tions greatly assist the organizers. In good seasons the people of 
North China must secure two crops each year from the same land in 
Order to maintain a condition of average welfare. If the spring yield 
fails there La considerable suffering, and if both spring and fall crops 
an- bad, conditions of local famine result. A considerable proportion 
of tin- people are therefore always on the verge of destitution. In 
seasons of distress highway robbery is very frequent. The more 



284 THE CHINESE "BOXERS" 

wealthy travelers carry arms, and during the winter months house- 
breaking is so common that one or more members of well-to-do farm- 
ing families watch all night. Hence, beginning by looting the homes 
of Christian Chinese, the " Boxers " proper attracted to themselves a 
great company of the hopelessly poor, who, joining them for plunder, 
would be as ready to fall away when booty was no longer to be ob- 
tained . The anti-foreign character of the outbreak was apparent even 
in this robbery, as in more than one instance when those who were 
in no way connected with the foreigners had suffered, their goods 
were returned to them and apologies offered. 

There is no evidence of a distinctively religious animosity in this 
disturbance. It is, of course, true that in a few minds the fear exists 
that the new religion will overthrow the old. But it is doubtful 
whether there has been sufficient growth in the Christian Church to 
generally excite this fear. Missionaries are attacked, not as religious- 
teachers, but as foreigners, and Chinese Christians are robbed and 
murdered as those who " sui yang kwei tsi " or " follow the foreign 
devil," and not because they have changed their religion. The at- 
tacks have thus far been borne chiefly by the missionaries because 
they have gone to the interior, while most of the merchants are in 
the coast towns and treaty-ports. 

Those who know the Chinese people find much to admire both in 
individual traits and in national customs. But the government of 
the empire is a tangle of " ways that are dark and tricks that are 
vain." The Chinese method of the past sixty years, of so-called in- 
tercourse with foreigners, is very aptly expressed by this quotation. 
The official class has never taken foreign relations seriously. In case 
of trouble the programme has been to promise everything, but to- 
do nothing which by any means could be avoided. Local officials- 
have more than once directly instigated anti-foreign outbreaks which 
have resulted in murder or destruction of property, and when the de- 
mands of the foreign government could be resisted no longer, have 
been degraded by the Pekin government; yet when the dust had 
settled sufficiently into the eyes of the too easily deceived foreigners, 
the same officials have reappeared in positions of greater prominence- 
. The Chinese, high and low, are adept actors. Li Ping Heng was 
governor of Shan-tung Province at the time of the seizure of Kiao- 
chau by the Germans, following the murder by bandits of two Ger- 
man priests. Among other concessions secured by the German gov- 
ernment was a decree against Governor Li perpetually disabling him 



THE CHINESE "BOXERS" 285 

from holding any office. This decree was simply two big handfuls of 
dust, for in a short time this same Li Ping Heng was appointed to an 
office of great importance in the north, and it is reported that he is 
now oncof the Empress Dowager's chief anti-foreign advisers. 

In dealing with the " Boxers " the authorities of China have but 
continued these methods. The anti-foreign party has beyond ques- 
tion hoped for opportunity to rise against all foreigners and " drive 
them into the sea." Li Ping Heng petitioned the Empress Dowager 
to be allowed to resist the Germans at Kiao-chau by force of arms- 
Again, something over a }^ear ago, it was commonly reported and be- 
lieved that General Tung Fu Hsiang, during audience with the Em- 
press Dowager, requested permission to use his soldiers, who were 
like himself bitterl} 7 anti-foreign, to attack the foreign legations in 
Pekin, and that he pledged himself to make short work of the min- 
isters. It is said that the Empress showed signs of pleasure at his 
" loyalty " and of regret that she feared to follow his suggestions. It 
was under a governor of similar spirit that the " Boxers " began 
operations in Shan-tung last fall. In response to the representations 
of the missionaries, whose converts were being looted, he refused to 
admit the existence of any organized society, and it was not until 
two or. three counties were in a state of practical anarchy that soldiers 
were sent from the capital. The avowed purpose of these troops was 
to protect the Christian Chinese from robbery -and to catch and punish 
the outlaws. The real animus of the governor was shown when he 
recalled and degraded the officers who had punished the " Boxers " 
in a severe fight. The "Boxers 1 ' openly claimed to have the gov- 
ernor's sympathy, and after this battle the depredations were unre- 
stricted. The Chinese soldiers had evidently been given orders not 
to harm the insurgents ; for they refused to interfere, though called 
upon, even when the outbreak occurred within two or three miles 
of their camp. The recent action of the Empress Dowager in repri- 
manding General Nieh for attacking the " Boxers," who were destroy- 
ing the railway from Tientsin to Pekin, is but a repetition on a larger 
scale of what the governor of Shan-tung did at the beginning of the 
troubles. In Shan-tung one county magistrate is said to have sent 
word to the rebels : " Save my face, and don't enter this city (county- 
seal I : no Christians live inside the city." The magistrate of Po-ping 
county said : " Our own people we will protect, but not the converts 
of the foreigners." 

It is the theory of the Chinese government that the people are nat- 



286 THE CHINESE 1: BOXERS" 

urally ignorant, and that its officials are sent to all parts of the empire 
to instruct them in the duties of life. In a recent proclamation, when 
referring to troubles with foreigners, the Empress Dowager said: 
" The stupid and ignorant people who circulate rumors and stir up 
strife, proceeding from light to grave differences, are most truly to he 
detested. On the other hand, the officials, who have not been able 
at convenient seasons to properly instruct the people and prevent 
disturbances, cannot be excused from censure."' The character of 
the instruction given the people may be seen in the following quota- 
tions from a pamphlet, issued a short time before the beginning of 
the present outbreak, by a county magistrate named Chao, at that 
time holding office in Hsia Chin County, Shan-tung Province : " Their 
religion is such as China never had, and is antagonistic to the doc- 
trines of the sages, such as family relations, the laws of benevolence, 
and righteousness. In this regard these religions are inferior to 
Buddhism and Taoism. . . . Western sciences have their ancient 
root in Chinese principles, which have been stolen and shrewdly 
expanded. ... As to occidentals, their chaos has just begun to 
dissolve and their savagery has not yet changed. They have no 
loyalty, no family rules, no true principles of sexual relations, no 
literature, and no truly civilized society. . . . Because their land 
is narrow they have come to us searching the limits of the land for 
their own gain. ... In the matter of skillful search into the 
secrets of the earth they are far shrewder than we, but they do this 
simply for gain, and are barbarians still, with all their industrial 
skill. . . . They seek only gain from our country ; they aim to 
deceive our people, to surround our land, to disturb our national 
laws and customs. " 

It maybe that the Empress Dowager is merely an opportunist; 
but it seems much more likely that she thinks to realize fully the 
dreams of these past three years and to dose the " coup " of 1898 by 
which the reformer, Emperor Kwang Hsu, was set aside and six of 
his advisers beheaded by a general onslaught on all the " foreign 
devils 1 ' who are infesting her domain. The moderate members of 
the Tsungdi-Yamen. or Foreign Office, have been displaced by ene- 
mies of the foreigners. In one breath she condemns General Nieh 
for punishing the " Boxers" and calls them " good citizens," and in 
the next, to hoodwink foreign governments, she orders them to desist. 
The appointment of Yuan Shi Kai as governor of Shan-tung, though 
nominally in the interest of order, can now be looked upon as noth- 



THE CHINESE "BOXERS" 287 

ing more than a temporary yielding to foreign demands while wait- 
ing for the proper moment for the present outbreak. 

The anti-foreign outbreak has grown from what at first seemed but 
a plundering attack upon a -few poor Chinese Christians in north- 
western Shan-tung to proportions which necessitate international 
action and which threaten the very existence of foreigners and of 
foreign interests in China. It will not prove sufficient to quiet 
Pekin. With diplomatic'relations restored, the Empress can, by re- 
taining in the Foreign Office the anti-foreign ministers, wage a war- 
fare of extermination on business and missionary interests through- 
out the provinces. The provincial officials would but carry out the 
secret edicts, while a corresponding series of pro-foreign edicts would, 
tie the hands of consuls and foreign ministers. 

I concur in the ideas expressed by Weng Tung Ho, tutor of the 
Emperor Kwang Hsu, and see but little hope of a satisfactory set- 
tlement of the present most deplorable situation outside some ar- 
rangement similar to that suggested. Weng says: "His Majesty is 
convinced, through amply trustworthy sources, that the loyal sup- 
port of many scores of millions of Chinese will be accorded to his 
proposals for putting an end to the state of anarchy brought about 
by the action of the Empress Tsi An. 

" The government of China, being virtually non-existent, the Em- 
peror proposes that the foreign powers, whose troops dominate the 
capital, shall remove his imperial person from the palace in which 
His Majesty is confined a prisoner, shall declare Empress Tsi An and 
her present ministers to be usurpers, and shall bring Emperor Kwang 
Hsu to Nanking, Wuchang, or Shanghai, whichever the said foreign 
powers deem to be the most suitable situation for the new capital of 
the Chinese Empire under the new conditions. It is proposed by His 
Majesty and his advisers that the foreign powers should declare a 
joint protectorate and undertake the task of governing the country 
through His Majesty. 

" China is ripe for the change of tide which the reactionaries vainly 
seek to stem. If it should be, on the other hand, that the foreign 
powers seriously contemplate the dismemberment of the Chinese Em- 
pire, they have before them the huge task of facing dense millions, 
who. although lacking training and making but contemptible sol- 
diers, possess boundless powers of passive resistance, and would be 
able to wear out the patience of any European rulers seeking to 
govern them without regard to their prejudices." 







































o 




' M T" 

1 






























o 






"n~*T-. 




























ro 






"T* — 




1 1 






























"_tr+j-J ! 
























CD 








1 1 
















1 






05 








, 






















5 


































j i 


























00 








\ 






















03 


1 






\ 


















> 


JO 


. 








, 
















h 












\ 
















u 






I 






















o 

o 


03 

5 


























o 


























2p 






















Mi 




X < 


(0 
























0_ GC 


08 


























< O 


5 


























or Q- 






' ; 






















o cc 








T v 11 




















o o 




























uJ O 


10 


























o E 


03 
CO 


























_r „ 




■ 






1 


















<- (0 






















































O 


** 






■ 1 ' 


















- ul 


03 
























b o 


CO 






1 ; jjj 1 


















< z 


— 




















) 




z ^5 




































T T 












aI 






^2 


rO 




















\ 






0> 




















N 






CO 




















\ 






u. > 










......l.lil.l. 














V 




Ox 
























MX 




EhS 


CNl 






















\ 




X u 


eg 






















\ 




£* 


























\l 










1 






















U P 


























1 1 111 1 1 




03 L " 


c. 






| 






1 












1 III 




5 


CO 
























\ 1 




uJ 








1 1 | 






















5 


o 
























K\ 






03 






i j ' 




















N 






CO 


























N 












fj-Wlf 


f -4-i-l- 


















\ 






03 
































00 


























1 j II 






CO 






I | 




















1 
































lh 






CO 


























J M 






CO 


' 






























CO 




































ill 
ill 


..I .111 


























oooooooo 


ooooooooooooooooo 


D 


'-'OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO ooo 


O^<0«M — O»C0K*P<O>J-rtf>j — 001»X)Na>tO^«OfNl- 




tf 


SI 1 





































NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 

It is probable that at the first meeting of the National Geographic 
Society next winter some veiy important modifications in the work of 
the Society will be recommended by the Board of Managers. These 
modifications are largely the result of the growth of the Society dur- 
ing the past year, as shown on the chart on the opposite page. Be- 
tween June 1, 1899, and May 31, 1900, the membership increased 
from 1,417 to 2,462. This rapid growth can, it is believed, be con- 
tinued by maintaining the earnest and persistent efforts that have 
been so effective during 1899-1900. In a few years the Society may 
hope to number thousands of members where it now has hundreds. 

The most important modification contemplated in the organization 
or work of the Society is the unification of membership. Already 
the non-resident members outnumber those resident in Washington. 
It is now proposed to abolish the distinction between the two classes 
of membership and give all members equal privileges. Among other 
changes under consideration is the delivery of lecture courses in the 
various cities of the United States as nearly identical with those given 
at the Capital as may be practicable. It must be understood, however, 
that none of these changes have as yet been considered by the Society. 
They were earnestly recommended by President Alexander Graham 
Bell at the annual meeting in May, were unanimously approved by 
the Board of Managers, and have been referred to committees, who 
will form and submit to the Society plans for carrying them into effect. 



GROVE KARL GILBERT 

The striking portrait of Prof. G. K. Gilbert, which serves as the 
frontispiece to this number of the National Geographic Magazine, 
depicts more clearly than any words the strength and brilliancy of 
this eminent scientist. Mr Gilbert was born in Rochester, N. Y., in 
1843, and graduated from the University of his native city at the age 
of 19. After several years as assistant geologist in Ward Museum, 
Rochester, he was appointed geologist on the Ohio Survey in 1808, 
later on the Wheeler Survey, and then on the Powell Survey. Since 
1879 he has been on the U. S. Geological Survey. On the death of 
Dr ICdward Orton he was elected President of the American Associa- 
tion for the Advancement of Science for 1899-1900. He is the author 
of •" Geology of the Henry Mountains/ 1 " Lake Bonneville," etc, and 
many other valuable contributions to geological literature. 



MONGOLIA \ 




OUTLINE MAP OF THE I'AR EAST 



Port Arthur and Ta-lien-wan were leased to Russia March 27, 1898, for 25 
years, hut the duration of the lease may be extended by mutual consent. 

Wei-hai-wei was leased to Great Britain July 1, 1898, for as long a period as 
Russia shall remain in possession of Port Arthur. 

Kiau-chau was leased to Germany January, 1898, for 99 years. 

Hongkong was ceded to Great Britain in 1S4I, a further concession on the 
mainland being made in 1861, and a lease for 99 years of an additional 200 
square miles being granted in July, L89S. 

Kwang-chau-wan was leased to France in April, 1898. 

The recent exclusive concession by Korea of a site for a coal depot and a 
naval hospital at Masampho has given Russia control of the finest harbor in 
southern Korea. 






THE TSUNG-L1-YAMEN 



THE CITY 



The Board of the Tsung-li-Yamen, or Foreign Office, was created in 1861 to 
conduct all dealings with foreign nations and with foreigners. Of the character 
and working of the Board, Miss E. R. Scidmore, the Foreign Secretary of the 
National Geographic Society, relates the following in her book, " China, the 
Long-lived Empire," just published by the Century Company : 

" Ministers have always a long, slow ride ill state across to the shabby gate- 
way of the forlorn old yamen, where now eleven aged, sleepy incompetents 
muddle with foreign affairs. As these 
eleven elders have reached such posts by 
steady advances, they are always septu- 
agenarians, worn out with the exacting, 
empty routine rites and functions of 
such high office, and physically too ex- 
hausted hy their midnight rides to and 
sunrise departures from the palace to 
begin fitly the day's tedium at the dilap- 
idated Tsung-li-Yamen. 

"The appointment for an interview 
with the non-committal, irresponsible 
Board must be made beforehand, the 
minister and his secretaries are always 
kept waiting, and the inner reception- 
room swarms with gaping attendants 
during an interview. Once the Amer- 
ican Minister made a vigorous protest, 
and refused to conduct any negotiations 
while there were underlings in the 
room, and as it was business that the 
Chinese Government wished conducted, 
the minions were summarily cast out — 
cast out to the other side of the many- 
hinged, latticed doors, where they seuf- 
fled audibly for first places at cracks and 
knot-holes. 

"The Other envoys would not sustain the American protest, and soon the 
farce of the empty room was played to an end, and the servants came in w ith 
their pipes and fans, tea and cake and candies, as usual; stood about, com- 
mented on and fairly took part in the diplomatic conversations, as before. 

" Every servant in a foreign establishment in Pekin is a spy am! informer of 
some degree. Espionage is a regular business, and the table talk, visiting list, 

dinner list, card tray, and snap basket, with full accounts of all Comings and 

goings, sayings and doings, of any envoy or foreigner in Pekin are regularly 
offered for purchase by recognized purveyors of sucl ws. 

291 




EXPLANATION 
Br British Legation. R RuJ*<n legation A Amencan(uS)Lega 
F French ■ J Japanese " G German 

S. Spanish ■ I Italian B Belgian 

FO Foreign Off ica LC Laian',1 Church R.CM MlJSIOn 
R.C.C Gathvdral 



292 



THE TSUNG-LL YAMEN 



" Diplomatic secrets are fairly impossible in such an atmosphere. Every 
secret convention and concession is soon blazoned abroad. Every word the 
British Minister uttered at the Tsung li-Yamen was reported to the Russian 
Legation with almost electric promptness, until the envoy threatened to sus- 
pend negotiations and withdraw. Wily concessionaries know each night where 
their rivals are dining and what they have said ; whether any piece of written 
paper has passed, and what has gone on at each legation in Pekin and each con- 
sulate at Tientsin. Every legation keyhole, crack, and chink has its eye and 
ear at critical times, and by a multiplication in imagination one arrives at an 
idea of what the palace may be like." 




30 



j Miles 



MAP SHOWING 1'Ht COINTRY FllOM TA-Kl TO 1'KKIN 



GEOGRAPHIC NOTES 

Tientsin, the military key to Pekin, is at the junction of the Hun-ho and the 
Pei-ho, about SO miles by road from the capital and 65 miles from Ta-ku. Gun- 
boats and sea-going junks can ascend the river only as far as Tientsin. The 
foreigners live in three concessions — French, English, and German — bordering 
on the river and covering an area of several hundred acres. The English have 
a veiy handsome town hall, a well-kept public garden, and a recreation ground. 
The city has also two hotels, two clubs, a theater, an excellent public library, 
and three churches — Catholic, Anglican, and Union. Countless barges ply 
between Tientsin and Tung-chau, whence a wretched cart road of thirteen miles 
connects with Pekin. The railway between Tientsin and Pekin, completed in 
1897, is now absorbing the larger part of this commerce. The population is 
now estimated at 950,000, and is increasing very rapidly, as Tientsin is the 
principal outlet for the trade of the provinces of Chi-li, Shan-si, Shen si, 
Kan-su, and the northern part of Ho-nan, which contain a population of about 
100,000,000. In 1870 occurred the terrible massacre of foreigners, when the 
French Sisters of Mercy were brutally butchered. 

"That the Russianization of China will eventually be accomplished seems 
inevitable. . . . With the conquest of China the 8,000,000 soldiers of the 
Czar, who compose the army of Russia when on a war footing, could be in- 
creased to 40,000,000 fighting men, most of whom could live inexpensively on 
a handful of rice a day. With such an army Russia could dictate terms to the 
world." This statement, by Alexander Hume Ford, in Collier's Weekly, is an 
opinion very generally shared by the press of the United States. However, 
two facts are here taken for granted which have yet to be proved. First, has 
Russia now the ability to subdue the four hundred millions of China, and, 
second, granted that she can subdue them, has she the capability of mould- 
ing them and keeping them subservient to her will? The military strength 
of Russia in Manchuria and on the Pacific Coast cannot be estimated, but 
it is doubtful if she could muster, at the maximum figure, 100,000 troops. That 
such a force can cope with restlessness in China, especially when communica- 
tion is by road only, is impossible. Russia has her hands full in the development 
of the vast resources of Siberia; here millions of colonists must be absorbed 
before anything can be attempted in China. Meanwhile, notwithstanding fierce 
reaction, progress must inevitably go on in China, solidifying the masses of the 
people. It is a problem whether the national spirit of the Chinese will not be 
300D unified to such an extent as to be able Successfully to resist Russia when 
she is ready to begin her " Russianization." It is argued that because Russia 
has been able to absorb and " Russianize " the nomadic and semi-nomadic tribes 
of central and northern Asia that she will be equally successful in dealing with 
the Chinese. But the handling of immense masses of population that have a 
grand past from which to gain individuality is quite diffevenl from overawing 
weak and scattered tribes. 



GEOGRAPHIC NOTES 



295 



Tine output of coal in the United States in 1899 for the first time exceeded the 
output in every other country. The mines of the United States yielded 258,539,650 
net tons of the total production of the world, 775,000,000 net tons, or more than 
one-third. The figures given in a recent bulletin prepared by Mr O. P. Austin, 
Cliief of the Bureau of Statistics of the Treasury Department, show that the in- 
crease of production in Great Britain, though very great, is not keeping pace 
with that of Germany and the United States. The average annual rate of increase 
for the 30 years ending with 1897 was for the United Kingdom, 2.33 per cent, 
for Germany, 4.60 per cent, and for the United States, 6.64 per cent. Austria- 
Hungary, France, Belgium, Russia, and Japan, in the order named, are the 
next largest producers. 

England has always maintained that Morocco, or at least that part of it adja- 
cent to the Strait of Gibraltar, must remain neutral. It is now hinted, how- 
ever, that she may assent to the acquisition by Spain of a slice of territory along 
the northern coast, allowing France to have the rest of the country, in case the 
partition of Morocco comes up 
for settlement within a year, 
as seems not unlikely. The 
French recently occupied Igli, 
on the border of Morocco and 
Algeria, and are said to be 
massing troops on the fron- 
tier — a proceeding that is nat- 
urally exciting the Moors, who 
are fiercely jealous of their in- 
dependence and not easily con- 
trolled by the government. 
Under a good government Mo- 
rocco might become one of 
the most prosperous parts of 
Africa. Her people show capabilities of much development. She has rich 
resources in iron, tin, and copper, and splendid forests of oak and pine, while 
her soil yields all the cereals of warm and temperate climates. The "principal 
harbors are Tangier, on the Strait of Gibraltar, and Tetuan, on the Mediterra- 
nean. On the Atlantic coast there is no first-class harbor, though Rabat and 
Mogador are of some importance. The Spanish town of Ceuta occupies a nar- 
row peninsula at the east end of the strait. The city of Morocco was founded 
nine hundred years ago, and during the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries 
was a famous seat of learning to which the Moors of Spain sent their children. 
Barely 50,000 inhabitants now represent the 100,000 houses and 700.000 people 
which it once boasted. In any proposed partition of Morocco the desperate re- 
sistance of six no 1 1 ion Moors, Arabs, and Berbers will have to be reckoned with. 

Thrke men are aiming for the North Pole this summer. The Duke of 
Abruzzi, after a Winter of exploration in Franz Josef Land, planned to advance 
from that group of islands. This route t" the North Pole is considered the 




296 



GEOGRAPHIC NOTES 



most difficult, as 500 miles each way, or 1,000 miles in all, have to he fought 
over ice and snow. The Italian prince is, however, of a splendid physique 
and an indomitable will, and he has with him the best equipped party that has 
ever started for the North Pole. (See Nat. Geog. Mag., p. 302, vol. x. 1899.) 




'Bering Strait 



1 £ lies me re land. 

2 Greely Fd- 

3 Cape Sabme. 

4 Cape Joseph Henry 
6 Smith Sound. 






St Petersburg: 



•<?/ / Hansen \ No. 

i j, ^ /ass \ \» 

\ %\ Vs 

\ 

\ 





*\Scothid. 



If Peary's plans have been successfully carried out, Cape Joseph Henry is 
now in his rear and he is sledding across the frozen sea ahead of Lockwood 
and Brainard's farthest north. This is Peary's third consecutive summer in the 
Arctics. Last year he passed in establishing a " road " lined with caches of sup- 
plies to ('ape Joseph Henry, from which he was to make his dash this spring. 
(See Nat. Geog. Mag., pp. 414, 415, vol. x, 1899.) The Windward sails early in 
July on the third of the series of annual reinforcements. She will be equipped 
for three years, so that Peary may keep her with him as long as necessary. 

Sverdrup in the Fram is an unknown factor. His first year he accomplished 
little, as his ship was frozen in 50 miles to the south of Peary. It has been 
stated that he has given up his original ambition of gaining the Pole, and is 
confining his work to a careful exploration of northwest Greenland. 

Robert E. Stein, with two companions, has passed the winter in Ellesmere 
Land, near Cape Sabine, where, it will be remembered, he was left by the 
Peary relief steamer last summer. Stein hoped to return this year on the 
Peary relief steamer, but, as the Windward will probably not return this 
fall, the chances are that his party will have to remain north another year. 
He may have already cast in his lot with Sverdrup, or later, when the Wind- 
ward appears, he may join the Pearv party. 

G. H. G. 



NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 



1898-1901 

A. Graham Bell 
Henry Gannett 
A. W. Greely 
John Hyde 
W J McGEE 
F. H. Newell 



President 
Alexander Graham heel 

Vice-President 
W J McGEE 

Board of Managers 
1899-1902 
Charles J. Bell 
G. K. Gilbert 
A. J. Henry 
David J. Hill 
C. Hart Merriam 
H. S. Pritchett 



1900-1903 
Marcus Bakkr 
Henry F. Blount 
F. V. CoviLLE 
S. H. Kauffmann 
Willis L. Moore 
W. B. Powell 



Treasurer 
Henry Gannett 

Recording Secretary 
A. J. Henry 



Corresponding Secretary 
Willis D. Moore 

Foreign Secretary 
Eliza Ruhamah Scidmore 



OFFICES OF THE SOCIETY 

Rooms 107, 108, Corcoran Building, Fifteenth and F Streets N. W., Washington, D. C. 
Office Hours : 8.30 A. M. to 5.00 P. M. Telephone So. 471. 

The National Geographic Magazine is sent free of charge to all members of the 
National Geographic Society 

Recommendation for Memlierslip in tie National Geographic Society. 

The following form is enclosed for use in the nomination of persons for member- 
ship. Please detach and fill in blanks and send to the Secretary. 

Dues : Resident, $0 ; Non-resident, $2 ; Life membership, $50. If check be en- 
closed, please make it payable to order of the National Geographic Society, and, if at a 
distance from Washington, remit by New York draft or P. O. money-order. 

1900 



To the Secretary, National Geographic Society, 

Washington, D. C. 

Please propose 

occupation and address: 



for membership in the Society. 



It is understood that persona Dominated on this blank have expressed a desire to 
join the .Society. 



NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



O 

as 

o 





CHESAPEAKE &, OHIO RY. 

TPHE F. F. V. LIMITED is one of the finest trains hauled over any railway track in America. It runs 
solid between Cincinnati and New York, the route from Washington being over the Pennsylvania 
system. It has every modern convenience and appliance, and the dining-car service has no superior if 
it has an equal. The road-bed is literally hewed out of the eternal rocks ; it is ballasted with stone 
from one end to the other ; the greater portion is laid with one-hundred-pound steel rails, and although 
curves are numerous in the mountain section, the ride is as smooth as over a Western prairie. 

One of the most delightful rides in all the route is that through the New River valley. The 
mountains are just low enough to be clad with verdure to the very top, and in the early spring every 
variety of green known to the mixer of colors can be seen, while the tones in autumn take on all the 
range from brown to scarlet. 

These facts should be borne in mind by the traveler between the East and the West. 

H. W. FULLER, Genl. Pass. Agent, Washington, D. C. 

The Fastest and Finest Train in the West .... 



.IS 




The Over land Limited 



.TO. 



^ UTAH and CALIFORNIA. 



°*pk!to*n* v 



FROM 16 TO 20 HOURS 
SAVED BY USING 



Double Drawing-Room Pullman Sleepers. 

Free Reclining Chair Cars. 

Pullman Dining Cars. 

Buffet Smoking and Library Cars. 



tend for Descriptive Pamphlet "49-96,'' 
Folders and other Advertising Matter. 
(Mention this publication.) 



E. L. LOMAX, 

General Passenger and Ticket Agent, 

OMAHA, NEB 



Please mention this Magazine when writing to advertisers. 



NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



W CHICAGO, MILWAUKEE Al ST. PAUL RAILWAY 

- - zfltjin-s - . 

Electric Lighted and Steam Heated Vestibuled Trains between Chicago, Mil- 
waukee, St. Paul and Minneapolis daily.